utlage (c.1136-37)

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utlage (c.1136-37)

[ gdw]

[ FEW: 17,416b utlage; Gdf: 8,113b ulage; GdfC: ; TL: 11,33 ullage /11,69 utlage; DEAF:  utlage; DMF: ; TLF: ; OED:  outlaw n. and a.; MED:  outlau(e n.; DMLBS: 3575b utlaga ]
hutlage;  otlage;  outlage,  outlaghe;  uthlage,  utlaghe,  utlague,  utlaige;  utlawe,  ula (l. ula[ge]?)  ii 89 ulage  20 (var.) ultlage  120 uslague  i 393 utalage  14-15 Ed III 281 (var.)  

While it is possible to read the word as utlagé, i.e. the p.p. of utlager used as a s. (‘one who is outlawed’ vs. ‘outlaw’), with some editions indeed preferring to use the accent, the English etymology suggests that the accent is unnecessary; see also FEW utlage 17,417a. Nevertheless, see utlager for a small number of instances where the form suggests the existence of a past participle used as substantive. The DMLBS has examples of utlagatus used as a substantive sub utlagare (3575c). In English, outlawed as a substantive is not attested in the medieval period.


1lawoutlaw, one who is deprived of the benefit and protection of the law (usually resulting in that person's exile)
( c.1136-37; MS: s.xiii1/3 )  Saxiens [i] encuntrerent Qui la terre lur defendirent; Uthlages erent, pur ço le firent  2026
( c.1240; MS: c.1300 )  Hardiz fu et pruz chivaler, Utlage devint et fort et fer  264.10
( s.xiiiex; MS: s.xiv1/3 )  tote manere d'obligacions entre utlaguez [...] se derumpent, desjognent e se defunt par tiel jugemenz  125
( 1392-93 )  negligences, concelementz, receptes des felons et utlawes, extorsions, oppressions, excesses, et autres trespas queconques  150
( s.xiiiin; MS: s.xiii2/4 )  Tant ad d'utlages en la mer Ki vunt e vienent pur robber Les nefs  5683
( s.xiii1/3; MS: s.xivin )  En neif repairent vivement. [...] De utlages sunt dunc asailliz  631
( s.xiv2/3; MS: s.xivex )  Cestui prodomme estoit donqe alé a le meer, qar il soleit garder pur utlages et robbeours qe par la ne venissent a terre pur malfeare  3043
( MS: s.xiii/xiv )  Cilix, -cis: est latro maris, gallice uslague  i 393
utlagable  utlagatum  utlagerie  utlager 
This is an AND2 Phase 4 (N-O/U-P-Q) entry. © 2013-17 The Anglo-Norman Dictionary. All rights reserved. Funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council of the United Kingdom.