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La Seinte Resureccion from the Paris and Canterbury MSS

Edited by T.A. Jenkins, J.M. Manly, M.K. Pope and J.J. Wright
Oxford, Anglo-Norman Text Society 1943
Genre: Religious and Devotional
AND Bibliography: Resur

Original work © 1943 The Anglo Norman Text Society, which has granted permission for it to be digitised, browsed and searched on this site. Any other use, including making copies of this electronic version, requires the prior written permission of the copyright holders, who may be contacted via Birkbeck College, University of London, Malet St, London WC1E 7HX, UK

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1.–DESCRIPTION OF MANUSCRIPTS 1 [1] Except for the passages enclosed in square brackets which have been supplied by J. G. Wright or M. K. Pope, this section is the work of Professor Manly.x

Until recently the Anglo-Norman Resurrection play was known to us only in a fragmentary version supplied by MS fr. 902 in the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris, a small volume dating from the fourteenth century 2 [2] According to the Catalogue, but Matzke in his edition of Simund de Freine puts it in the second half of the thirteenth century. (P.)x and containing only didactic and pious works mostly Anglo-Norman in origin. 3 [3] See the Catalogue des Manuscrits (I, 1868, p. 152); also Johan Vising, Anglo-Norman Language and Literature, 1923, passim. Benêt's Vie saint Thomas (for which see E. Walberg, Romania XLIV, 407) remains unpublished, also the long versified translation of the Old Testament (for which see Bonnard, Traductions de la Bible en Vers frç., 1884, p. 93 ff.). The latter is of interest as containing parts in decasyllabic couplets. The text of Wace's Vie saint Nicolas as in MS 902 has been made the subject of a separate publication by Mary Sinclair Crawford (Philadelphia 1923), and has also been collated for a forthcoming edition by Clarence Harvey Mills (University of Chicago dissertation). Vising does not note that piece no. 10 is a fragment of 558 lines of the Old French Paraphrase of the Psalm Eructavit which was collated by T. A. Jenkins for his edition, 1908 (Gesellschaft für roman. Lit., XX).x

Only a fragment of the play is given, only eight columns of 46 or 47 lines, a total of 371 lines. There is space at the bottom of the last column for another line, and it does not appear that the gathering at the end (fo. 98 verso, col. 2) is incomplete; Robert Grosseteste's Chasteau d'Amour, written about 1230 (ed. J. Murray, 1918, p. 64) follows immediately in the same hand, folios 97 and 98 being the first two of a gathering of four double folios. 4 [4] Verification due to M. Roques, see LII, p. 562. [For further description of the MS cf. LII, 561, and La Résurrection du Sauveur (CFMA, 1931) pp. ix-x.x

This version of the Resureccion was first published over a hundred years ago by A. Jubinal, La Résurrection du Sauveur

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(Paris, 1834). It was included by Monmerqué and Michel in their Théâtre français du Moyen Age (Paris, 1839 and 1879); and also by Foerster and Koschwitz in the second edition of their Altfranzösisches Uebungsbuch (Leipzig, 1902, v. I) 1 [1] This edition profited by a collation made by Antoine Thomas.xi. It was edited by F. E. Schneegans, 2 [2] A propos of this edition a careful comparison was made by M. Roques, the results of which appeared in (LII, 562).xi La Résurrection du Sauveur ( no. 303, Strasbourg, 1926) and also as a Freiburg dissertation by M. J. Kiefer (Strasbourg, 1927), and later edited by J. G. Wright under the same title (CFMA, Paris, 1931). Modern translations of the text are to be found in Douhet Dictionnaire des Mystères (Paris, 1854) p. 860; in M. Sepet Origines catholiques du Théâtre moderne (Paris, 1901) p. 62; and in A. Jeanroy Théâtre religieux en France du XIe au XIIIe siècle (Paris, 1924) p. 62.

In 1929 another version of the Resurrection, also fragmentary, was discovered by the late Professor John Manly in England. This was contained in a volume belonging at that time to Mr. Boies Penrose II, later purchased by Lord Wakefield and in 1937 presented by him to the British Museum, where it is now listed as Additional MS 45103. (W.) ]

[The researches of Mr. J. P. Gilson, Keeper of the British Museum, and of Mr. Robin Flower, Deputy Keeper, have shown that the MS must have been written in the Monastery of Christ Church, Canterbury, shortly after 1275, cf. the articles of Mr. Flower in of December 28th, 1937, and in XII, 1938, pp. 40-43, and W. H. Trethewey, in his edition of La Petite Philosophie, A.N.T.S. I, 1939, pp. vi and vii. In consequence of this discovery the MS which Professor Manly calls the Penrose MS is entitled in this edition the Canterbury MS.]

Description of the Canterbury MS. 3 [3] A full description, substantially the same as that given here, was published by Professor Manly, in , under the title of the Penrose MS of La Résurrection.xi

Vellum, 220 folios; 14¾ x

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10¼ in.; normally in quires of 12. Bound in boards and half leather, with two fly-leaves of paper showing no water mark; binding broken. Written throughout in clear, large bookhand, c. 1300, possibly by a single scribe, but more probably by three scribes trained in the same school. Large, flourished initials (3 or 4 lines tall) in blue and red mark the beginnings of all items except the last two; and smaller, 2-line initials mark off sections of each. A few initials have been overlooked by the limner (cf. Q 6, f. 4v), and some words and some whole lines have been omitted by the text writer. The margins contain many corrections in crayon and a few by a later hand in ink. Although the MS is not foliated, the makeup is clear, both from the sewing and from the catchwords and signatures. The signatures do not, however, form a consecutive series, and it is therefore possible that the volume was originally conceived, not as a unit, but as separate booklets (see below under Collation). The writing was certainly done while the leaves were in loose sheets: on many pages it runs closer to the central fold of the leaf than would have been possible in a bound volume.

Foliation of MS.–

The collation of the Penrose MS was originally made soon after Mr. Penrose purchased it and while the binding was still broken. At that time the only foliation in it was on folio 13 and the outer leaf of the last quire was misbound as a pair following the ten inner leaves. There were two quires of eleven each, numbers 11 and 14, and one quire of six, number 16. The foliation given in the collation takes account of these short quires and also takes account of the fact that the last two folios of Q 1 are blank.

When I re-examined the MS in 1933, it had been rebound and foliated. The leaves of the final quire had been placed in the correct order, but in the new foliation the following errors were made: (1) the folio after 15 was skipped and 17 foliated as 16; (2) after 155 the foliation skips to 160 and then goes on regularly to the end.

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These two errors combined make a difference from my foliation of one between 15 and 155 and of three between 160 and the end.

According to the correct foliation La Résurrection occupies folios 214-220; according to the present foliation of the MS folios 217-23. 1 [1] For the error in foliation made by Professor Arnold in his edition of the Brut cf. the above-mentioned article in , XXXVII.xiii

Contents of MS.–


Q 1 (ff. 1-12). Hystoria troianorum et Grecorum (rubricated title); a copy of Dares Phrygius identical in contents with the usual version but differing widely in phraseology and arrangement. The text ends near the foot of col. 2 fo. 10r (folios 10v and 11 and 12 are blank). The text is written in double columns of 26 lines, ca. 17 letters wide. The hand, though of the same type as that of the Dares, seems slightly different (especially in g and the symbol for and).


Qq 2-8 and 10-14; all 12s except 11 and 14, which are 11s. Q 9 is an inserted quire; see III below. These twelve quires contain Wace's Brut. There is no heading, but a 4-line flourished K begins l. 1:

                   Kiuult oir e uult saueiR

There is also a 2-line initial at l. 10. The text is in two columns of 26 lines each. The ink–and apparently the hand–changes at the beginning of Q 3. Crayon corrections are not infrequent; cf. in Q 2 fos. 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. Catchwords are on fos. 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, 108, 120, 131, 143 and 155. The first six leaves of each quire are marked with signatures: in Q 2, with roman numerals, in the others, with the letters a-f accompanied by a stroke (vertical or horizontal) above, below, before, or behind the letter. The Brut (complete) ends on f. 166r (Q14, f. 11r); 11v is blank and 12 was cut away before binding, as its mate, f. 1, is pasted to f. 2. Q 11 lost its f. 12 during the process of writing, as there is no loss of text; and the catchword is on f. 11v–the strip remaining from f. 12 is visible after f. 11.

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Q 9. As stated above, Q 9 is an inserted quire. It consists of 12 leaves (ff. 86-97) and contains a version of the Prophecies of Merlin in French verse of 12 syllables. A scribbled note in the margin of 85v (Q 8 f. 1v), opposite l. 7734 of Wace's text, indicates the insertion of the Prophecies (Nota prophecia), and l. 7735 is written at the end of the text of the Prophecies on f. 97r. There is no heading but the poem begins (with a 2-line initial) thus:

                   Enplorant comenca ses sermons
                   E dist sa profecie si cum nus la diroms.

This poem is apparently not known to recent writers on the Prophecies of Merlin, at least it is not mentioned by Miss Paton in her monumental treatise. But Francisque Michel 1 [1Galfridi de Monemuta Vita Merlini, ed F. Michel et T. Wright, Paris, 1837.xiv noted as the first translation of the Prophecies into a vernacular an Anglo-Norman translation in 8-syllable verse inserted in the Durham MS of Wace (Durham C. IV, 27. f. 43v, col. 1)–obviously not our version–and a second twelfth-century translation, also in Anglo-Norman, in 12-syllable verse. He records (p. lxiv) two MSS of this: Lincoln Cathedral MS A I, 8, fos. 48r-57v and a fragment 2 [2] Cf. Ward, Cat. of Romances, I, 272 ff.xiv in MS Harley 1605, fos. 19r-25v. The Lincoln MS begins: Vortigers est assis, que reis est de Bretuns.

[A study and edition of this text, projected by Professor W. A. Nitze, has had to be abandoned for the time being.]

Q 9 has no signatures and was apparently written, not by the scribe who wrote the Brut, but by the one who wrote Dares and Les Estatuz du Roi Edward (see below).


Qq 15 and 16. Following the Brut, the MS has two quires of 12 (167-178) and 6 (179-184) leaves respectively (without signatures, but with catchword on f. 178), containing the Statute of Westminster the First: Ces sunt les estatus le Roy Edward fiz le Roy Henri fez a Westmuster a sun premer parlement general a pres sun coronement, etc. This, like all

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the pieces except the Prophecies, is written in double columns (26 lines). It is in the same careful script as Dares and the Prophecies. A rapid comparison of the text with that published in The Statutes of the Realm indicated that, except for the occasional occurrence of blanks for omitted words, it is very accurate. The text ends, without the usual colophon, at the top of col. 2, f. 183r(Q 16, f. 5), 183v and 184 being left blank.


Qq 17-20 (fos. 185-220). This section of the MS, written apparently by the hand that wrote all the Brut except the third quire, differs from the rest in that the four items which it contains are not separated from one another by blank pages or assigned to separate quires. Although no signatures are visible, catchwords on f. 196 (here apparently by the corrector) and f. 208 bind the three quires together as a scribal unit. 1 [1] There are really only three quires. Folios 219, 220 are the conjugate leaves of the outside sheet of a gathering (folios 1 and 12) and have merely slipped away from the leaves of the preceding gathering. Both the context and the catchword on f. 208 prove that f. 219 belongs between f. 208 and f. 209.xv


The first of the four items is the Anglo-French poem known as La Petite Philosophie . . ., 2 [2] Now published by William Hilliard Trethewey for the Anglo-Norman Text Society, vol. I (Oxford, Basil Blackwell, 1939).xv which begins at the top of col. 1, f. 185 (Q 17, f. 1), without a heading:

                   Mult uolunters escriuereie
                   E multes choses enditereie

… and ends four lines from the top of col. 2, f. 211r.


Les Quatre Filles Deu begins immediately, after one line of space, without a heading:

                   Des quatre sorurs vus voil dire
                   Ke sunt filles deu nostre sire,

Our text is closely akin to that printed by Fr. Michel, Libri psalmorum versio antiq. gall., pp. 364 ff., 3 [3] On the general subject of this débat cf. Hope Traver The Four Daughters of God (Bryn Mawr Monographs No. 6, 1907) and Gröber's Grundriss, II, i,690.xv but a remark by Paul

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Meyer ( XV, 352, n. I) suggests that it is even more like the version in MS 50 of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge (which I have not seen). 1 [1] Michel printed from MS Arundel 292 of the British Museum.xvi The poem ends in our MS six lines from the foot of col. 2, f. 213v.


It is immediately followed–with no indication of separation except a 2-line initial in colour, like those regularly used to mark new paragraphs–by a 28-line fragment of an Anglo-Norman poem on the Apocalypse, which occupies the rest of this column and column 1 of f. 214. The fragment begins:

                   Mult uus ama dampnede
                   Quant partie de sun segre.
                   Par seint Johan nus descuueri.
                   E volait demustrer par lui.

It ends:

                   De dous pars fu le liure escrit
                   Ke estoit grant nun petit
                   Set granz seals iout pendu
                   Si cum les seinz lunt entendu
                   Escutez lur ententiun
                   Entendez bien lur raisun.

This is followed by Vidi in dextram sedentis librum scriptum intus et foris signatum sigillis septem et c. The last eight lines of the text correspond roughly to the passages printed by Paul Meyer from MSS Roy. D. xiii f. 8, Toulouse f. 9 and Copenhagen p.14 in XXIV, pp. 196 and 207.


At the top of column 2 (f. 214r begins the fragment of the Resurrection play with a three-line initial, red and blue. It finishes four lines from the top of the second column of f. 220r.

While all editors had been aware that in P the end of the play is unsatisfactory, it was not until the discovery of MS C that it became plain that a passage at the end of P had been

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transposed: the last 22 lines (vv. 350-71) are to be inserted after P 318 (verse P 319 is isolated and is without a rhyme) and lines 320-31 should be given to Caiphas instead of to Pilate. It was indeed absurd to make Pilate call upon a Levite to bring him the scroll of the Law! In this edition, the lines are transposed to their rightful place, and the old numbering is given at the right of the text.

While P has a total of 371 lines, the new C has 522. Common to both MSS are (about, for only parts of lines coincide at times) 285 lines. In tabular form:–

Lines peculiar to P (and not in C) 86
Lines peculiar to C (and not in P) 237
Lines common to both MSS 285
Total for both MSS 608

In other words, the new MS C adds 237 lines to the 371 Previously known, and thus materially lengthens what we know of the text of the play.


The Paris Manuscript.–

The writing is small but very legible, the characters generally well defined, symbols such as c and t, n and u, m and iu, ui clearly differentiated. The reading is only uncertain when the letter is not made with the scribe's customary precision and then e and o, b and d, n and u occasionally approximate in form to each other, cf. ll. 46, 80, 129. Self corrections are very rare; they are found in l. 348 where a change, necessary for rhyme, is indicated in the word-order of the locution grant ou petit, in ll. 171 and 357, where corrections have been made on erasures, in l. 102 where el is corrected to es, in l.142, and in l. 162 where c of mencunge is added above the line. 1 [1] on l. 17 see notexvii

Simple scribal inadvertencies are also very rare: the verb

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sai is omitted in l. 114, the titulus on words in ll. 157 and 175, the sign of abbreviation in oinnemt 253, and blunders occur in ll. 231, 268 and 341. More frequent are the instances in which the copyist appears to have been misled by a lack of differentiation of letter or symbol in the text he was copying: in ll. 112, 157, 211, 323 dunt stands for dunc and in 108 dunc for dunt; in 119 del is for des, in 160 malveil for malveis, in 270 al for as, in 248 Sachef for Saches, in 145 ont for out, in 289 couseil for conseil; the name Arimathie is consistently written Arunachie (cf. note to l. 16), and in l. 79 the abbreviation of vostre stands for nostre (cf. note).

Errors in final consonants occur in ll. 165 and 221, as for ad (?) and alez for aler, and in 345 the verb poissez is attracted into agreement with the preceding indirect object vus (poissez for poisse). In lines 300, 346, 359 mistakes occur in the use of the negative adverb, cf. notes on these lines.

The Canterbury MS.–

So firm and well formed are the characters in the fragment that it is in only two or three words that hesitation about a symbol is possible (cf, variants to ll. 10, 210, 338). The corrections that may be ascribed to the scribe himself are also very rare (cf. variants to ll. 10 (?), 22, 48, 49, 51, 210 (?), 271, 416) and rare also are obvious scribal inadvertencies (cf. variants to ll. 79, 92, 94, 179, 183-4, 213, 240, 268, 421, 451, 457). One may surmise that the copyist was no great expert in Old French or perhaps rather that he was making it his business to copy mechanically for he is content to write down and leave uncorrected lines that are obviously meaningless, misled by a superficial similarity of symbol, cf., for instance, l. 92 En lui merci for Cri lui m., 213 soil for soit, 220 unintelligible suan, 240 otrai for orrai, 421 Ico for ieo, 457 vers for vus, and he failed apparently to observe that the stage directions contained in ll. 157-159 lack a quite necessary line. His errors may not, however, all be involuntary; they may result in part from a desire to reproduce the text he was copying with meticulous accuracy, cf. pp. xl, xli.

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In both MSS the ordinary abbreviations and contractions are used with some slight variation. Thus C avoids contraction in deus, abbreviates que only in the conjunctional locutions desque, tresque, makes some use of the symbol 9, and employs frequently the symbol $$ on u in the future of verbs whose radical ends in v (u) to denote ver (cf. p. xix), while the scribe of P writes always in these forms, uer or ur, e.g., sauerum 83, 106, auerat 303, leuera 310, releura 78, etc., C : au̾at 17, releu̾at 216. The symbols are expanded is the texts in accordance with ordinary practice when examples of uncontracted forms are lacking.

Manuscript P.–

The conjunction et is abbreviated everywhere except in l. 11 where it is written e and this spelling has been adopted throughout.

The titulus expanded ordinarily as n is rendered by m:–
a in the word cum;
b in the termination of the first person plural, e.g., auum 127, alom 193, etc., in accordance with the forms recitom 1, alum 275, etc.;
c in the words compainnon 128 and compain 307 after compaignon 217. In accordance with these words, 9fort 188, the only word in which this symbol is used initially, is written comfort.

The symbol z is expanded as -ur in pzr, puzeu 21, pzraie 64, tnzes, honz 35, seignz, etc., in accordance with the forms pur 202, Nepurquant 78, 203, turment 261, honur 191, honurablement 195, etc.

The final symbol 9 is rendered by us in pl9, v9 (*voles) 93, and in the pronouns nus and vus after the forms plus 130, etc., nus 129, vus 294.

The symbol $$ stands for er and re and is expanded as er in ent$$rez 277, mest$$, and in the infinitive termination -er, e.g. guainner 98, as re in apres, prestre, present 232, prengum 309.

$$ is expanded as par in the preposition par, parmi 350, parfitement 338; as per in perdisse 62, pernez 134, 247.

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$$ as pru in prudom after pruz 183.

q̃ is expanded as que after que in 72, 114, 119, 368, $$ as qua in quant after qualtres 237; $$ as qui after qui 232; and in the forms quides 46 etc. and in qu'i 327, qu'ii 285, 291, 328, 348.

d' as deus after deus in 29, 38, 255; Jhc as Jesus, Jhu as Jesu; ml't as mult after mult 97, 115, 136.

÷ as est in 162.

Manuscript C.–At the beginning of the line the conjunction et is written as Ɛ or more rarely Ɛt, in the interior of the line as e or abbreviated; the abbreviating symbol is consequently rendered by e.

The titulus, usually expanded to n, is rendered as m:–
a in the word cum 8, 16, etc., and in cumpaignun 150, encumbrer 68;
b in ensemble 124, emblez 460, membres 201, after ensemble 27, 252, embler 402, emble 437;
c in the termination of the first person plural, e.g., dium 145, sauum 186, refusum 213, etc., after alum 145, 212, afium 146, 149, etc.

The symbol z is expanded as -ur in pur 84, 85, etc., nepur-quant 229, 485, 509, puruer 7, turnes 132, turnent 345, murir, 344, honur 45 , amur 46, seignurs 143, etc., in accordance with pur 6, 108, etc., tur 22, turner 370, onur 3, seignur 41, etc.

The symbol 9 as -us in plus 333, nus 81, 151, etc., vus 48, 50, in accordance with plus 152, nus 343, 382, 386, 408, vus 54, 109, etc,

The symbol $$ stands for re and er. It is expanded as re in premerement 11, apres 12, prengum 377 etc., as er in serganz 13, merci, etc., doner 365, aguaiter 401, saver 485, and when used in the forms of the future of aver (17, 297, 310) (re)-lever-(216, 378, 436, 476, 477), truver 58, turner 370, in accordance with forms such as averas 107, 179, averat 217, avera 371, leverat 433, releverait 355, saverum 122, saverat 434.

$$ is expanded as par in parjure 492, parfitement 183, 479, 481 in accordance with parjure 416, parfitement 394, aparceuz 490, as per elsewhere e.g., perdre 76, percer 108, pernez 154, 281 in accordance with pernum 309.

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$$ is expanded as pro in prophete 225, as pru in prudhom 64, prudome 509 after pruz 209.

$$ is expanded as qua in quant 77, etc., quantke, 200; $$ as qui in 9, 89, etc.; $$ as quor in quor 123; desqz 237, tresqz 121, 488 as desque and tresque.

Jhc is rendered by Jesus in 83, 148, 351, Jhu by Jesu in 129, 257, 520; ml't by mult in 55, 88, etc. (mult 60, 65, 271), ē by est 186, ōipotent by omnipotent 480.

The interpretation of the initial symbol 9, found once in P, is uncertain as both u and o are used by the scribe in words written out in full or abbreviated by the titulus only, e.g., cū, Ecuntre 79, cument 162, cumand 172, 207, cumandemenz, cungé 235, cuntai 328, but congé 157, comand 340. As u is more frequently written than o in these words, u is used in the expansion of the symbol, e.g., cumpaignun 139, cunsenti 73, cunsail 349, cuntredeisse 77, cumfort 214, 478, cummande 392, encuntre 521.


In the Paris MS as in many A.-N. MSS accents are used freely, though not consistently, to denote i and, less frequently, initial j. On i an accent is placed:–


To mark syllabic i, more especially, but by no means exclusively, in the vicinity of n, m, u, e.g., prímerement 5, mís 9, chíualers 13, enuíe 59, feloníe 60, nís 68, víe 81, míe, 82; recítom 1, míen 31, consentí 61, ícels 68, 125, 166, í 171, gisír 272.


To mark the second element of diphthongs in -i, e.g., maíns 29, verraíment 47, leírrai 58, fraí 72, 211, irraí 209, seínte 2, deít 7, seí 18, reí 29, seíes 37, duzeín 95, doínst 35, poísse 76, poí 100, poínz 102, luí 15, 28, 70, celuí 35, 51, suí 99, huímes 160, and in líu 92, cíu 145. 1 [1] In no word is it used to mark the symbol i when it is used to denote a palatal l, e.g., uoilles 42, baillie 62, etc.xxi

To denote consonantal value it is placed on initial i, e.g. on

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ío in 167, 209, 212 but not in ll. 134, 172, 197, etc., on ía in 175 but not in 83, 151, on íut 158, íoíus 172, íugement 262, íustíse 207, íur 285, íurez 341, 360 but not on iurez 352, pariuret 359.

In the Canterbury MS accents are much more sparsely distributed, rare except when i is in the vicinity of n, m or u. Thus in the first column accents are placed on i in the words deuocíun, líus, cíu, arímathie, Leínz, enemís but not on sainte, maisuns, puis, mendif, liu 17, mis. The use of accents to distinguish consonantal initial j is unrepresented.


In the interior of the text in the Paris manuscript, the words Jeu, Jueu, Juerie and all proper nouns are begun with capital letters except crist 18, phraon 29, gerion 34, longin 91, 153, 157, pilate 279; capital a is so near the ordinary character in form that the initial letter in aaron and arimathie is undistinguished. Capitals are also used for the word Sire in ll. 49, 179, 264, for Crucifix 5, Gaiole 173, Sepulture 287 and in the repeated Ca of l. 159.

In the interior of the text in the Canterbury MS the use of capital letters is consistently avoided, cf., in the opening lines the names maries, longins, joseph, arimathie.

In both MSS a capital letter stands at the beginning of each line. The description of them in P is given by Professor Wright: Au folio 97, le commencement de la pièce . . . est marqué par une grande initiale décorative, de même que chaque réplique par une grande initiale à l'encre rouge. Aux folios suivant les initiales rouges manquent, mais un signe à l'encre rouge précède la majuscule de chaque réplique. Ce même signe se retrouve au début des vers narratifs et de deux annotations marginales (v. 70 et v. 375); l'annotation marginale au v. 109 est entourée par une ligne rouge. (CFMA, p. x).

In a preponderant number of cases the beginning of a

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speech in the Canterbury MS is signalized by the use of a two-line decorated capital, while the stage directions are generally left without such indication; the beginning of fifty-one speeches is, however, left unmarked in any way, and the stage directions on six occasions are begun with a decorated two-line capital letter (176, 197, 209, 241, 273, 301). Occasionally, moreover, these capitals are introduced in the wrong place. The speech of Joseph (257-262) begins with the word Jesu, undistinguished by a decorated capital, but in the last line of the preceding stage directions the first word Joseph is furnished with one; in the stage directions that run from 345-348 a two-line capital E introduces the third line. (Entres ces faiz); in the dialogue in ll. 507-510 two-line capitals are placed at the beginning of ll. 508 and 509, in each case obviously in the middle of a speech, but it is the smaller sized one that stands at the beginning of l. 510 and minuscule in the interior of the lines divided between two interlocutors.


In P the beginning of each speech is indicated by the prefixed symbol ¶, and with the exception of the speech of the fourth soldier in ll. 370-371, the names of the interlocutors are all carefully entered in the margin, usually in Latinized form and more or less abbreviated: Caiphas, Caiph', Joseph9, Jo9, Jo., Jo; Levi; Longin9, Longiñ, Lon.; Nichodem9, Nichod', Nich'; Pilat9,. Pi9, Pi; miles is usually written out in full but shortened once to mi'. Professor Wright notes that these names and the marginal notes are in the same handwriting as the poem (CFMA, p. x).

In the Canterbury MS the designation of the interlocutors is not given and those entered in the text of this edition are taken over from the Paris MS or modelled on those found in it.

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THE two versions are printed as they stand in the MSS with the following modifications:


The lines misplaced in P are printed in their correct place, cf. Introduction, p. xvi.

2 Readings.

Slips of obvious scribal nature are corrected and a few scribal errors that seem to obscure the significance of the passage are emended. In every case the MS reading is entered below the text in which it occurs.

3 Orthographical System.

Abbreviations and contractions are expanded as described in the Introduction. The accents employed in the MSS (cf. Introduction, I, 4) are omitted. The modern differentiation of the symbols i and j, u and v is introduced; the cedilla is employed to denote the assibilated pronunciation of c before a and o; an acute accent is employed

Page cxxxv

to differentiate the full pronunciation of e final from feminine e; capital letters are used in modern fashion (cf. Introduction, I, 5); the names of the interlocutors, absent in C, are inserted in this text in accordance with the form used in the text or the expanded form which has been systematized in P (cf. Intr., I, 6); the scribal tendency to link with following words the adverbs i and en (in P and C), the adverb si (in P), and occasionally other monosyllabic words, such as di P 143, le P 298, 322, ne P 130, 310, has been disregarded, but otherwise the word-division is in general accord with that found in the MSS.


Metrical emendations are not introduced in the texts; they are discussed in the Introduction and to facilitate reference to corrections of individual lines a metrical index has been established.

For the foliation of MS. C, see above, Section I (1).

Page 1



                   En ceste manere recitom
                   La seinte resureccion.
                   Primerement apareillons
               4  Tus les lius e les mansions,
                   Le crucifix primerement
                   E puis aprés le monument;
                   Vne jaiole i deit aver
               8  Pur les prisons enprisoner;
                   Enfer seit mis de cele part
                   Es mansions del altre part

[- C -]

                   Si vus avez devociunC-L1 [C-L1C 1. The examples of the locution aveir devociun with the meaning to be greatly desirous of cited by Godefroy and Tobler-Lommatsch are all drawn from authors of the fourteenth century.2
                   De la sainte resurrectiun
                   En l'onur Deu representer
               4  E devant le puple reciter,
                   Purveez ke il eit espace
                   Pur fere asez large place,
                   E si devez bien purver
               8  Cum les lius devez aser;
                   E les maisuns qui afferunt
                   Bien purveez serrunt:C10 [C10rej  purueez with ue (?) inserted in faint ink above final z.2C-L10 [C-L10C 10. purveuez. The scribe wrote purueez but inserted in fainter ink above the final z are two characters. The first of these is clearly u, the second was read as y by Professor Jenkins who thinks the corrector may have intended to alter -veez to -veuz and to add y but there is no tail to the letter and it appears to me to be a rather blurred e.2

Page 2

[- P -]

                   E puis le ciel; e as estals
             12  Primes Pilate od ces vassals–
                   Sis u set chivaliers avra;
                   Cayphas en l'altre serra–
                   Od lui seit la Juerie–
             16  Puis Joseph d'Arunachie;P-L16 [P-L16P 16. Arunachie. This spelling, first given by Professor Wright in her edition in CFMA, is undoubtedly that written here and elsewhere in this MS.3
                   El quart liu seit danz Nichodemus–P17 [P17rej  Nichodem9, cf. note.3P-L17 [P-L17P 17. Nichodemus. The spelling in the MS appears to be Nichodem9. The final stroke of the m is blurred but it hardly seems, as Schneegans suggested in his edition, that a form Nichodens has been corrected to this. Elsewhere in P, in stage directions as well as in dialogue, in the nominative as well as in the accusative, the form written is Nichodem, while in C it is usually Nichodem9 , cf. Intr., p. li.3
                   Chescons i ad od ses les soens–
                   El quint les deciples Crist;
             20  Les treis Maries saient el sist. [f.214b]

[ - C - ]

                   Le crucifix premerement
             12  E puis aprés le monument,
                   Les serganz ke i agueterunt
                   E les Maries ke la vendrunt;
                   Les disciples en lur estage
             16  Se contenent cura sage;
                   Nichodemus i averat sue liu
                   E dan Longins mendif e ciu
                   E li dan Joseph de Arimathie
             20  E Pilat od sa chevalerie,
                   Caiphas, Annas, e li Jeu;
                   La tur Davi e dan ThorlomeuC-L22 [C-L22rej  thorlomeu3C-L22 [C-L22C 22. Cf. Intr., pp. cxi-cxiii.3
                   E une gaole mise i soit,
             24  Les prisuns mettre en destroit;
                   Del une part i soit enfer mis,
                   Leinz serrunt les enemis [f.214c]
                   Ensemble od les anciens
             28  Ke la, serrunt mis en liens.
                   Le cel ne devez ublier,
                   U les angles deivent habiter.C-L30 [C-L30C 30. On this use of deveir cf. Tobler, V.B. iv, p. 7.3

Page 3

[- P -]

                   Si seit purveu que l'om face
                   Galilee en mi la place;
                   Iemaus uncore i seit fait,
             24  U Jesus fut al hostel trait.P-L24 [P-L24P 24. Where Jesus had betaken himself to the inn. For the construction, cf. Intr., p. lxi.4
                   E cum la gent est tute asise
                   E la pes de tutez parz mise,
                   Dan, Joseph, cil de Arunachie,
             28  Venge a Pilate, si lui die:
                   Deus, qui des mains le rei Phraon
                   Salva Moysen e Aaron,
                   I saul Pilate, le mien seignur,
             32  E dignetez lui doinst e honur.

[ - C - ]

                   Seit purveu ke l'un face
             32  Galilee en mi la place
                   Et Emaus, un petit chastel,
                   U li pelerin prendrunt hostel.
                   E quant la gent ert tut asise
             36  E la peis de tutes parz mise,
                   Joseph de Arimathie
                   Vienge a Pilate, si die:
                   Deu, ke des mains Pharaon
             40  Sauva Moysen et Aaron,
                   Il saut Pilate, le mien seignur,
                   E digneté li doint e honur.

Page 4

[- P -]

                   Hercules, qui occist le dragon
                   E destruist le viel Gerion,
                   Doinst a celui ben e honur
             36  Qui saluz me dit par amur.
                   Sire Pilate, beneit seies tu,
                   S'ait te Deus par sa grant vertu.
                   Deus, par la sue poissance,
             40  Te doinst vers mei bone voillance.
                   Ceo me doinst Deus omnipotent
                   Que oir me voilles bonement.

[ - C - ]

                   Herodes, ke occit le dragunC-L43 [C-L43C 43. The scribe, more familiar with scripture than with mythology, has written Herodes in place of Hercules which stands in P. (W.)5
             44  Et destruit li vielz Gerun,
                   Doint a celui bien e honur
                   Ke saluz me dit par amur.
                   Sire Pilate, sacez en verité
             48  Ke vus salu par amisté,C-L48 [C-L48] omitted by error, is entered at the bottom of the page with prefixed .b. and the correct place indicated between ll. 47 and 48 by marginal .a.–5
                   Et si nule rien ver moi volez,C-L49 [C-L49] After nule stands an erased letter with the abbreviation symbol a above it.5
                   Tost la vus frai, bien le sachez;
                   Et de vus ai jo fiance grandC-L51 [C-L51d final in grand is corrected out of t.5
             52  Ke vus me orrez si rien demand.

Page 5

[- P -]

                   Dan Joseph, ben seiez tu venuz,
             44  Ben deiz estre de mei receuz,P-L43 [P-L43P 43-44. Cf. Intr., p. lviii.6
                   Ben es de mei, sanz dotance,
                   Si eel en quides, ceo est enfance.P-L46 [P-L46P 46. eel. In all editions except that of Foerster this word has been read as cel but though the second symbol may be taken as either o or e, the first is clearly neither c nor o but e and it is an unmistakable ee that stands in this word in l. 69. A similar isolated spelling of this word occurs in a poem held to be copied by the scribe of P, La Vie de St Georges of Simund de Freine, l. 33. The double vowel may have been employed to distinguish it from el, the contracted article. This reading disposes of the need for accepting the verb enquider, listed in the edition of the CFMA.6 [f.97b]
                   Sachez ben e verraiment
             48  Que jeo te orrai mult dulcement.
                   Beal sire, ne vus en peist mie
                   Si jo vus di del fiz Marie,
                   De celui qui la est pendu.
             52  Sachez tresben que prudom fu:

[ - C - ]

[PILATUS] [f.214d]
                   Ore me demandez hardiement,
                   Jo vus en orrai bonement,
                   Et de ço en ai jo mult bon drait,
             56  Kar vus m'en avez maint honur fait,
                   Et jo vus refrai tut altretel;
                   Ço sachez, ne truverez hel.
                   Sire, la vostre tresgrant merci!
             60  Mult m'est bel si unkes vus servi.C-L60 [C-L60C 60 appears to be taken from the later line P 136, C 156.6
                   Mes, bel sire, ne vus en peist il mie
                   Si jeo vus di del fiz Marie,
                   De celui ke la est pendu.
             64  Sacez tresbien ke prudhom fu:

Page 6

[- P -]

                   Mult par fu bien de Dampnedeu.
                   Ore l'avez mort, vus e li Jueu,
                   Si vus devez grantment duter
             56  Que vus ne venge grant encombrer.
                   Dan Joseph de Arunachie,
                   Ne leirrai que nel te die:
                   Li Jeu, par lur grant envie,
             60  Enpristrent grant felonie;
                   Jol consenti par veisdie,
                   Que ne perdisse ma baillie:
                   Encusé m'eussent en Romanie,P-L63 [P-L63rej  me ussent7
             64  Tost en purraie perdre la vie.

[ - C - ]

                   Mult fu bien de Dampnedeu.
                   Ore l'avez mort, vus et li Jeu,
                   Si vus devez grantment duter
             68  Ke vus n'avienge grant encumbrer.C68 [C68rej  na vienge7
                   Dan Joseph de Arimathie,
                   Ne larrai pas ke nel vus die:
                   Li Jeu, par lur grant envie,C_L71 [C_L71rej  en vie7
             72  Enpristrent mult grant felunie;
                   Jol consenti par veisdie,
                   Ke ne perdisse ma baillie:
                   Se il m'encusasent en Romanie,
             76  Tost purraie perdre la vie.C-L76 [C-L76rej  purra7
                   Quant a celui, ne contredeisse mie
                   Ke rois se clama de la Juerie

Page 7

[- P -]

                   Si tu veis que tu as mesfait,
                   Cri lui merci, si fras bon plait:
                   Nul ne lui crie qu'i nel ait,P-L67 [P-L67rej  qi.8
             68  Nis icels qui a mort l'ont trait.x [x] Tunc accessit ad Pilatum et peciit corpus Jesu.8
                   Mes pur eel venuz i sui:
                   Donez mei sol le cors de lui.P-L70 [P-L70P 70. The marginal indication of source is taken from Matt. xxvii, 58.8
                   Tant vus requer, grantez le mei,
             72  Si en frai ceo que faire dei.
                   Beals amiz, qu'en volez faire?
                   Quidez vus le a vie traire?

[ - C - ]

                   Encuntre Cesar, ke ad la meistrie,C-L79 [C-L79rej  E cuntre gz8
             80  De trestut le mund la seignurie.
                   Beal sire, quant nus eimes en parole entré,C-L81 [C-L81C 81. eimes. This form, absent in P, occurs again in Ct 492. It is not infrequent in Anglo-Norman texts, the first example occurring in the Bestiaire of Philippe de Thaon, the latest in texts of the early thirteenth century, e.g., Dermot and the Evangile des Domees of Robert de Gretham (Tanquerey, op. cit. pp. 159, 160, Vising, Purgatoire de St Patrice, note on l. 706); in the Vie de St Gilles it rhymes with pesmes l. 959. In continental French the form is rare and of the three examples of it cited by Fouché (op. cit. p. 410), two belong to the southern region, one occurring in the Passion, l. 292, the other in the Oxford MS of Girart de Roussillon; the third stands in MS L of the St Alexis. The form is probably, as Fouché suggests, modelled on estes, just as Provençal em follows etz. For the spelling, see Intr., p. xxix. (J and P.)8
                   Suffrez ke jo vus en die la verité:
                   Jesus se fit rai apeler,
             84  Nient pur Cesar rien desturber,
                   Nient pur lui tolir terrien honur,
                   Mais pur li faire aver greignur.C-L77 [C-L77C 77-86. Pilate's insistence on Christ's rivalry of Caesar in temporal power is unusual. Ordinarily, as in P 61-64, he limits himself to the explanation that if he had not condemned Christ, the Romans would have deprived him of his office (cf. Pilate's long defence of his action in Autun B, especially ll. 1589-1597 (La Passion d'Autun, ed. G. Frank, SATF, 1934). (W.)8
                   Se il vosist mel, il n'unt suffert,C-L87 [C-L87C 87. Even if he had wished evil, they have not suffered, those false Hebrews, a scoundrelly lot. It is only in R that such rancorous bitterness against the Jews is expressed, cf. also C 270-272. The form mel–a stressed form of mal–survived as a substantive in epic diction into the thirteenth century (Meyer-Luebke, Hist. Gr. §35). For the construction, see Intr., p. lxv.8
             88  Li fals Hebreu, ke mult sunt culvert.
                   Mes qui chaut? de ço vus tant requer,
                   Sun cors me donez pur enterer.
                   Si tu vais ke tu as mesfait,
             92  Cri lui merci, si fras bon plet;C92 [C92rej  Cri] En8C-L92 [C-L92C 92. The mistake in C, one easy for a scribe to make owing to the similarity of symbols, is corrected in P.8

Page 8

[- P -]

                   Il ad eu mult grant angoisse,
             76  Quidez vus qu'il vivre poisse?
                   Certes, bel sire Pilate, nenil:
                   Nepurquant tut relevra il.P-L78 [P-L78P 78. tut. Here and in P 171 tut appears to be a scribal error for tot i.e. tost. In this passage C has no corresponding line but in C 195, which reproduces P 171, it is this adverb that is used and in both passages speedily is more appropriate to the context than wholly. Was the scribe misled by finding in his text the spelling tot for tost?9
                   Mes, pur nostre custume tenir,P79 [P79rej  nostre] vre9P-L79 [P-L79P 79. nostre. Professor Jenkins retained in his text vostre, MS v̅r̅e̅, but all previous editors have accepted the emendation nostre and the definite reference to Jewish custom, made in the Gospel of St. John (xlix, 31), makes the use of nostre more probable here.9
             80  Pur amur Deu le voil enseveler.
                   Est il dunc transi de vie?
                   Oil, bel sire, n'en dotez mie.
                   Ceo saverum ja par nos serganz.
             84  Apelez les, veez en la tanz.

[ - C - ]

                   Nul ne li crie merci ke il nel ait.
                   Il ert vengé cument ke sait.C94 [C94rej  sait] fait.9
                   Est il dunc transi de vie ?
             96  Oil, beal sire, ne dutez mie.

Page 9

[- P -]

                   Levez, serganz, hastivement;
                   Alez tost la u celui pent,
                   Alez a cel crucified
             88  Saver mon s'il est devié.P88 [P88rej  denie10
                   Dunt s'en alerent dous des serganz,
                   Lances od sei en main portanz,
                   Si unt dit a Longin le ciu,
             92  Que unt trové seant en un liu:
[UNUS MILITUM] [f.97c]
                   Longin, frere, vus tu guainner?

[ - C - ]

                   Levez, serganz, hastivement;
                   Alez la u celui pent,
                   Alez a cel crucifié
           100  Saver mun s'il est devié.
                   Dunc alerent dous des serganz,
                   Lances od sei en mains portanz,
                   Si unt dit a Longin le ciu,
           104  Ke il troverent seant en un liu:C-L104 [C-L104C 106. troverent. The substitution in C of troverent for the perfect used in P throws the line out of gear and is presumably scribal. Such tense substitution is characteristic of later Anglo-Norman scribes, to whom the distinction between the forms of the Old French past tenses was blurred, cf. Intr., p. lxxxvii.10
[UNUS MILITUM] [f.215b]
                   Longins, frere, vos tu gaigner?

Page 10

[- P -]

                   Oil, bel sire, n'en dotez mie.
                   Vien, si avras duzein dener
             96  Pur le costé celui perecer.
                   Mult volenters od vus vendrai,
                   Car del gainner grant mester ai.
                   Povres sui, despense ne faut;
           100  Asez demand, mes poi me vaut.

[ - C - ]

                   Oil, beals sire, mult de bon quer.
                   Vien, si en averas duzein dener
           108  Pur le costé Jesu percer.
                   Mult volenters od vus vendrai,
                   Kar del guainer grant mester ai.
                   Poveres sui, despens me faut;
           112  Asez demand, mes poi me vaut,
                   Kar ieo ne pus aler ça ne la.
                   Quant la veue me faut, mal m'esta.

Page 11

[- P -]

                   Quant il vendrent devant la croix,
                   Une lance li mistrent es poinz.P102 [P102rej  es] s corrected out of l12
                   Pren ceste lance en ta main,
           104  Bute ben amont e nent en vaim.
                   Lessez culer desqu'al pulmon,
                   Si saverum s'il est mort u non.
                   Il prist la lance, ci.l feriP-L107 [P-L107P 107. ci.l. For this use of c for s here and in 150, see Intr., pp. xxviii, xxix.12
           108  Al quer, dunc sanc et ewe en issi;

[ - C - ]

                   Or ça ta main, si te merrai.
           116  Bel sire, pas altrement n'en irrai.
                   Quant il estoient venu la,
                   Li sa lance en main bailla.
                   Pren ceste lance, durement le fer.
           120  Jeo la mettrai endroit le quer.
                   Leez cure tresque al pomun,
                   Si saverum se il est mort u non.
                   Il prist la lance, al quor le feri,
           124  Dunt ensemble sanc e eve en issi;

Page 12

[- P -]

                   Si li est as mainz avalé, x [x] Lancea latus eius aperuit, et continuo exiuit sanguis et aqua.13
                   Dunt il ad face muillee,
                   E quant a ces oils le mist,
           112  Dunc vit an eire, e puis si dit:
                   Ohi, Jesu! ohi, bel sire!
                   Ore ne sai suz ciel que dire:
                   Mes mult par es tu bon mire
           116  Quant en merci turnes ta ire.
                   Vers tei ai la mort deservi,
                   E tu m'as fait si grant merci
                   Que ore vei des oils que ainz ne vi.P-L119 [P-L119rej  des] del13
           120  A vus me rend, merci vus cri.
                   Dunt se culcha en affliccionsP-L121 [P-L121P 121. Affliccions. This is a clerkly term, denoting primarily the recital of penitential psalms in prostrate position (cf. Ducange, afflictio) and so here sei culcha en a. he prostrated himself in penitential supplication. (cf. Vie St Thomas 772 iut en affliction). Used as it frequently was in the plural concretely, it denoted self-mortification or punishment and it seems possible that it is this commoner use of the term that has led to a scribal use of the plural form here.13

[ - C - ]

                   Dever val li est as mains avalee,
                   Dunt il ad sa face muillee,
                   E cum il a ses oilz le mist,
           128  An eire vit, pus si dist:C-L128 [C-L128rej  Aneire13
                   Ohy, Jesu! ohy, beal sire!
                   Ore ne sai suz cel ke dire: [f.215c]
                   Mais mult par es bon mire,
           132  Quant en merci turnes ta ire.
                   Ver toi oi la mort deservi,
                   Et tu m'as fet si grant merci
                   Ke ore vai des oilz ke einz ne vi.
           136  A vus me rend, merci vus cri.
                   Dunc se cuchat en oraisuns.

Page 13

[- P -]

                   E dit tut suef uns oreisons.P-L122 [P-L122P 122. uns. The plural of the indefinite article functioned occasionally as the plural of the partitive (Modern French des), and may so be used here, the curtailment of unes to uns being due either to a confusion of gender, frequent in Anglo-Norman, or to the slurring of atonic ә (cf. Intr., p. xlviii). On the whole, however, it is more likely that the plural is here scribal, induced by the plural form given to the rhyme-word affliccions (cf. above).14
                   Les chivalers s'en vunt arere,
           124  Si unt dit en ceste manere:
                   Bel sire prince, sachez de fi:
                   Jesus est de vie transi.

[ - C - ]

                   Des dous serganz si dit li uns:
                   Ke est cumpaignun? dit il ke il vait?C-L139 [C-L139C 139. What is it, comrade? Does he say he sees?14
           140  Il le dit: ne sai se vars soit.
                   Tenez, Longin, duzain dener.
                   Voz seient.
                   N'ai cure de altre luer
                   For mun seignur ke jeo vei ci.
           144  Il n'est pas mort, tut soit il transi.
                   Alum a Pilate, si li dium.
                   S'il ne vot crere, sil afium.
                   Beal sire prince, sachez de fi:
           148  Jesus est de vie transi.

Page 14

[- P -]

                   Un grant miracle i avum veu:
           128  Bel compainnon, dun nel veis tu?
                   Amdui ben le veimes nus.P-L129 [P-L129rej  ben] d corrected to b15P-L129 [P-L129P 129. ben. The readings of the previous editors diverge: the first ones all reading deu, while to Professor Wright ben appeared to be clearly distinguishable (CMFA, p. 16). Two of the three characters in the word appear to me to be ambiguous; the first, which may be read as either b or d (and is possibly a correction of one into the other) and the last, which may be read as u or n (see Intr., p. xvi) but ben is evidently required by the context.15
                   Taisé-us, bricons, ne ditez plus.P-L130 [P-L130P 130. Taisé-us. Cf. Intr., pp. liv, lv.15
                   Vers Dan Joseph dunc se turna,
           132  Ne lui fu bel qu'i si parla.P-L132 [P-L132rej  qisi15P-L132 [P-L132P 132. qu'i si. The MS reading may be interpreted as qu'isi or qu'i si but since the spelling employed for the adverb is elsewhere issi and il is written i in 31 (also before s), the reading qu'i si, adopted by Professor Wright, seems preferable.15
                   Dan Joseph, mult m'avez servi.
                   Pernez le cors, jol vus otri.
                   Sire, la vostre grant merci.

[ - C - ]

                   Un grant miracle i avurn veu:
                   Beal cumpaignun, dun nel veis tu?
                   Ambedous le veimes nus.
           152  Taisiez, vassal, ne diez plus.C-L152 [C-L152C 152. diez. In C traditional dites is replaced by analogical diez, a form found in continental texts occasionally in the indicative, in Anglo-Norman ones with some frequency in the indicative and occasionally, as here, in the imperative, cf. Fouché, op. cit. p. 121, Tanquerey, op. cit. p. 200.15
                   Dan Joseph, mult m'avez servi.
                   Pernez le cors, jeo le vus otri.
                   Sire, la vostre tresgrant merci.

Page 15

[- P -]

           136  Mult m'est bel si unc vus servi.
                   Quant Joseph out pris le congé
                   E vers Nichodem fut alé, [f.97d]
                   Pilate ad as sergans parlé,
           140  Dist alun qu'il ad apelé:P-L140 [P-L140rej  qi16
                   Diva, vaissal, trai tai en sa.
                   Quel miracle veis tu de la?P-L142 [P-L142rej  miracle corrected out of mirache16
                   Di tost coment te fut aviz
           144  De ceo dunt ainz teiser te fiz.
                   Longins li ciu, quant out nafréP145 [P145rej  out] ont16
                   Cel pendu de lance el costé,

[ - C - ]

           156  Mult m'est bel si unkes vus servi. [f.215d]
                   Quant Joseph out pris le congé,
                   Enver Nichodemus fu alé;
                   Dit al un ke il ad apelé:
           160  Diva, vassal, tres tai en ça.
                   Quel miracle veis tu de la?
                   Di tost cument te fu avis
                   De ceo dunt einz taisir te fis.
           164  Longin le ciu, quant l'out nafré,
                   Cel pendu, de lance el costé,C-L164 [C-L164C 164, 165. Lines remodelled, possibly to avoid the enjambement of the line practised in P, cf. Intr., p. lxxiv.16

Page 16

[- P -]

                   Prist del sanc, a sez oils le mist:
           148  A bon hure a son os le fist,
                   Car ainz fut cius e ore veit.
                   N'est pas merveille c'il en lui creit.
                   Tais, vassal, ja nul nel die.
           152  Fantosme est, nel creez mie.
                   Ore comand que Longin seit pris
                   E ignelepas en chartre mis.
                   Alez tost, metez le en prison,
           156  Que ne voist prechant tel sermon.
                   Dunt alerent tost a LonginP157 [P157rej  Dut.17
                   La u il jut, le chef enclin.

[ - C - ]

                   Prist del sanc, a ses oilz le mist:
                   A bon hure a sun hos le fit,
           168  Kar einz fu cius e ore vait.
                   N'est pas mervaille si en li crait.
                   Teis, vassal, ja a nul nel die.
                   Fantasme est, nel creez mie.
           172  Ore cumand ke Longin soit pris,
                   Ignelpas en chartre mis.
                   Alez tost, metez le en prisun,
                   Ke il ne voist prechant tel sermun.
           176  Dunc alerent tost a Longin,
                   En demandant par engin:

Page 17

[- P -]

                   Ça, frere, ça, en chartre irras;P-L159 [P-L159rej  ça] Ca18
           160  Malveis hostel huimes avras.P160 [P160rej  Malveil18
                   N'est pas veir que tu veis ren:
                   Mençunge est, nus le savum ben.
                   Pur cen que creiz en un pendu,P-L163 [P-L163P 163. For cen see Intr., p. xxxii.18
           164  Si diz que tes oils t'ad rendu.P164 [P164rej  tels18P-L164 [P-L164P 164. tes, Since talis was frequently reduced to tes but still written tels, the intrusion of l in tes (< tuos) is readily explicable, cf. Pope, op. cit. §§ 391 (i) and 809.18
                   Mes oils m'ad rendu vereiment,P165 [P165rej  m'ad] m(?)as18
                   E en li crei parfitement;
                   En lui crei jo, n'i ad nent el,P-L166 C184 [P-L166 C184P 166-167, C 184. The rhyme line to C 184, missing in C is supplied by P 167. The repetition of En lui (li) crei is doubtless responsible for C's inadvertance: the copyist combined En lui crei of P 167 with the parfitement of P 166. (Jenkins.)18
           168  Car il est sire e reis del ciel.

[ - C - ]

                   Ça, frere, en prisun irras;
                   Malvais hostel anuitmes averas,C179 [C179rej  a nuatimes.18
           180  Pur ceo ke creis en un pendu,
                   Si dis ke tes oilz t'ad il rendu.
[LONGINUS] [f.216a]
                   Mes oilz m'ad il rendu verament;
                   En lui crei jo parfitement,
           184  Kar il est sires e roi del cel.
                   N'est pas veirs ke tu veiez rien;
                   Mensunge est, nus le savum bien.

Page 18

[- P -]

                   Ainz mesparlastes e ore piz,
                   Pur ceo serez en prison mis.
                   Venez avant, tut i irrez.P-L171 [P-L171P 171. tut. Cf. note on l. 78.19
           172  De ceo sui jo joius e lez.
                   Quant il vindrent al gaiole,P173 [P173rej  Gaiole19
                   Si lui distrent ceste parole:

[ - C - ]

                   Cument? si ne vei jeo gute?
           188  Tel i ad de vus kel dute?C-L188 [C-L188C 188. Tel i ad de vus. The locution tel i a with the force of the indefinite pronoun one, some one came into use in the later twelfth century and is exemplified in the work of Crestien de Troies and Guernes de Pont Ste Maxence, cf. note to l. 709 in Walberg's edition of the latter's work.19
                   Dan Pilate le tient a fable.C-L189 [C-L189C 189. dan Pilate. The title word dan is used freely in addressing Joseph and Nichodemus and more rarely in speaking of them (cf. Glossary), but it is only in C that it is given to Pilate, whose title elsewhere in both versions is sire.19
                   Si est Pilate le fiz al diable.
                   Maldit soit il e li Jeu
           192  Ke unt mis a mort le fiz Deu.
                   Ainz mesparlas e ore pis,
                   Pur ço serras en prisun mis.
                   Ven tost avant, tost t'en irras.C-L195 [C-L195rej  mes parlas19
           196  De ço rend jo a deu grans […]
                   Quant il uindrent a la gaole,
                   Ci li distrent ceste parole:

Page 19

[- P -]

                   Entre laenz, ja n'en istrasP175 [P175rej  nen] ne20
           176  Que ne perdes quanque tu as,
                   Les membres e la vie,
                   Si ne reneies le fiz Marie.
                   Li fiz Marie est reis e sire,
           180  Ben le crei e ben le voil dire.
                   A lui comand la meie vie;
                   Ne me chaut que nul de vus die.
                   Entre ces feiz Joseph li pruz
           184  A Nichodem esteit venuz.

[ - C - ]

                   Entrez laeinz, ja n'en istras
           200  Ke ne perdez quantke tu as,
                   E les membres e la vie,
                   Si ne renies le fiz Marie.
                   Le fiz Deu, senz charnel pere,
           204  Est fiz Deu senz nule mere;C-L203 [C-L203C 203-204. The lines on the Immaculate Conception here attributed to Longinus are obviously not in character and probably a later addition to the original text. The establishment of the feast of the Immaculate Conception in England, toward the middle of the twelfth century, was effected largely through the efforts of the younger Anselm (d. 1148) who was educated at Canterbury, and whose friend Eadmer, a monk of Canterbury, probably composed the well-known treatise De Conceptione S. Mariae (Catholic Encyclopedia). The lines of C follow closely the words attributed to St Bernard (Pat. Lat. clxxxiv, c. 896 under Ogerii Opera): Et bene, filius hominis, et non Hominum: quia sine virile semine de pura et intemerata Virgine natus, de Patre sine matre in coelis est genitus. (Manly.)20
                   Il est del cel rois e sire,
                   Bien le croi e bien le voil dire.
                   A lui cumand la moie vie; [f.216b]
           208  Ne me chaut ke nul de els die.C208 [C208rej  els] cf. note.20
                   Entre ces fez Joseph li pruz
                   A Nichodemus estoit venuz.C210 [C210rej  estoit corrected from estoie(?)20

Page 20

[- P -]

[JOSEPHUS] [f.98a]
                   Dan Nichodem, venez od mei,
                   Alum despendere nostre rei.
                   Nel refusum, tut seit il mort;
           188  Uncore nus fra il grant comfort.
                   Tanailles e martel portez,
                   Dunt li clou serunt derivez.P-L189 [P-L189P 189-190. This couplet interrupts awkwardly the sequence of thought and may be an interpolation of the scribe's (cf. Intr., p. cxxxiii). It is absent from C and not very necessary, as there is a more appropriately placed general mention of ustillement in the hands of one of the servants in the narrative lines later on. The intercalation may be due to a desire to specify more exactly the instruments that figure so prominently in the pictorial representations of the Passion, as, for instance, the pincers in the twelfth-century window of Chartres, cf. Mâle, L'Art religieux du XIIe siècle, fig. 92.21
                   Qui q'unques l'avrat fait honur,P-L191 [P-L191P 191. l'avrat, Cf. Intr., p. xliv.21
           192  Il lui rendra, seez aseur.
                   Pur ceo, bels amis, car alom.
                   Tant d'onur sivals li façomP194 [P194rej  li] le21
                   Que son cors honurablement
           196  Façom poser en monument.

[ - C - ]

                   Dan Nichodem, venez od moi,
           212  Alum dependre nostre roi.
                   Nel refusum, tut soit il mort;C-L213 [C-L213rej  soir] soil.21
                   Unchore nus fra il grant cumfort.
                   Il n'est pas mort, einz est transi;
           216  Il releverat, jol sai de fi.
                   Ke fet li averat honur,
                   Il li rendrat, seez a seur.
                   Pur ço, bels amis, kar alum.
           220  Tant de honur suvan li façumC-L220 [C-L220C 220. suvan. This appears to be a scribal mis-reading of suvau, a form of the adverb sev[e]aus, siv[e]aus, P sivals, with labialized pretonic vowel, a form noted in Godefroy in the texts of Chardri and in the anonymous Life of St Benet. For the etymology, cf., Zts. Rom. Ph. xliii (1923), p. 268.21
                   Ke sun cors honurablement
                   Façum poser en monument.

Page 21

[- P -]

                   Sire Joseph, jol ai ben veu
                   Que li sire, que la est pendu,
                   Veir prophete e sainz hom fu,
           200  Plain de Deu e de grant vertu.
                   Il le me fist ben entendre
                   Quant vins a lui pur aprendre:
                   Nepurquant nel os enprendre
           204  Od vus aler lui despendre;
                   E sin ai jo coveitise
                   De lui faire grant servise,
                   Mes jo crem tant la justise,
           208  Nel os faire en nule guise.

[ - C - ]

                   Sire Joseph, jeo l'ai bien veu
           224  Ke li sire, ke la est pendu,
                   Veir prophete e senz hom fu,
                   Plain de Deu e de grant vertu.
                   Il le me fit bien entendre
           228  Quant jo vinc a li pur aprendre:
                   Nepurquant nel os enprendre
                   Od vus aler li despendre;
                   E si ai jeo grant cuvaitise
           232  De fere lui grant servise, [f.216c]
                   Mes jeo crein tant la justise,
                   Nel os fere en nule guise.
                   Jeo ai le cungé de dan Pilate.
           236  Si jeo n'ai, ausi dut jo barate.

Page 22

[- P -]

                   Mes jo od vus a Pilate irrai,
                   De sa buche meimes l'orrai:P-L210 [P-L210buche meimes Cf. Intr., p. lx.23
                   Plus seurement idunt le frai.
           212  Ore venez, jo vus i merrai.
                   A Pilate en vunt ambesdouz,
                   E dui vassals ensemble od eus,P-L213 [P-L213P 213-214. For the rhyme ambesdouz: eus, see Intr., p. lv.23
                   Dunt li un portat l'ustillement,
           216  L'altre la buiste od l'oingnement.P-L214 [P-L214214-216 cf. C252-25423
                   Sire, me covent un compaignon:
                   Nel puis aver si par vus non.

[ - C - ]

                   Et jeo od vus desque la irrai.
                   Ore venez, si vus merrai.
                   Plus seurement idunc le frai,
           240  Quant de sa buche meimes l'orrai.C-L240 [C-L240rej  lotrai23
                   A Pilate s'en vunt ambdui,
                   Et Joseph en halt ad dit a lui:
                   Sire, me cuvent un cumpaignun:
           244  Ne pus aver si par vus nun.

Page 23

[- P -]

                   Ditez cestui qu'il ait fiance
           220  D'aler od mei sanz dotance.
                   Aler i poez, bels amis;P221 [P221rej  Alez.24
                   Ne vus serrad de ren le pis.
                   Hardiement alez avant,
           224  Jo vus serai par tut garant.
                   Quant il vindrent devant la cruis,
                   Joseph criat od halte voiz:
                   Ohi Jesu, le fiz Marie,
           228  Seinte virgine dulce e pie,

[ - C - ]

                   Dites cestui ke il ait fiance
                   De aler od moi senz dutance.
                   Aler i poez, beals amis;
           248  Ne vus serrat de rien le pis.
                   Hardiement alez avant,
                   Jeo vus serrai par tut guarant.
                   Ver la croiz s'en vunt ambedous,
           252  dui vassal ensemble od els,
                   Dunt l'un portat le ustilement,
                   L'altre la boiste od le uignement.
                   Quant il vindrent devant la croiz,
           256  Joseph se escria od halte voiz:
                   Jesu! le fiz Marie,
                   Seinte virgine duze e pie,

Page 24

[- P -]

                   Tant fist Judas grant felonie
                   E a son os grant folie,
                   Quant te vendi par envieP-L231 [P-L231rej  te] le25 [f.98b]
           232  A cels qui ne t'aiment mie
                   L'alme de lui en est perie
                   Quant sei mesme toli la vie.
                   Mult par poaient estre dolenz
           236  Chaistif Jueu, li men parenz;
                   Plus sunt malurez qu'altres genz:
                   Ceo est si veir que tu n'i menz.

[ - C - ]

                   Tant fist Judas felunie
           260  E a sun os grant folie,
                   Quant toi vendi par envie
                   A cels ke ne te amerent mie.
                   L'alme de li est perie
           264  Quant sei meimes toli la vie.
                   Mult savoir poi cum grant aïe
                   Aver pot ke merci crie.C-L265 [C-L265C 265-266. These lines unimpeachable in content and strongly reminiscent of P 65-66, may have been accidentally omitted in P but the use of the imperfect indicative savoit, and the turning of a huitain into a dizain, speak rather for ascription to the remanieur, cf. Intr., pp. lxiii, lxiv. P Ceo est si veir que tu n'i menz. The last line of the speech of Nichodemus in P is not without difficulty. Professor Wright compares it with line 294 (CFMA, p. 17) and suggests allocation to Joseph, i.e., takes it to express Nichodemus' agreement with the sentiments expressed by Joseph about the Jews. Professor Jenkins interprets it: It is indeed true, that Thou (Jesus) art to be relied upon and roundly condemns it in these terms: Comparison with C shows that P's line is isolated and incorrect, a pure cheville. Professor Jenkins appears to me to be right in interpreting tu as referring to Jesus but it seems possible that here as elsewhere the author had in mind the Gospel narrative containing Jesus' prophecy of evil that was to befall the Jewish race e.g. Matthew xxiii, 37, 38, and that the line should be retained and interpreted: This is indeed true, for Thou speakest the truth, i.e. Thy word is to be relied upon. The conjunction que is here then expressing causality as frequently in Old French. The use of incorrect forms of the nominative plural in P affords no ground for rejecting the reading, cf. Intr., p. lvii.

                   Keitif Jeu, le men parent,
           268  Mult par poent estre dolent:C-L268 [C-L268rej  poent] pot25
                   Plus sunt maluré ke altre gent
                   Quant cesti un mis a turment.
                   Mult lur est rendu dolerusement,C271 [C271rej  ert interlinear insertion by scribe of C25
           272  Quant vendrunt al grant jugement.C-L270 [C-L270C 270-272. These lines are probably attributable to the remanieur; 270 reproduces almost exactly a later line P 261, C 295, and the emphasis laid upon the evil action of the Jews is in accord with other passages that appear to be his additions, cf. C 87, 88.25

Page 25

[- P -]

                   Nichodem ses ustilz prist,
           240  E dan Joseph issi lui dist:
                   Alez as piez primerement.
                   Volenters, sire, e dulcement.
                   Montés as mains, ostez les clous.
           244  Sire, mult volenters, ambesdouz.P-L243 [P-L243P 243-244. For the rhyme clous : ambesdouz see Intr., p. lv.26
                   Quant Nichodem l'out fait issi,
                   Dist a Joseph, qui le cors saisi:

[ - C - ]

                   Nichodemus ses ustils prist,
                   E dan Joseph issi li dist:
                   Alez as piez premerement.
           276  Volenters, sire, e ducement.
                   Muntez as mains, ostez les clous.
                   Sire, si frai jeo, ambedous.
                   Quant Nichodemus out fait issi,
           280  Dit a Joseph, ke le cors saisi:

Page 26

[- P -]

                   Suef le pernez entre vos braz.
           248  Saches treisben que jo si faz.P-L248 [P-L248rej  Sachef.27
                   Dunt mistrent bel le cors aval
                   E Joseph dit a son vaissal:
                   Baillez mei ça cel uinnement,
           252  Si en oindrum cest cors present.
                   Tant cum l'oinnement lui baut,P253 [P253rej  oinnemt 27
                   Nichodem dit tut en haut:

[ - C - ]

                   Suef le pernez entre voz braz.
                   Sacez le bien ke si le faz.
                   Dunc mistrent bel le cors aval,
           284  Et Joseph dit al un vassal:
                   Baillez moi cel oignement,
                   Si enoingdrai cest cors present.
                   Tant cum le oingnement li balt,
           288  Nichodemus dit tut en halt:

Page 27

[- P -]

                   Ahi! Deus omnipotent!
           256  Ciel e terre e ewe e vent
                   Trestuz comanablement
                   Sunt al ton comandement,
                   E tutes choses ensement,
           260  Fors sul en terre male gent
                   Qui unt cestui mis a turment,
                   Livrez a mort senz jugement–
                   Uncore i avrat vengement,
           264  Mes tu es sire mult pacient.P264 [P264rej  pacent28
                   Dune nus faire dignement
                   A cest seint cors enterment.

[ - C - ]

                   Ahy! Deus omnipotent!
                   Cel e terre, ewe e vent
                   Trestut comunablement
           292  Sunt a tun comandement,
                   E trestutes choses ensement,
                   For sul en terre male gent
                   Ke unt cesti mis a turment,
           296  Livrez a mort senz jugement–
                   Uncore i averat grant vengement,
                   Mes tu es sire mult pacient.
                   Dune nus faire dignement
           300  A cest saint cors enterement.

Page 28

[- P -]

                   Quant le cors enoint aveient,
           268  Sur la bere il le meteient.P-L268 [P-L268rej  le] be29
                   Sire Joseph, vus estes einz nez:
                   Alez al chef, jo vois as piez,P270 [P270rej  Jo; as]al29
                   Si alum tost ensevelir.
           272  Avez veu u il pout gisir?
                   Jo ai un monument mult bel, x [x] posuit eum in monumento nouo quod excideratur a petra29P-L273 [P-L273P 273 The marginal indication of source is adapted from Matt. xxvii, 60.29
                   De pere est fait trestut novel.
                   Ore i alum a dreit hure,
           276  Laenz avra sepulture,

[ - C - ]

                   Quant le cors en oint aveient,C-L301 [C-L301rej  en oint29
                   Sur une bere le meteient.
                   Sire Joseph, vus estes ainnez:
           304  Alez al chief, jeo vois as piez,
                   Sil alum tost ensevelir.
                   Avez veu u il deit gisir?
                   Jeo ai un monument mult bel
           308  De pere fet, trestut novel.
                   Ore le pernum a draiture,
                   Laenz avera sepulture.

Page 29

[ - C - ]

                   La sunt venuz, mettent la bere;
           312  Joseph dit en ceste manere:
                   Dan Nichodemus, ore vus dirai
                   De ço sarcu ke jo fait ai.
                   Ainz ke feisse faire sarcu,C315 [C315rej  veisse30C-L315 [C-L315C 315. feisse. Interchange of f and v is not infrequent in Anglo-Norman, in initial position as well as elsewhere, cf. Trethewey, La Petite Philosophie, note on l. 115, Stimming, Boeve, p. 220. Undoubtedly feisse is more appropriate to the context than veisse.30
           316  Vi de la piere mult grant vertu,
                   En mun dormant, par avisiun;
                   Mult i out bele visitaciun:
                   Ceo me fu vis ke angles del cel,
           320  U sis u set, ne sai le quel,
                   Vindrent aval od grant lumere,
                   Mult bel chantant sur ceste piere.
                   Un grant paile devoluperent,
           324  E sur ceste piere la leisserent.
                   Le drap fu dedenz tut blans,
                   Defors ert vermail cum sancs.
                   Quant cest oi veu, dunc me esmerveillai
           328  E a mun pere le sunge cuntai.
                   Il me dit ço ke il entendi,
                   Ke un saint cors i serrat enseveli;
                   E jeo pur ço en fis cel sarcu.
           332  Certes, dan Joseph, ore est avenu,
                   Kar plus saint cors unkes ne fu
                   Ke cist est, ke ore mettras tu.
                   Ceste piere ert sur lui posee,
           336  Ke jeo oi einz a ço aturnee.

Page 30

[- P -]

                   Quant il fut enterrez et la pere mise,
                   Caiphas, qui est levez, dit en ceste guise:
[CAIPHAS] [f.98c]
                   Sire Pilate, oez mon conseil:P279 [P279rej  couseil31
           280  Jo ai grant tort si jol vus ceil.
                   Li fel Jesus, icel trichere,
                   Qui la fu pendu come lere,
                   Iceo diseit en son vivant –

[ - C - ]

                   Ore le metum, ja si grant ne serra
                   Ke il ne se leve, quant li plaira.
                   Deu del cel, ke es rai pussant,
           340  Le cors tun fiz a tai le comand!
                   Pur la sue amur, nus seez guarant
                   Tuz jorz mes des ore en avant!
                   Veire nus doint a lui servir,C-L343 [C-L343C 343. Veire. The adverb veire (< vera, cf. Nyrop, Gram. III, §592, Rem.) often employed with weakened significance as verily, really retains here full value: May He grant us to serve Him truly!31
           344  En sun service vivre e murir.
                   Dunc s'en turnent ces dous baruns,
                   Si venent a lur maisuns.
                   Entres ces faiz se leve Kaiphas,
           348  Si vient a Pilate chaut pas.
                   Sire Pilate, oez mun cunsail:
                   Mult ai grant tort si jeo le vus ceil.
                   Li fel Jesus, icel trichere,
           352  Ke la fu pendu cume lere,
                   Iço disait en sun vivant–

Page 31

[- P -]

           284  Si sunt li plusur miscreant– x [x] Jube custodire sepulcrum ne furentur eum discipuli eius et dicant plebi quia surrexit, et erit nouissimus error peior priore 32
                   Qu'il al terz jur releverait,P-L285 [P-L285rej  Qil; releuerat32
                   Mes mult par est fol qui ceo creit.
                   Le sepulture faimes guarder
           288  Que nel vengent li soen embler,
                   Car il le irreient par tut prechant
                   E par le pais denonciant
                   Qu'il ert de mort resurs e vifs,P-L291 [P-L291rej  Qil32
           292  Si ferat mescreire les chaistifs;
                   S'il est issi, si sera piz.
                   Vus ditez veir, ceo m'est avis.
                   Un des serganz dunc s'esdresç'a
           296  E a Pilate issi parla:

[ - C - ]

                   Si sunt plusurs mescreant–
                   Ke il al tierz jor releverait,
           356  Mes mult par est fol ke ç'o crait.
                   Le sepulchre fames garder
                   Ke ne vengent le sun embler,
                   E dient pus ke il sait vifs,
           360  Si frunt mescrere le chaitifs;
                   S'il est issi, dunc serrat pis.
                   Sil fetes garder, bels amis. [f.217d]
                   Un de serganz dunc se dresç'at
           364  E a Pilate issi parlat:

Page 32

[- P -]

                   Si l'om me volt doner la cure,
                   Jeo garderai le sepulture;
                   Et si ceo est, par aventure,
           300  Que nul venge a icel hureP300 [P300rej  nul ne v.33
                   De ces amis, que embler le voille,
                   Ja n'en turnerat qu'il ne se doille:P302 [P302rej  n'en] ne33P-L302 [P-L302P 302. Here as in 157 and 175 the scribe appears to have omitted the sign of nasality over the first ne for the verb torner, employed in the sense of depart, make off is ordinarily accompanied by the adverb en, as here in C.33
                   N'averat membre que ne li toille.
           304  Ja ne quer que prestre me soille.
                   Treis des altres dunc leverent
                   E al primer si parlerent:
                   Bel compain, od vus en irrum

[ - C - ]

                   Si hom me vut doner la cure,
                   Jeo garderai la sepulture;
                   E si ç'o sait, par aventure,
           368  Ke nul venge a cel hure
                   De ses amis, ke embler le voille,
                   Ja n'en turnerat ke il ne se doile:
                   Ne avera membre ke ne li toile.
           372  Ja ne quer ke prestre me soille.
                   Treis de altres dunc leverent
                   E al premer issi parlerent:
                   Beal cumpaignun, od vus en irrum

Page 33

[- P -]

           308  E le sepulcre garderum.
                   Nul n'i vendra qui ne prengum,
                   N'il ne levera que nel sachom.
                   Aloms i tost hardiement,
           312  Si gardum ben le monument;
                   Si nul venge pur lui embler,
                   Nus le ferum grant pour aver.
                   Pur la fei qui dei Pilate,P315 [P315rej  qidei34
           316  Si nul venge feire barate,
                   Tels quinze cols li paieraiP317 [P317rej  paiera34
                   Que del primer l'esturnerai.P318 [P318rej  esturnera34P-L318 [P-L318P 318 esturnera. The examples cited in Godefroy indicate that there was frequently in Old French confusion between the verbs estorner overthrow, overturn and estoner daze, stun, and it is the latter that on the whole fits in best with the context, since a rain of blows is less likely to be directed against a man overthrown by the first than on a man in a dazed condition. Professor Jenkins had not decided between the two possibilities for he entered in the Glossary turn round, make spin and in a suggested translation stun. For the effacement of preconsonantal r cf. Pope, op. cit. § 396.34

[ - C - ]

           376  E le sepulchre garderum.
                   Nul ne vendra ke nel prengum,
                   Ne il ne levera ke nel sachum.
                   Alums i tost deivrement,
           380  Si gardum bien le monument;
                   Si nul i venge, si cum jeo l'entent,
                   Nus le nafrum mult asprement.
                   Par la fai ke jeo dei porter
           384  A Pilate, ke jo soil amer,
                   Si nul i vienge pur lui embler,
                   Nus li frum grant desturber.

Page 34

[- P -]

[CAIPHAS] [f.98d]
                   E jo ensemble od vus irrai;
320 [322]  De cest mester vus saiserai.
                   Granté vus, sire, qu'il seit issi?P-L321 [P-L321P 321. Granté vus. The absence of s in granté suggests that the contracted form granteus was used here as in aleus and taiseus, for elsewhere in P the second person plural retains final z except where followed by enclitic vus.35
                   Sire Chaiphas, ben le vus otri.
                   Dunt si cum il alerent la,
324 [356]  Un par vei lur demanda:
                   U en alé-us si grant alure?
                   Garder alum la sepulture
                   De Jesu qu'i est enseveli,
328 [360]  Qui dit qu'il levrat al terz di.
                   Ad ceo Pilate comandé?

[ - C - ]

                   E jeo ensemble od vus irrai;
           388  De cest mester vus saiserai.
                   Granté-le vus, sire, ke il soit issi?
[PILATUS] [f.218a]
                   Sire, Kaiphas, bien le vus otri.

Page 35

[- P -]

                   Oil, ceo sachez en verité.
                   Veez ci le vesque Caiphas
332 [364]  Qui tut se vent od nus le pas,P-L332 [P-L332P 332. Qui tut se vent od nus le pas. The examples of the use of the locution tut le pas are not very frequent and its exact force not always easy to determine. The rendering given in Godefroy de ce pas, aussitôt is evidently erroneous; that suggested by Foerster (Kristian von Troyes Woerterbuch) fits the two instances of its use by Crestien (Erec 368, Yvain 733), and is corroborated by a passage in Perlesvaus, where the meaning of slow pace comes out clearly: Li vallez s'en va grant aleure et Messire Gauvains chevauche tot le pas, car il avoit grant jornee fete . . . 1029-1030. In the line in P it does not however seem to be the slowness of the pace that is expressed but the keeping in step and the line may perhaps best be rendered: who is coming along with us.36
                   Qui la garde nus comandra.
                   Ore venge qui venir voldra.P-L323 [P-L323P 323-334. The use of the contracted form aleus in l. 325 suggests that this scene, absent in C, formed part of the original, cf. Intr., p. lxviii.36
                   Quant Caiphas les i out mené,
336 [368]  Si lur ad dit e comandé:
                   Ore estés ci al monument;
                   Gardez le ben parfitement,
                   Si vus dormez e il seit pris,
340 [372]  Jamés ne serum bonz amiz.P-L319 [P-L319] ll. 319-340 appear in the MS after l. 371 and occupy the last 22 lines of col. 98d (the end of the extant fragment in this MS)36
                   […] P-L341 [P-L341rej  tendrez] rendrez36 [f.98c]
orig. 320  Ceo que jurez tendrez en fei,

[ - C - ]

                   Quant Kaiphas les out amené,
           392  Si lur ad dit et cummandé:
                   Ore estez ci al monument;
                   Gardez le bien parfitement.
                   Si vus dormez e il soit pris,
           396  Jamés ne serum bons amis.
                   Mes primes jurez sur lai,
                   Ço ke jurrez tendrez en fai,

Page 36

[- P -]

                   Que si nuls hom seit si hardi
                   Que puis le vespre venge ici
           344  Espigucer e aguaiter
345 [324]  Si le cors vus poisse embler,P-L345 [P-L345rej  poissez37
                   Tut die il que pur ceo nel face,P346 [P346rej  nel] le37
                   Ceo jurrez en ceste place, [f.98d]
           348  Que qu'il seit, petit u grant,P348 [P348rej  grant v petit corrected to p. v g.37
349 [328]  E il n'en ait des princes guarant,
                   Tut par mi le gule le prendrez;
                   Quant ert pris, a nus le merrez.
           352  Ceo jurez lealment a tenir.
353 [337]  U est le rolle? faitez le venir.P-L341 [P-L341] Presumably owing to the displacement of ll. 319-340, a line has been omitted and ll. 341-353 erroneously attributed to Pilatus.37
                   Est vus un prestre, qui out a non Levi,
                   Si out escrite la lei Moysi.

[ - C - ]

                   Ke si nul hom soit si hardi
           400  Ke puis la vespre vienge ici
                   Espigucer e aguaiter
                   Si le cors vus peusset embler,
                   Tut diet il ke pur ç'o nel face,
           404  Ço jurrez ore en ceste place,
                   Ki ke il soit, u petit u grant,
                   E il n'eit des princes guarant,
                   Tut par mi la gule le prendrez;
           408  Quant il ert pris a nus le merrez.
                   Ço jurez leaument a tenir.
                   U est la roule? festes la venir.
                   Este vus un prestre ke out nun Levi,
           412  Ke out escrit la lai Moysi.

Page 37

[- P -]

           356  Veez ici la lei que Moisés fist,
357 [336]  Si cum Deus meimes a li la dist;P-L357 [P-L357rej  menes(?) corrected to meimes.38
                   Les dis comandemenz i at:
                   Qui parjuret ert, ja nel tairat.P-L359 [P-L359rej  nel] le38
           360  Ore jurez tuz sur cest escrist
361 [340]  De tenir quanque vus ai dist.
                   Par la lei que ci est present,
                   Si nuls i venge celeement
           364  Jeo m'entremectrai de lui prendre
365 [344]  A mon pair e a vus rendre.

[ - C - ]

                   Veez ci la lai ke Moyses fit,
                   Si cum Deu meimes a lui dit; [f.218b]
                   Les dis cumandemenz i ad:
           416  Ke parjure ert, ja ne terrad.C-L416 [C-L416rej  terrad] t$$ rad with final t corrected to d38
                   Ore jurez tuz sur cest escrit
                   De tenir quantke vus ai dit.
                   Par la lai ke est ci en present,
           420  Si nul i vienge priveement,
                   Jeo m'entremettrai de li prendreC-L421 [C-L421rej  Jeo] Ieo38
                   A mun poair e a vus rendre.

Page 38

[- P -]

                   Par la grant vertu de ceste lei
                   Ceo que cist dit tendrai en fei.
           368  Jeo tendrai, si Deu pleist,
369 [348]  Par la seinte lei que ici est.
                   Si m'at iceste lait […] P-L370 [P-L370P 370. C's version suggests that the defective line read: Si m'ait Deus a iceste lai. The name of the interlocutor is absent and the usual sign to denote a change is not prefixed to this speech.39
           371  Jeol tendrai ben endreit de mei.P-L370 [P-L370] ll. 370 and 371 are attributed in the MS to the third soldier and l. 370 is defective.39

[ - C - ]

                   Par la vertu de la sainte lai
           424  Ço ke ci dis tendrai en fai.
                   E jo le tendrai, si Deu plest,
                   Par la sainte lai ke ci est.
                   Si me ait Deus e ceste lai.
           428  Jeo le tendrai endreit mai
                   Kaiphas d'ilok s'en ala,
                   E l'un sergant as altres parla:
                   Vus dous, seignurs, veillez la,
           432  Et jeo e cesti serrum de ç'a.
                   Ja si belement ne leverat
                   Ke alcun de nus nel saverat.

Page 39

[ - C - ]

                   Endrait de nus ert bien gardé:
           436  Ja ne leverat de nostre gré,
                   Ne par les sons n'ert emblé.
                   Mar i serrat nul de els trové.
                   Si Dampnedeu me saut e gart,
           440  Les suens i vendrunt ja trop tart. [f.218c]
                   Pendu seit de male hart,
                   Si seit pris de ceste part,
                   Si il ne seit de si grant vertu
           444  Cum Sanson li fort jadis fu,
                   Ke al leon tolit la pel,
                   Puis fu asis en un chastel
                   Dunt les portes acraventa;
           448  Parmi ses enemis s'en ala.C-L443 [C-L443C 443-448. The analogy between Samson and Christ was of frequent recurrence in medieval literature and art; cf. Duriez, La Théologie dans le drame religieux, 180-181. In stained glass there appear frequently as symbols of the Resurrection Samson and the lion, or Samson carrying off the gates of Gaza. The following verses of Adam of St. Victor explain the symbolism:
                   Samson Gazae seras pandit,
                   Et asportans portas scandit
                   montis supercilium;
                   Sic de Iuda leo fortis
                   Fractis portis dirae mortis,
                   Die surgens tertia,
                   Rugiente voce Patris
                   Ad supernae sinum matris
                   Tot revexit spolia. Cf. Y. Delaporte and E. Houvet, Les Vitraux de la Cathédrale de Chartres, v. 1, 389-390, v. 2, planche CLIV; also E. Mâle, L'Art religieux du XIIe siècle, 160. (W.)40

                   Si cestui issi nel face,
                   Ja ne istra de ceste place
                   Ke par force nel retengum.C451 [C451rej  par par40
           452  Ore veillez bien, sil aguaitum.
                   Uns hom fu ke ç'o o oit,
                   Vint a Joseph, si li disoit:
                   Joseph, sire de Arimathie,
           456  Deu mainge la vostre vie!C-L456 [C-L456C 456 mainge. The formation of the present subjunctive with the infix -ge was extended both in West French and in Anglo-Norman to verbs of the first conjugation, cf. Fouché, op. cit. p. 206, Pope, Angier, p. 40, Goerlich Die Die Nordwestlichen Dialekte der Langue d'Oïl p. 80, Tanquerey, op. cit. pp. 356-358. The form meinge is used in Brendan 19 and Tanquerey cited other examples of like forms of this verb.40
                   Et ore, sire, ke vus est vis?C457 [C457rej  vus]uer40
                   Gardeins sunt al sepulchre mis,
                   Quatre serganz tresbien armez,
           460  Garder le cors ke il ne seit emblez.
                   Est ç'o veirs?

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                   Oil veraiement.
                   Et dunc irrai priveement
                   Pur garder ke cel saint cors
           464  Ne soit livré as chiens ne as pors,
                   Ne ke il n'i ait vilté nule.
                   Vostre persone ne irrat pas sule,C-L466 [C-L466C 466. Vostre persone. The use of persona tua, vestra, etc., as a circumlocutory title of respect, goes back to the fifth century but its introduction in the vernacular belongs to the late twelfth century and makes its appearance first in Provençal, cf. Rheinfelder, Beihefte, Zts. R. Ph. 77.41 [f.218d]
                   Einz irrai od vus sil comandez.
           468  Nu ferez pas, einz rexnanez.
                   Jeo belement tut sul irrai;
                   Ça, une chape, sil afublerai.
                   Quant la chape afublee avoit,
           472  Levat ses mains, si disoit:C-L470 [C-L470C 470-472. Such references to costume are rare in the early vernacular drama. Of the early French plays the Jeu d'Adam alone describes in detail the costumes of the actors. (W.)41
                   Ohy, Jesu! ohy, bel sire!
                   En tun vivant esteies bon mire,
                   Ke Lazere de mort resuscitas:
           476  E ke fras meimes? dunc ne relveras?
                   Dunt ne releveras tu de mort?
                   Ja le deis tu, ç'o me est cumfort.
                   Uncore le croi jeo parfitement,
           480  Kar fiz Deu es omnipotent;
                   Et sai bien parfitement
                   Ke n'est hom fort ne si sageC-L482 [C-L482C 482. This line is certainly defective. As a two-syllable word in -ent is needed, perhaps the author wrote poissent (cf. poissance), a form instanced by Suchier (Reimpredigt, p. 71) from Benoit's Chronique, l. 37919. (Jenkins.) For the termination -ent, cf. p. li.41
                   Ke te peusse ja desturber,C-L483 [C-L483C 483. peusse. See Intr., p. xxxvii.41
           484  Quant vodras de mort relever.
                   Mes, nepurquant, saver desir
                   Si tun cors peusse en pes gisir,
                   Ke il ne soit d'ilok remué
           488  Tresque il soit d'iloc relevé.
                   Quant pres del sepulchre ert venuz
                   Un se escria ke s'est aparceuz:

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                   Saillez, seingnurs, veez la un larrun, [f.219a]
           492  Parjure eimes si nus nel pernum.
                   Cist ert tost pris e legerement;
                   Il est tut sul, si cum jo l'entent.
                   Pur lui prendre saillerent tuz,
           496  Si li unt dit par grant curuz:
                   Ki es tu, vassal? es tu espie?
                   Einz sui Joseph de Arimathie.
                   Ahy, sire, ke fetes vus ci?
           500  Garder le cors ke hui enseveli,
                   Ke il ne soit vilement demenez,
                   Ne en altre liu translatez.
                   A, las! sire, ke estes venuz,
           504  Kar nus avum juré trestuz
                   Ke qui unkes i prendrum
                   Chaut pas as princes le merum.
                   Ke loez, seingnurs?

[PRIMUS MILES] Mené-le avant,
           508  Dunt n'avum juré?

[ALTER MILES] Oïl, nepurquant,
                   Il est si prudomme, ç'o savez bien.C-L510 [C-L510C 510. n'ataint a ren. It is of no avail, it's no good, an idiomatic expression of which examples are cited in Tobler-Lommatsch from several texts.9999
                   Lessez estre; n'ataint a ren.
                   Alum le nus mener avant,
           512  E vus remanez ci esveillant.
                   Dunc as princes le amenerent.
                   Quant la vindrent, issi parlerent:

[ - C - ]

                   Mestre Caiphas, nostre serement
           516  Avum gardé a nostre escient.
                   Pris est Joseph de Arimathie,
                   Unc n'i out reles pur seignurie.C-L518 [C-L518C 518. In spite of his segneurial position there was no letting him off, or possibly, taking the adverb i as an intercalation, he was not let off. For this use of por in a negative sentence, cf. Tobler, V.B. II, Article No. 3 (b).9999
[CAIPHAS] [f.219b]
                   Ahy, Joseph! ore est aparceu
           520  Ke tu estoies disciple Jesu,
                   Ke tu aires encuntre lai;
           522  Conue chose est ore de tai.C-L519 [C-L519C 519-522. Ahy, Joseph !, now it is evident that you were the disciple of Jesus, in that you proceed against the law. The verb form aires is an Anglo-Norman spelling for eires, second person singular of the present indicative of the verb errer, to proceed.9999

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