[garulf] (c.1165)

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[garulf] (c.1165)

[ FEW: *17,569b *werwolf; Gdf: 4,236c garol; GdfC: 9,687c garou; TL: 4,195 garol; DEAF: G334 garol; DMF:  garou; TLF:  garou 1; OED: ; MED: ; DMLBS: 1071c gerulfus /3736b werwolfus ]
garwaf,  garvalf,  garval  

DMLBS has two entries for what is perhaps the same word, each with only one supporting citation: for gerulfus, Gervase of Tilbury’s definition from 1215: ‘vidimus enim frequenter in Anglia per lunationes homines in lupos mutari, quod hominum genus gerulfos (var.: verulos) Galli nominant, Anglici vero werewulf dicunt. were enim Anglice virum sonat, wlf lupum’ (Otia Imperialia I,15); and for werwolfus, the late (1480-1490) Digby Plays line: ‘fartum cardiculorum … snyguer snagoer werwolfforum’. Gerulfus is important for Romance philologists (cf. DEAF G334 garol [Möhren]; FEW 17,571a) because it confirms the possibly corrupt readings in Marie de France. Both FEW and TL reconstruct a form [garulf], which is plausible but of course unattested. The main point though is that both Marie and Gervase confirm that the form gerulfus/*garulf is French (specifically Norman in Marie’s case). Werwolfus with initial w- is explicitly English.


1myth.werewolf, lycanthrope, man who changes into a wolf at night
( c.1165; MS: s.xiii2 )  Bisclavret ad nun en bretan, Garwaf l'apelent li Norman  4
( c.1165; MS: s.xiii2 )  Hume plusur garval devindrent E es boscages meisun tindrent  7
( c.1165; MS: s.xiii2 )  Garvalf, ceo est beste salvage; Tant cum il est en cele rage, Hummes devure  9
This is an AND2 Phase 2 (F-H) entry. © 2006-2008 The Anglo-Norman Dictionary. All rights reserved. Funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council of the United Kingdom.