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La Passiun de Seint Edmund

Edited by J. Grant
London, Anglo-Norman Text Society 1978
Genre: Hagiography
AND Bibliography: S Edm Pass ANTS

Original work © 1978 The Anglo Norman Text Society, which has granted permission for it to be digitised, browsed and searched on this site. Any other use, including making copies of this electronic version, requires the prior written permission of the copyright holders, who may be contacted via Birkbeck College, University of London, Malet St, London WC1E 7HX, UK

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Abbo All references are to the most recent edition of Abbo's Passio: M. Winterbottom (ed.), Three Lives of English Saints (Toronto, 1972).
ANTS Anglo-Norman Text Society.
ASC Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.
B & W O. Bloch and W. von Wartburg, Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue française, 4th ed. (Paris, 1964).
Bell 1956 A. Bell, Notes on two Anglo-Norman Saints' Lives, Philological Quarterly XXXV (1956), 48-59.
Bell 1960 A. Bell (ed.), L'Estoire des Engleis, ANTS XIV-XVI (Oxford, 1960).
Ducange C. Ducange, Glossarium mediae et infimae latinitatis, Editio nova aucta pluribus verbis aliorum scriptorum a L. Favre, 10 vols. (Paris, 1937-1938).
FEW W. von Wartburg, Französisches Etymologisches Worterbuch I . . . (Bonn, Leipzig and Basel, 1928 . . .).
Foulet 1963 L. Foulet, Petite syntaxe de l'ancien français, 3rd ed. (Paris, 1963).
Gdf. F. Godefroy, Dictionnaire de l'ancienne langue française et de tous ses dialectes du IXe au XVe siècle, 10 vols. (Paris, 1881-1902).

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HBC F. M. Powicke and E. B. Fryde (eds.), Handbook of British Chronology, Royal Historical Society Guides and Handbooks 2, 2nd ed. (London, 1961).
Horn II M. K. Pope (ed.), The Romance of Horn, II revised and completed by T. B. W. Reid, ANTS XII-XIII (Oxford, 1964).
Kjellman 1935 H. Kjellman (ed.), La Vie seint Edmund le rei, poème anglo-normand du XIIe siècle par Denis Piramus (Göteborg, 1935).
Memorials I T. Arnold (ed.), Memorials of St Edmund's Abbey I, Rolls Series XCVI (London, 1890).
Meyer 1907 P. Meyer, Les manuscrits français de Cambridge IV. Gonville and Caius College, Romania XXXVI (1907), 481-542.
Nabert A. Nabert (ed.), La Passiun de seint Edmund (Diss. Greifswald, 1915).
PL J.-P. Migne (ed.), Patrologiae cursus completus . . . Series latina, 221 vols. (Paris, 1844-1890).
Pope M. K. Pope, From Latin to Modern French, rev. ed. (Manchester, 1952).
REW W. Meyer-Lübke, Romanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (Heidelberg, 1968).
Södergård 1948 Ö. Södergård (ed.), La Vie d'Edouard le Confesseur (Uppsala, 1948).
T.-L. A. Tobler and E. Lommatzsch, Altfranzösisches Wörterbuch I . . . (Berlin and Wiesbaden, 1925 . . .).
Trethewey 1939 W. H. Trethewey (ed.), La Petite Philosophie, ANTS I (Oxford, 1939).

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VCH The Victoria History of the Counties of England.
Waters 1928 E. G. R. Waters (ed.), The Anglo-Norman Voyage of St. Brendan by Benedeit (Oxford, 1928).
Whitelock 1969 D. Whitelock, Fact and fiction in the Legend of St. Edmund, Proceedings of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology XXXI (1970 for 1969), 217-233.

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The Passiun de seint Edmund is preserved on pp. 105-128 of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge MS. 435/435; 1 [1]  Referred to as G&C 435 in the subsequent discussion.12 a collection of various independently produced Latin and French works, copied in different hands of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries on vellum of varying size and quality. There are no marks of foliation and the MS. has been paginated at a recent date, on the recto sides only.


An ex libris and press mark from St. Augustine's Canterbury: de librario sancti Augustini Distinctione viija Gradus iijo Sermones inscribed in a fourteenth-century hand on the top of p. 1 indicates that at least the first section of what is now G&C 435 belonged to the library of that abbey. This opening section may well be the first of a collection of sermons, the rest of which are now lost, noted under entry no. 697 in the catalogue of the library drawn up shortly before 1497 2 [2]  Preserved in the Dublin MS. Trinity College 360 and published in M. R. James, The ancient libraries of Canterbury and Dover (Cambridge, 1903).12 as: 7. Sermones vtiles T. Abbatis 2o fo. est qui D.8. G.3. The press marks are identical and, while the incipit of the second folio of G&C 435 is est ei, it is not inconceivable that the catalogue's est qui is a misrepresentation of this. 3 [3]  The same conclusion was reached by I. Aspin (ed.), Anglo-Norman political songs, ANTS XI (Oxford, 1953), p. 116.12 The T. Abbas of the catalogue can probably be identified as Thomas Findon, abbot from 1283 to 1309, at least nine of whose MSS. are known to have survived. 4 [4]  Cf. James, The Ancient Libraries, pp. lxxii-lxxiii and N. R. Ker, Medieval libraries of Great Britain, 2nd ed. (London, 1964), p. 246.12

St Augustine's was dissolved with the signing of the deed of surrender in July 1538 and its library dispersed, many of the

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volumes going to private collectors. Our MS. eventually became part of the collection of William Moore (or More), 1590-1659, student and fellow of Gonville and Caius College and University librarian at Cambridge from 1653 to 1659, 5 [5]  Cf. J. Venn, Biographical history of Gonville and Caius College 1349-1897, 3 vols. (Cambridge, 1897-1901), I, p. 192; II, p. 190.13 who donated his collection of some 150 books to the College library shortly before his death. 6 [6]  The benefaction is discussed in M. R. James, A descriptive catalogue of the manuscripts in the library of Gonville and Caius College, 2 vols. and suppl. (Cambridge, 1907-1914), I, p. viii;while II, pp. xix-xx lists over 130 volumes once owned by Moore and now preserved in the Gonville and Caius College library.13 Moore's own catalogue, two copies of which are extant in G&C MS. 729/758 (possibly his autograph copy) and Cambridge University Library MS. Dd.iv.36, indicates that at least from the time of his ownership the MS. existed in its present form.

The MS. has remained in the College's collection since Moore's donation. It was listed by Bernardus in the section of his Catalogue entitled Catalogus librorum MSS. ex Donatione Magistri MORE quondam Socii huius Collegii who repeats Moore's own description. 7 [7] Entry 1161 of E. Bernardus, Catalogi librorum manuscriptorum Angliae et Hiberniae (Oxoniae, 1697), I, part iii, p. 125.13 The description given by the Rev. J. J. Smith 8 [8] J. J. Smith, A catalogue of the manuscripts in the library of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge (Cambridge, 1849).13 was sufficiently incomplete and inaccurate to prompt two descriptions by P. Meyer, 9 [9]  Cf. Romania IV (1875), 385 and XXXVI (1907), 532-41.13 the second of which was used by M. R. James to correct some of the data in his description of the MS. in his catalogue of the MS. holdings of the College Library. 10 [10]  Cf. Note 6 above.13


As the MS. has been frequently, although not always accurately, described, I shall simply list the contents and the most recent publications in which they have been edited.

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1 pp. 1-8 Anonymous sermon in Latin on Ps. 23.4: Virga tua et baculus tuus ipsa me consolata sunt.
2 pp. 9-104 Priscian, Institutiones Grammaticae, books vii-x, incomplete at beginning and end. 11 [11]  The extract commences at book vii, 95 and not at book viii as in James's description. See H. Keil (ed.), Grammatici Latini, II Prisciani Institutionum Grammaticarum Libri I-XII ex recensione Martini Herzii (Leipzig, 1855), pp. 368-509 for the relevant sections from the Priscian, printed from other MS. sources.14
3 pp. 105-128 Two untitled works in French (i) The Passiun de seint Edmund; (ii) (p. 128 col. 2) A short note on the Latin declension system. 12 [12]  Printed in Meyer 1907, p. 535.14
4 pp. 129-144 Four untitled poems in French (i) pp. 129-135 (l. 5) Sermon often referred to as Grant mal fist Adam or as Sermon en vers; 13 [13]  Ed. H. and W. Suchier, Zwei altfranzösische Reimpredigten, Bibliotheca Normannica I, rev. ed. (Halle, 1949).14 (ii) pp. 135 (l. 6)-139 (col. 1) Poem known as the Descente de saint Paul en enfer or as the Vision de saint Paul; 14 [14] Ed. L. E. Kastner, Zeitschrift für französische Sprache and Literatur XXIX (1906), 274-90.14 (iii) pp. 139 (col. 2)-143 (l. 16 col. 1) Poem known as the Quinze signes de la fin du monde; 15 [15]  Partially edited in Meyer 1907, p. 537 who prints the first 30 and the last 11 lines of this copy of the poem which exists in at least 19 other MSS. (cf. P. Meyer, Notice sur un MS. bourguignon (Musée britannique addit. 15606), Romania VI (1877), 1-46, and add to Meyer's list (art. cit. 23-24) Paris MS. B.N. fr. 15212 fol. 156).14 (iv) pp. 143 (l. 17 col. 1)-144 Fragment of a poem on the Etats du monde. 16 [16]  Ed. most recently in I. Aspin, Anglo-Norman political songs, pp. 116-29.14
5 pp. 145-192 (i) pp. 145-185 (l. 12) Verse lapidary, known as the Cambridge version of Marbode's Lapidary. 17 [17] Ed. P. Studer and J. Evans, Anglo-Norman lapidaries (Paris, 1924), pp. 154-199.14 (ii) pp. 185 (l. 13)-192 Prose treatise on the properties of engraved stones, incomplete at the end. 18 [18]  Ed. in Studer and Evans, Anglo-Norman lapidaries, pp. 286-96 where it is collated with and completed by the only other known copy of the treatise, that of Paris MS. Arsenal 3516, foll. 215-16.14

The Passiun de seint Edmund is copied on pp. 105-128 of G&C 435, comprising two gatherings, one of four and one of two bifolia. The pages measure approximately 10.5 cm. by 1.6.5 cm. (4¼" by 5½"), but their size varies slightly. There are no obvious signs of pricking, though any pricking on the outside

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edges of the pages may have been trimmed away at a later date. The poem is written in a small, generally clear and careful hand of the first half of the thirteenth century, 19 [19]  Cf. Meyer 1907, p. 532.15 in brown ink becoming lighter towards the end, two columns to the page, 33-43 lines to the column. The scribe was clearly endeavouring to fit his material into a fixed space, as the number of lines per column increases with the start of the new gathering at p. 121. Each page is laid out as follows: seven vertical and two horizontal lines are drawn between pricked points defining the main outlines of the page. Each half of the page has a narrow, vertical column for the initial letter of each line, a wider column for the main body of the line, followed by another narrow column which remains blank. This pattern of narrow, broad, narrow columns is repeated for the other half of the page.

No title is given. Internal narrative divisions are marked by red capital letters at ll. 1, 49, 69, 153, 1101, 1541 (at l. 889 a space was left for a capital O but the letter was not added) and by paragraph signs at ll. 801, 1209 and 1377. The capital letters are simple, unadorned, two lines high, and, with the exception of S 1541, which may well have been added later by the rubricator of the following section, different in form and size from those of the subsequent sections. At the beginning (pp. 105-107) and end (p. 120) of the first gathering, and at the beginning (p. 121) of the second gathering, the column containing the initial letters of each line has been ruled over in red and red filler has been added to some lines, while red flourishes have been added to the descenders of some letters on the last line of writing.

The MS. is otherwise unadorned. The first letter of each line is aligned in the column ruled specially for this purpose but not otherwise set off from the rest of the line, which follows directly on. There is little punctuation in the text: apart from full stops placed after each line and aligned at the right hand edge of the column of writing, the full stop, which is the only punctuation mark employed, occurs in lists of words and after run-on words (ll. 158, 756, 796, 876, 961, 1091) and once, l. 299, indicates a pause.

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The script is small but carefully executed and, with the exception of the occasional case of possible confusion between a and q, e and o, c and t, i and a minim of n, m or u, generally clear. Many, though not all, instances of potential confusion involving i in a series of minims have been obviated by the careful placing of an accent over the i. Double accents have been placed over the i of veí́ 510, faí́t 890 and kí́ 1080. An accent also frequently marks consonantal i. The role of the accents in this MS. is not, however, restricted to that simply of i markers. Indeed, a characteristic feature of the script, as of that of many early Insular MSS. copied late in the twelfth and early in the thirteenth centuries, is the frequent though, as was also the case with the i, not wholly consistent placing of accents over vowels other than i. 20 [20]  See the analysis of the role of accents in K. Lincke, Die Accente im Oxforder und im Cambridger Psalter sowie in andern altfranzösischen Handschriften (Erlangen, 1886) who included G&C 435 among the 20 MSS. he studied.16 The accents are used very frequently with monosyllables: cf. 855, 959, etc., é conj. 223, 235 etc., á<aveir 441, 589 etc. though rarely with a prep., ú where 105, 836 etc., and or 119, 525 etc. with no distinction between the two forms, but much less frequently with polysyllables: cf. úncore 268, áriere 623, amá 891, icó 1509, será 835 (but ico 384, saura 655, sera 412). A single accent is occasionally placed over one of two vowels in hiatus: cf. aúrt 1271, óel 383 (but Israel 1013). A pair of accents is placed with especial regularity over the juxtaposed vowels ee denoting most frequently [eǝ]: cuntréé 113, sembléé 114, destinéé 115, celéément 337, coléés 750 (but colees 682), laisséé 761, cunréé 770, escurgééz 772, penéé 817, preéé 818, espéé 838 and 992, léél 1016; and once over aa: Baláám 1020 (but Baláam 985).

The scribe also made very frequent use of the wide range of abbreviations listed here:

1 Superscript letters which have been resolved as follows: a as ra: tait 15; as ua after q: qant 20; as tra in 9ariant 628. e as re: teis 83. i as ri: pis 24; Xi-has been resolved as cristi- in Xiens 207, Xiented 256, etc.; as ui after q: vesqid 4. o as ro: top 1667; as uo after q: qor 592; cf. also qo 2 604. u as ru: tuuer 284; as uu after q in qunt 817 which has been resolved as qu'unt. 21 [21]  See Note l. 817.16

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2 Diacritical signs which have been resolved as follows: 2 as ur: p2 9. 9 as us: m9trad 31. 9 as cun: 9fessiun 38; as cum before m, p, b: a9pained 1581. $$ as e: cf. ll. 81, 86 etc. ÷ as est: cf. ll. 35, 54 etc. $$ as par: d'$$tit 93; as per: $$e 190. $$ as pro: $$$$ 1383. ħ as her: 415, ħicun 809, ħitet 410; as het: $$pħe 993, 1362, 1366. ł as lor: głie 1150, 1684; as el: angłes 1628; as ul: sepłcre 21, sepłture 1074, młt 120, 175. q; 1621 (and also in desq; 135, 1426, evesq; 1427, etc.) as que.
3 Superscript , the abbreviation most frequently employed by the scribe, which has been resolved when placed over a vowel as n: passiū 1; as m: in -um verbal terminations: uolū 37; before m, p, b: dāmage 808, chāpiun 334, sēblāt 813; with Jonā 1018, Helyā 1019, Balaā 985, 1020 (all rhyming with Adam, in full, 1017), and Jorā 1361. All occurrences of dān- and of oīpotent, neither of which is written in full in the text, have been resolved as damn-, omnipotent. When placed over a consonant has been resolved: as en: cum̄cer 50; as em before m, p, b: m̄bres 307; as un: dc̄ 488; as um: tuū 6; as e: gn̄t 75; as ue when placed over q: 18, 171, etc.; as eu: in ds̄ 1000, 1495, 1624. c, monosyllabic and in sic̄ has been rendered by cum; elsewhere by cun-: c̄ted 1258 and cum before m, p, b: c̄bate 548. ūr̄ē 398, 605 and n̄r̄ē 561, 739 have been expanded to vostre, nostre.
4 Superscript ' which has been resolved as e: d'lit 7; as ue after q: q'n 183; as n: su' 1423; as es: ev'q̄ 466, Ih'u (Jhesu) 580, 617 etc.; as er: t'e 50. It occurs also in ml't (mult) 3, 146 etc., and st' (sunt) 33, 120 etc.
5 Superscript $$ , and $$ which have been resolved as er: deliu$$er 23, rachat$$ 12; and re: ap$$s 21.

Erasure is the method of correction most commonly employed. On p. 125 col. 1 a block of nine lines has been erased and then rewritten. The script is indistinct here (ll. 1431-9) and in the section of p. 126 col. 2 (ll. 1558-65) which backs the area erased. Ne crient and Ensurquetut, the opening words of ll. 302 and 746 respectively, were written initially at the end of the preceding lines and the error was then erased. The first letters of ll. 983 and 1338 were erased and corrected, 22 [22]  See Notes ll. 983, 1338.17 possibly not by the scribe in the case of l. 1338.

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Li seint espirit, the opening phrase of l. 25, has been crossed out and L 'alme de lui added superscript in a different hand. Letters or words omitted from the writing have been added superscript in the same hand, and a comma has been placed on the line of writing to mark their rightful place in the word or sentence; 23 [23]  See Notes ll. 954, 966, 1448, 1613.60 les 84 was written as les with no comma added. Occasionally a letter has been modified after it was written. 24 [24]  See Notes ll. 109, 266, 460, 809.60 Two lines omitted in the copying have been added in the same hand above the first line of writing at the top of p. 106 and preceded by //, a renvoi which is repeated at the lines' proper location in the text. 25 [25]  See Note ll. 71-6.60

Odd letters have been scribbled in various hands above and below the text. A head has been drawn at the bottom of p. 118. Lines from the text are repeated in different hands at the top of p. 118: ki ben fu sage a uaillant (906), and at the bottom of p. 119: ore entendet la pasiun (1). The first element of ie uus eim cum ma uie de tel amur ne faudre uus mie which has been written across the top of p. 122 appears again at the top of p. 126: ie uus ie uus eim. Amen dico vobis has been written at the top of p. 123 and umil at the top of p. 126 in the same hand which wrote dominus vobiscum on p. 130 of the following section of the volume. The two sections must therefore have been collated when these words were written on them.

The first page of the first gathering (p. 105) is worn from handling and has a tear in the lower right hand corner which has been carefully sewn. The last page of the second gathering is also worn, but not to the same extent. It would seem therefore that the text at one stage circulated separately from the collection in which it is now bound, probably as the first section of some other collection of works.

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The Passiun has survived in a single MS. in which a good but by no means perfect copy of the seemingly lost original is preserved. In editing this poem I have endeavoured to print a text that is clear while at the same time representing as faithfully as possible a work that did circulate, and that was encountered by thirteenth-century listeners and readers.

The text which, in the MS., is written in continuous columns has been divided into quatrains and these have been numbered for ease of reference. The scribe's division of the work into various episodes by the use of red capital letters has been respected and indicated by the use of bold type for the letters concerned. The three paragraph signs present in the MS. have not been reproduced but are noted in the Footnotes.

Punctuation and capital letters have been introduced according to modern conventions and scribal word division has been on occasions altered. Thus, for example, al and del are printed a l' and de l' when prevocalic, sil<si le is similarly treated while sil<si if + il is printed s'il. Sin<si ne is printed si n' while sin<si en is retained as sin. Scribal sic̄ is always rendered as the one word sicum; scribal tutdis is always printed as two words: tut dis.

The usual distinctions have been established between i and j, u and v, c and ç. The acute accent has been used to distinguish final stressed from unstressed e. An unfortunate result of this practice is that the form regné appears to occur at the rhyme only, since, given the uncertainties regarding syllable count, it has not been possible to distinguish it from regne in the body of the line. The diaeresis has not been employed because of the same metrical uncertainties.

Where possible abbreviations have been resolved in accordance with the scribe's own spellings, 1 [1]  Cf. list of abbreviations and expansions pp. 15-16.61 but and sic̄ have always been

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printed as cum and sicum despite the fact that, on the four occasions the word is spelt in full, ll. 320, 483, 634, 773, the scribe wrote cume. Given the general uncertainty regarding A.N. versification and, moreover, the fact that one and possibly two (ll. 483, 773) of the four instances of cume occur in lines hypermetric by Continental standards, it seemed expedient to resolve and sic̄ by the one spelling even though in certain cases (cf. ll. 301, 305 etc.) the resulting lines have only seven syllables.

Other editorial intervention has been strictly limited. No emendations have been made on grounds of metre alone, and what changes have been made to the base text have generally been restricted to rectifying obvious cases of miscopying: omission, addition, or repetition of a word, syllable or letter etc., where imperfect transmission has compromised the sense of a word or passage. Occasionally a letter has been added to a word to aid comprehension. Letters or words printed in [ ] have been added to the original MS. reading. All other modifications are indicated in the Footnotes and, where necessary, commented on in the Notes.


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                   Ore entendez la passiun
                   De seint Edmunt, le bon barun,
                   Ki reis esteit mult poestis
               4  Tant cum vesquid en sun pais.
                   Sicum la letre le nus dit,L5 [L5la letre the Bible (cf. T.-L. 5,341) or possibly the epistle (cf. Note ll. 7-8) rather than the text, the source since there is no trace in Abbo of the sentiments expressed in ll. 7-8.66
                   E nus le truvum en escrit:
                   Ki de cest mund ad sun delit
               8  Al rei del cel ert en despit.L7 [L7] Possibly a paraphrase of 2 Peter 2.12-14 with delit 7 echoing the epistle's delicias, deliciis. Abbo has used a phrase from the same epistle when he states that God granted Balaam's ass the power of speech; cf. Abbo 12,38: ut increparet prophetae insipientiam and 2 Peter 2.16: subiugale mutum animal hominis voce loquens prohibuit prophetae insipientiam. The author of our poem who has frequently identified and expanded upon Biblical passages quoted by Abbo (cf. Introd. p. 50), may have recognised 2 Peter as the source of Abbo's comment in 12,38 and may here be paraphrasing the verses immediately preceding in Peter's epistle.66
                   Pur ço nus cuvent laborer
                   E nuit e jur nos cors pener
                   En sun servise ki nus ad cher.L11 [L11] in the service of him who . . ..66
             12  Vint par son seint cors rachaterL12 [L12] He came to redeem us . . . Nus 11, object of ad cher 11, functions also as the object of rachater 12. Cf. Note l. 1291 for a somewhat similar construction, again involving the pronoun nus.66
                   De l'enfernal dampnaciun
                   E de la grant chaitiveisun
                   U nus out trait li mal felun
             16  Par sa male sediciun.
                   Pur nos forfaiz suffrit il mort,
                   Ja seit iço que fust a tort.
                   En sa vesture fud mis sort.L19 [L19] Cf. Ps. 22.1866
             20  Quant il fud en anguise fort.
                   Aprés fud el sepulcre mis
                   Sicum charnel, ço m'est avis.
                   Pur deliverer les sons amis
             24  Ki furent en obscur liu pris
                   L'alme de lui s'en turnad,L25 [L25] Li seint espirit barred and L'alme de lui superscript in a different hand66L25 [L25] The scribe wrote li seint espirit but these words were subsequently barred and l'alme de lui was added superscript in a different hand, presumably to avoid any confusion between the intended meaning his holy spirit i.e. his soul, and the Holy Spirit, the usual significance of li seint espirit.66
                   A l'enfernal prisun alad,
                   Les serjanz Deu tost deliverad,
             28  E a repos les enveiad.

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                   Al tirz jur cum fiz Deu levad
                   E a[s] sons suvent parlad,
                   Overtement si lur mustrad
             32  Que a sun pere s'en irrat.
                   Quarante jorz quant sunt passez
                   Aprés que fud resuscitez,
                   A sun pere est repairez
             36  Dunt il devant fud enveiez [f.105b]
                   La nus enveiet si bien volum
                   Prendre verai cunfessiunL38 [L38verai qualifies cunfessiun, a substantive that is normally feminine in O.F. and at l. 1168 is preceded by sa. Verai may represent an original veire or, alternatively, veraie with unstressed -e falling at the fifth and supernumerary syllable not represented in the orthography. For other possible cases of scribal effacement of unstressed -e at the fifth syllable cf. Notes ll. 136, 398, 1271, 1275, 1666. For the author's use of lines of nine syllables with unstressed -e forming a fifth and hypermetric syllable cf. Introd. p. 49.67
                   E faire satisfactiun.
             40  Dunc averum Deu a cumpaniun,
                   Sicum ad ore li noble ber,
                   Seint Edmund de ki voil parler,
                   Ki Damnedeu aveit si cher
             44  Que unc ne li volt ublier.
                   Desqu'i[l] la mort pur lui suffritL45 [L45Desqu'i[l] la mort For clarity's sake I have reestablished the -l of the pronoun il effaced before l- here and at ll. 745, 896, 996, 1045, 1052, 1391. Cf. Introd. pp. 56-7.67
                   En tutes choses a lui obeit,
                   Qu'il ne fust a la fin trait
             48  E de sun seingnur departit.
                   De lui cuvent ici laisser
                   E de la tere cumencer
                   La quele il soleit guverner
             52  Dementers que fud vif li ber.
                   Jadis Bretainne fud numéd
                   Que ore est Engletere appelléd,
                   Que mult par esteit renuméd
             56  E plentivus, de grant bealtéd.

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                   Mais il i aveit cuarde gent
                   Ki la guardouent fieblement.
                   Pur veirs vus di, si jo ne ment:L59 [L59Pur veirs vus di I am telling you the truth. Cf. Horn II, Note l. 53 for the -s of veirs, probably the adverbial -s occasionally noted in this locution in other A.N. texts. Elsewhere in our poem the locution has the form pur veir 199, 580, 1184 and par veir 138, for which see Note.68
             60  De ço sunt mis a grant turment.
                   Chacéd en sunt ors del pais
                   Sicum povres e cum chaitifs
                   Pur ço que furent tuz supris
             64  De cels k'il tindrent pur amis.
                   Dirai vus ore apertement
                   Cument avint a cele gent.
                   Par lur folie, men escient,L67 [L67] folie mes menescient68
             68  Sunt deçouz veraiement.L65 [L65] Now I shall tell you clearly what befell these people. In my opinion they were really deceived by their own foolishness. Nabert prints: Dirai vus ore apertement, Cument avint a cele gent: Pur lur folie mes men (e)scïent Sunt deceüz veraiement, having misread MS. $$ 67 as Pur and decouz 68 as deceüz. I print these words as they are written in the MS., have placed a full stop at the end of l. 66 and at l. 67 have adopted the emendation suggested by A. Bell since, as he states (Bell 1956, p. 55): the sense is improved and the structure becomes more consonant with that of the rest of the strophe.68
                   De Germanie, un grant regnéd,
                   Trei pople se sunt asembléd.
                   A Bretainne s'e[n] sunt alédL71 [L71s'e[n] sunt aléd Reflexive s'aler go, go off is unattested, and since the conjunction si is only rarely spelt se in this text (cf. Notes ll. 193, 330, 1574), I emend here, as at ll. 669 and 1425, to s'en aler which is used frequently in the poem (cf. ll. 32, 323, 363 etc.). For other instances where the scribe has neglected to represent nasality cf. Notes ll. 592, 935, 1420, 1620.68
             72  E les Bretuns en unt aidéd [f.106a]
                   La bone tere a tenir
                   Que lur volent suvent tolir
                   La gent qui l'ourent en desir.
             76  Par ces si purrunt ben faillir.
                   Lungtens les unt bien aidéd
                   A defendre le bon regnéd
                   Cuntre als kis ourent manacéd.
             80  Icés les unt bien deliveréd.
                   Ço sunt les Seines e les Engleis,
                   E dunc Juti, n'i aveit meis,
                   Ki puis partirent la tere en treis
             84  E mistrent les Brez en grant feis.L84 [L84] and caused the Britons much distress. feis<L.fascis (REW 3214). Cf. T.-L. 3,1589.68

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                   Quant tute la tere unt apaiséd
                   E les Bretuns mult aidéd,
                   Si pernent un cunseil privéd
             88  E les Bretuns en unt chacéd.
                   Si purpristrent puis le regnéd,
                   E l'unt tenud en heritéd,
                   E nuvel nun si l'unt dunéd,
             92  Que ore Engletere est apelléd.
                   Entre als treis ja l'unt departit,
                   Si l'unt tenud e bien guarnit.
                   Chascun sa part en ad saisit,
             96  Sicum par sort de als est choisit.
                   Estengle en ourent li Seisun,L97 [L97] Abbo's account of the fifth-century Germanic invasion and settlement of Britain generally echoes the details given by Gildas, De Excidio Britanniae, and by Bede, Historia Ecclesiastica, 1,14 and 15. Bede divided the invaders into Angles, Saxons and Jutes, told of the division of the territory among the three tribes and established a set of relationships between the invaders and the English peoples of his day. In his account it was the Angles who settled East Anglia. Abbo however, probably following Gildas, states (Abbo 1,13-18) that it was the Saxons who settled East Anglia and his in all probability erroneous statement is repeated by the O.F. author.69
                   Tut l'altre lur dui cumpainun,
                   Que n'aveit entre als nule tençun
           100  De tute lur devisiun.
                   Li Senes furent nette gent,
                   Si se cuntindrent sagement,
                   Si sunt remis en orient.
           104  Cunseilt lur Deus omnipotent!L104 [L104lur where les would be expected. Cf. Introd. p. 36.69
                   La tere u sunt enz remis
                   Encost de mer grant est asisL106 [L106Encost Cf. T.-L. 3,257 encoste seitwärts. I have found no other instance of this adverb spelt, as here, without final e.69
                   E de mareis alsi purpris. [f.106b]
           108  Par grant veisdie l'unt cunquis.
                   Ewes fresches sunt envirunL109 [L109Ewes fresches ?Marshy waters, ?Fresh waters. The adjective which occurs with similar meaning at ll. 126 (qualifying ewe) and 139 (qualifying mareis), is attested in O.F. with the meanings humid, moist, damp (cf. T.-L. 3,2287) and unsalted (cf. T.-L. 3,2285). Several derivatives have survived in dialects with meanings linked with the concept of marsh, marshy: cf. Neufch. frechai marais, nam. frèchau endroit humide, gâchis, March.E. prairie marécageuse, Mons fraichau petit marécage cited in FEW 3,810a. Fresches may have the sense of boggy, marshy here and at ll. 126, 139 though, since in all three cases the waters of the marshes are being contrasted with those of the sea, the significance fresh may have been intended and the use of this adjective rather than regular O.F. douces may possibly be an Anglicism. The scribe initially wrote frecches and then changed the first c to an s.69
                   A grant plentéd, sicum lisum,
                   U cil pernent le bon peissun,
           112  Si unt tut dis a grant fuisun.
                   E li monie de la cuntree
                   Unt grant plentéd a lur semblee,L114 [L114semblee community, assembly. This meaning is not attested in O.F. where semblee (cf. T.-L. 9,397), assemblee (cf. T.-L. 1,573) and the one instance of semblé sm. (cf. Gdf. 7,370a) had the significance coming together, assembling etc. The word seems to echo Abbo 2,17 pluribus monachorum gregibus and 2,19-20 sancti monachorum patris Benedicti caelibes coenobitae.69
                   Sicum Deus lur ad destinee
           116  Pur ço que lui servent a gré.L113 [L113] The rhyme cuntree : semblee : destinee : gré is imperfect by Continental standards. Even though the -ee of destinee is very probably scribal for final [e] (cf. destiné 1000 in the same context and Pope § 1235 for this A.N. spelling which occurs also with laissee 761, penee 817, preee 818) and that of semblee (for which see Note l. 114) might possibly similarly represent final [e], the rhyme between cuntree and gré stands and illustrates the effacement of final [ə] in hiatus as noted in A.N. texts from the later twelfth century (cf. Pope § 1133). Nabert prints this quatrain (29) in brackets, commenting: Diese Strophe ist wahrscheinlich vom Kopisten hinzugefügt. Sie unterbricht den Zusammenhang. I suspect rather that it has been misplaced (cf. Note ll. 1229-32 for the possible transposition of 308). As it now stands it does interrupt the description of East Anglia in which the poet methodically lists, in a different order from that in Abbo 2, the natural resources of the region (27: East Anglia is ringed by sea and marsh; 28: the riches of the marsh; 30: the riches of the sea; 31: the riches of the land; 32 East Anglia is clearly a land of the blessed) before proceeding to describe its topography and defences (33: a road traverses the country; 34-35: the marsh extends right to the sea; 36: to the west is a plain and a defensive dyke). 29 which echoes the concluding section of Abbo's description of the region (Abbo 2,16-20: Quae paludes prebent pluribus monachorum gregibus optatos solitariae conuersationis sinus, quibus inclusi non indigeant solitudine heremi; ex quibus sunt sancti monachorum patris Benedicti caelibes coenobitae in loco celebri hac tempestate) may well originally have followed the present 32 and closed the description of the riches, past and present, of the area.69

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                   E de la mer unt ensement
                   Que als est tut dis en present.L118 [L118als Cf. Introd. p. 36.70
                   Quel que il flod munt u decent,L119 [L119Quel que . . . u whether . . . or. Munt, subj.pr.3 as it stands, is coordinated with decent ind.pr.3 and very probably represents munte ind.pr.3 with suppression in the orthography of final unstressed postconsonantal e when prevocalic in the phrase. Cf. Introd. p. 56 for other instances of this suppression which is not infrequent in A.N. texts. While the converse could be argued, namely that munt is in fact subj.pr.3 and that it is decent that is subj.pr.3, having lost final unstressed postconsonantal e at the rhyme (cf. for this Note l. 184), there is a further instance in the poem of quel que . . . u, quel que morc u sui vivant 525, again with verbs in the indicative.70
           120  Cil sunt guarniz mult richement.
                   En ceste tere ad grant fuisun
                   De gentilz fruiz, de veneison;
                   Sicum mustréd devant l'avum
           124  Sin ad plentéd de bon peissun.
                   De tutes parz est aturnéd
                   De ewe fresche, de mer, de pred,
                   Que n'i pot nul estre dampnéd
           128  Ki alkes i ait cunverséd.
                   De la mer vient un grant chemin;
                   Parmi la tere vad tut enclin,L130 [L130enclin ?at an angle, ?raised at an angle referring either to the course of the road or, possibly, to the fact that it was raised above ground level (cf. Note ll. 129-132). Neither T.-L. 3,209, FEW 4,626b ff. nor Gdf. 3,105c and 9,452c help with the word's possible significance here.70
                   Sicum ço fust un mur terrin.
           132  Ceo sevent cil ki sunt veisin.L129 [L129] No such road is mentioned in Abbo or in any of the other various accounts of Edmund's martyrdom. Its inclusion here in the description of East Anglia is probably to be attributed to the author who would seem to have been familiar with the region. The details he gives, however, are not sufficient to permit any positive identification. If la mer 129 refers to the Wash then the road may be either the prehistoric Icknield Way or the Roman Peddar's Way which ran parallel to and to the east of Icknield Way and is one of the few Roman roads in East Anglia to show signs of solid, traditional construction. Remains of a distinct agger one to two feet wide (cf. sicum ço fust un mur terrin 131) are still visible along its course. Cf. for this and the East Anglian network of roads I. D. Margary, Roman Roads in Britain, rev. ed. (London, 1967), pp. 243-77.70
                   Devers norht veient vers le suht
                   La tere emceint de grant palut.
                   Desque en la mer est reçuht
           136  Plus de cent liu[e]s e embout.
                   Enmi la tere as Engleis
                   Par veir cumencet cest mareis.L138 [L138Par veir The locution is more usually pur veir as at ll. 199, 580, 1184. Par may be an error for pur (cf. l. 1625 for another instance of possible confusion between par and pur), but par veir is attested elsewhere. Cf. Horn II, Note l. 522. Similar alternation occurs in the locution par verité 902, 1121 and pur verité 730.70
                   Ja seit iço que tut seit freis,
           140  Entret en mer cum dis ainceis.L139 [L139] Despite the fact that it is wholly fresh (water) it flows into the sea, as I said previously. Cf. Note l. 109 and Bell 1956, p. 56.70 [f.107a]
                   Devers le west e[st] tere pleine,L141 [L141e[st] MS. é. Cf. Pope § 1222 for this A.N. spelling which occurs also at ll. 313, 1259.70
                   Si est murét pur estre seine
                   D'ices ki sur i metent cleime,L143 [L143] from those who lay claim to it. For metre cleime cf. cels ke mettent claim en la regioun in the Chronicle of Peter of Langtoft (Rolls Series, 1866), ii 190. Sur may be adverbial or possibly in error for sus.70
           144  Que puisset estre ben certeine.
                   N'est altre mur fors un fossét,L145 [L145un fossét Cf. Abbo 2,8-10: sed ne crebra irruptione hostium incursetur aggere ad instar altioris muri fossa humo praemunitur. Abbo was referring to the great defensive earthworks constructed in the west of the East Anglian territory, for which cf. C. F. Fox, The Archaeology of the Cambridge Region (Cambridge, 1923), pp. 121-34. He may have been referring specifically to the Devil's Dyke, the largest of three dykes which formed a defensive system that ran north-west to south-east and effectively controlled passage along Icknield Way. This dyke which extends for 7½ miles between the edge of the fen at Reach and the clay country west of Wood Ditton follows the line of the pre-Roman boundary between the Iceni and the Catuvellauni and its course marked the western limits of the kingdom of East Anglia. The details given in the poem (ll. 146, 150) as to the dyke's dimensions and length have not come from Abbo but are probably purely conventional. The references to the dyke's antiquity (l. 147), however, and to the fact that it terminated in marsh (l. 148) may stem from the poet's personal knowledge or experience. Cf. also Note ll. 129-32.70
                   Sin est mult grant e lung e let
                   E fud fait en antiquitét.
           148  A cest paluz est arestét.L148 [L148] A sset or Asset paluz70L148 [L148] It stopped at this marsh. MS. Asset (or A sset) paluz. Nabert prints as set paluz at the seven marshes. There is, however, no previous mention of seven marshes in the poem, nor can I find evidence of a locality of that name associated with the East Anglian earthworks. Since, on the other hand, the poet has previously mentioned palut 134 and mareis 107, 138 and has referred back explicitly to earlier statements or terms: sicum mustréd devant l'avum 123, cum dis ainceis 140, cest mareis 138, it seems likely that he is here referring back to palut 134 and I have accordingly emended the MS. reading to a cest. I have retained the -z of paluz as a possible A.N. graphy for E.O.F. [θ]<L.intervocalic d (or t) become final, although -z may simply reflect scribal uncertainty between t and -z, for which cf. Introd. pp. 55-6.70

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                   Tut dreit a la grant mer decent,
                   Si duret plus que liues cent.
                   Cil Deu ki maint en orient
           152  Par icest mur les Engleis defent.
                   Or vus ai cuntét del pais,
                   Cum est gentil e de quel pris.
                   Estengle ad nun, sicum vus dis.
           156  Seint Edmund i fud reis jadis,
                   Si fud de Seines anciensL157 [L157Seines anciens Cf. Abbo 3,3-4: ex antiquorum Saxonum nobili prosapia oriundus. These lines were sometimes taken as indicating that Edmund was of Continental German ancestry (cf. Whitelock 1969, p. 225), the Continental Saxons having been on occasions termed the Old Saxons to distinguish them from the Anglo-Saxons. However, since Abbo attributes the settlement of East Anglia to the Saxons, it seems probable that his statement indicates simply that Edmund was descended from the old East Anglian royal line, i.e. from the original fifth-century Germanic settlers.71
                   Net, si fud mult bon cristiens.L158 [L158bon qualifying cristiens (: quens) m.n.sg. is probably scribal for bons with loss in the orthography of final supported s (cf. Introd. p. 57).71
                   Ne quist estre reis ne quens.
           160  En sa vie mult fist grant biens.L160 [L160grant qualifies biens (:quens) acc.pl. The -t of grant may reflect scribal confusion of -t and -z, for which cf. Introd. pp. 55-6.71
                   D'enfance prist Deu a servir
                   E a ses cumanz a obeir.
                   Tant ad le salvur en desir
           164  Que pur lui ne dute murir.
                   Quant il parvint a tel edéd
                   Que il porreit tenir regnéd,
                   Si l'unt li pople cunseiléd
           168  Que rei de lui ferunt corunéd.
                   Nent pur ço que fud net de reis,
                   Mais tant li truvent pur curteis
                   Que ja ne querunt altre meis.
           172  Des ore en avant tendrunt ses leis.
                   Il n'ad pas membre que seit vil,
                   Mes le cors ad bel e barnil,
                   Si ad la face mult gentil.
           176  A grant honur se cuntent il.

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                   Le vis ad cler e alkes ruvent:
                   Ceo signefiet martiriement.L178 [L178martiriement formed on learned martirie (for which cf. Note l. 1136) is extremely rare: only one occurrence is noted by Gdf. 5,189c (in Helias) and T.-L. 5,1216 cites Gdf. The more usual form is martirement which occurs at l. 652.72
                   Ki que muntet, ki que decent,
           180  Tut dis si vat cist umblement.
                   Quanque il dit en jugement
                   Demandet il sa sage gent
                   Qu'en sa lei n'ait fausement,
           184  Ne nule ren dunt se repent.L184 [L184repent (:jugement etc.) is, as it stands, ind.pr.3 where the subj.pr.3 repente would be expected in a relative clause qualifying a negative antecedent. The occurrence here of repent may simply reflect the hesitation in use of mood as has been noted elsewhere in the text (cf. Introd. p. 41). Alternatively repent may be an analogical form based on the subj.pr.3 of the first conjugation (cf. Pope § 1298 for such forms in A.N.) or may result from effacement of postconsonantal unstressed -e as noted in A.N. texts from the thirteenth century (cf. Pope § 1293). Whatever the interpretation, it is certain that the verb's position at the rhyme has determined its form (cf. Notes ll. 119, 326, 405). The verb has been glossed as subj.pr.3, the mood normally employed in such clauses.72
                   Ne volt pas estre desçout
                   De lui ki maint ad cunfundut,
           188  Ne al derein en fin perdut.
                   As vedves e as orphanins
                   Fud il pere, e as povrins.
                   De tut en tut fud il enclins
           192  A ces que furent miserins,
                   Les dolerus se cunfortout,L193 [L193se one of the rare instances of this spelling for the conjunction si. Nabert comments: Hs. se and prints il.72
                   Seinte iglise mult honurout,
                   Trecherie pas n'amout,
           196  Ne nul ki veritét celout.
                   Li deables ki est envius
                   Envers trestuz religius –
                   Pur veir vus di tut a estrus –
           200  Muveit nus plait mult dolerus.L200 [L200nus Nabert notes: Hs. vus, wohl veranlasst durch vus der vorhergehenden Zeile and prints li. I cannot determine here whether the MS. reads vus or nus, but print the latter which I take as referring to the poet and his fellow Christian readers/listeners and, possibly, other devotees of St. Edmund.72
                   Un de sons mist en curage
                   Qu'il pensa mult grant ultrage.
                   Ço li turnat puis a damage.
           204  N'est merveil quant fist folage.

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                   Il fut paen, sicum lisum;
                   Alsi furent si cumpainun.
                   As cristiens fud felun;
           208  De ço fist il que mal bricun.
                   Icist Inguar est apellét
                   E fud de grant iniquitét.
                   N'estot chaleir s'il est damnét,
           212  Kar ne volt Deu servir a gret.
                   Ubbe out nun sun cumpainun – [f.108a]
                   Que Deu mete a perdiciun –
                   Par ki fud fait l'ocisiun
           216  De seint Osuald, le bon barun.L215 [L215] In attributing the death of St. Oswald to Hubba the A.N. author has confused two Northumbrian kings whose reigns were separated by more than 200 years: St. Oswald (c. 605-642), king and martyr, who was slain by Penda, the pagan king of Mercia, and Osbricht, the deposed king, whose death at York along with that of Aella his successor at the hands of the same Danish forces that were to kill Edmund three years later is recorded in the ASC for the year 867. Bell comments with regard to this confusion (Bell 1956, p. 54): It looks as if the A.N. writer had been influenced by the popular conceptions of English history found in the Bruts, where, both in the A.N. and in the English versions, the story jumps from the reigns of Oswald and Oswy, derived through Wace from the Historia of Geoffrey of Monmouth, by way of a shadowy king Offa, to the invasion by the Danes, instigated by Buern Bucecarle, which culminated in the downfall of Northumbria and the martyrdom of Edmund of East Anglia. Abbo mentions neither king and cannot be the source of this brief remark which would seem to reflect the author's acquaintance with other sources, possibly popular and vernacular.73
                   Icist fud reis as Northembreis
                   Sicum Edmund as Engleis.
                   Ne lur grevout pas en ses leis;
           220  De ço fist il mult que curteis.
                   Quant unt la tere tut envirun
                   Tute mis a destructiun,
                   Od sigle e od avirun
           224  S'en vunt e tuit lur cumpainun,
                   Il sunt de Scithe, un regnéL225 [L225Scithe Cf. Abbo 5,17-19: Talesque nationes abundant plurimae infra Scithiam prope Hyperboreos montes. J. S. P. Tatlock, The Legendary History of Britain (Berkeley, 1950), p. 109, writes: Scythia in most writers is an evasive name. To the ancients it meant first the general region of south Russia, then it extended northwards, even to include vaguely north and central Asia. These with equal vagueness were the commonest Medieval meanings. Some of Scythia is in Europe, some in Asia and far in the North. This is why it occasionally appears as somehow associated with Scandinavia. The Dani and Sueones, the Nordmanni and other Scithiae populi are said to have been called Yperborei by the Romans. Abbo further specified (5,23-6) that Inguar and Hubba were Danes but the A.N. author mentions only that they came from Scithe and, later (ll. 238-9), that they were from the North.73
                   Ki mult est large e lung e led,
                   Si l'ad Deus tut mis en devéd
           228  E de sa buche escumengéd,
                   Kar tut i ad averse gent.
                   N'eiment Deu ne lur parent;
                   Humeine char usent suvent;L231 [L231] They frequently eat human flesh. Cf. Abbo 5,16: quidam ex eis populi uescuntur humanis carnibus. For user eat, consume, initially with reference to Holy Communion as in user le cors Dieu, cf. Gdf. 8,121c.73
           232  Pur ço nes aime Deu de nient.
                   Mes Antecrist ensiuverunt,
                   Devant tuz altres perirunt
                   E senz fin od lui maindrunt.
           236  De Deu nul merci n'averunt.L236 [L236] deu pas nul m.73L236 [L236] MS. De deu pas nul merci n'averunt. I have suppressed pas as probably scribal.73

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                   El livere truvum de sermunL237 [L237livere de sermun ?book of prophecies. Cf. Abbo 5,10-11: Denique constat iuxta prophetae uaticinium quod ab aquilone uenit omne malum, referring to Jeremiah 1.14 and 6.1.74
                   Que trestut mal vient d'aquilunL238 [L238] mal iuent74
                   Dunt sunt venud cist dui felun
           240  Les quels devant numéd avum.
                   Il meneient par nef plus de milL241 [L241] Nabert emends to (Il) meneient . . . . An alternative and, to my mind, preferable emendation is that suggested by Bell (Bell 1956, p. 56), namely the retention of Il and the suppression of par. Nef[s] (MS. nef with effacement in the orthography of final supported s for which cf. Introd. p. 57) would then become the object of meneient and ll. 241-2 would read: They brought more than a thousand ships and a great and valiant force. The structure of l. 241 would then parallel that of l. 394 where Inguar mentions the same fleet:
                   puis li diez . . .
                   que nefs ai mené plus de cent
393-394. The difference in the numbers of the ships can undoubtedly be attributed to the exigencies of the rhyme and does not weaken the point being stressed: that the fleet was a large and impressive one. Bell (loc. cit.) cites other references to the intimidating size of the Great Fleet: the ASC's mycel here, Abbo 5,32 cum magna classe, Gaimar Estoire 2565-6
                   vint la grant flote
                   tel ne vit hom qui vestit cote
, Denis Piramus 2033 mil niefs en une compainie.74

                   E mult grant host e bien barnil
                   Que ne seient tenuz pur vil,
           244  Ne mis en nul liu en peril.
                   Quant unt les Noreis tuz occisL245 [L245les Noreis the Northumbrians. Cf. T.-L. 6,804 for this substantive which usually denotes men from the North, Norwegians. Its use here has probably been dictated by metrical considerations. Regular Northembreis occurs at l. 217.74
                   E tute la tere prof malmis,
                   Deguerpir volent cest pais [f.108b]
           248  Que mult par esteit bel jadis.
                   Entrent en mer, siglent a fort
                   D'ici que sunt venuz a port.
                   En Estengle ço fut par sort.
           252  De als reçut meint puis la mort.
                   Quant il sunt tuz arivéd,
                   Entréd se sunt en une citéd.L254 [L254] Possibly Thetford. The ASC states that the Danes took up winter quarters there after their arrival in East Anglia. Cf. Introd. p. 3 and Whitelock 1969, p. 221.74
                   Occis i unt quant que unt truvédL255 [L255quant que everyone that. For other examples of the occasional use of this pronoun with animate reference cf. T.-L. 2,31.74
           256  Que out receud cristientéd.
                   Li barun moert e sa muiller,L257 [L257barun husband. Cf. T.-L. 1,848 and Abbo 5,36-7: Maritus cum coniuge aut mortuus aut moribundus iacebat in limine.74
                   Li velz, si fait li bacheler.
                   De als ne pot nul escaper,
           260  Ne pucele, n'emfant leger,
                   Ne nis ki sunt petit emfant,
                   Ki sunt de lur mere laitant.
                   Ne lur pot estre nul guarant
           264  K'il ne morent de lur brant.

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                   Quant un dest[r]uite la citéd
                   E tute la gent martirizédL266 [L266martirizéd The -z- of this pp. seems initially to have been written as a -t- and then modified to a -z-. Cf. Note l. 460 for a similar instance of modification of t>z and Introd. pp. 55-6 for scribal uncertainty in the use of these two letters.75
                   Que n'i fud nul vif eschapéd,
           268  Uncore Inguar est mult iréd.
                   Aprés iço vunt il avant
                   La gent del pais destruiant.
                   N'encuntrent nul ki seit vaillant
           272  Ki pot de mort aver guarant.
                   Encuntre als vienent povre gent.
                   Inguar saluent haltement,
                   Sun host ensiuvant lentement,
           276  Si funt il quant qu'a lui apent.
                   Icels ne volt il encumbrer,
                   Ne pur viltéd les desturber,
                   Ainz les ad fait quite clamerL279 [L279] then he granted them their lives seems to be the sense required here but the locution faire quite clamer qc. is not, as far as I can determine, attested elsewhere and may be a periphrasis for regular quite clamer qc. (a qn.) for which cf. T.-L. 8,110ff. Cf. also Introd. p. 40. For les where lur would be expected cf. Introd. p. 36.75
           280  Lur vies qu'il aveient cher.
                   E puis lur prent a raisuner, [f.109a]
                   De lur seingnur a demander
                   U sout od sons plus cunverser
           284  E en quel liu le pot truver.
                   Il responent dutusement,
                   Si li dient avenantment
                   Que ne sevent, a lur scient,
           288  U le pot truver veraiement.
                   Entendent tut a lur espeir
                   Qu'il seit a sun real maneir
                   U il soleit suvent aler
           292  E son cors iloc reposer.
                   La vile est loinz de la citéd
                   E Englesdun est apelléd,L294 [L294Englesdun spelt Henglesdune 872, 918. Cf. Abbo 6,12 Haegilisdun and 11,16 Haeglesdun. The n in the first syllable of the A.N. versions of the name may reflect influence of the initial syllable of Engleis, Engleterre. Abbo's Haegilisdun is clearly phonetically linked with Hellesdon located on the western outskirts of Norwich (cf. E. Ekwall, The Concise Dictionary of English Place Names, 4th ed. (Oxford, 1960), p. 232). Hellesdon, however, has never been linked with the martyrdom of St. Edmund and the actual location of the royal retreat, the nearby wood into which the king's head was thrown and presumably the place of Edmund's martyrdom and first burial has been the subject of much controversy. For this and the other identifications proposed, all based on traditions later than Abbo, see Whitelock 1969, pp. 220, 222, 223.75
                   Sicum le bois ki est delédL295 [L295deléd This adverb, from L. de latus, is normally spelt delez in O.F. but ends in -é(d) in its three occurrences in this text (cf. also ll. 871, 917), a spelling that has been noted occasionally in other texts (cf. Kjellman 1935, p. lxxxv, Södergård 1948, p. 85 and Horn II, p. 71 where the form without -z is attributed to the influence of the adjective led<latum).75
           296  El quel li reis fud puis penéd.

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                   A tant est al tiran accuntéd
                   Que li reis est de grant bealtéd.
                   Le vis ad cler, le cors delgéd;
           300  Ensurquetut ad grant fiertéd
                   E est cruel cum leon.
                   Ne crient batalie de felun.
                   Tut dis est prez cum esperon
           304  A cumbatre, ço lui dit l'um.L303 [L303] He (Edmund) is always as keen as a spur to do battle, so he (Inguar) is told. Cf. Abbo, 6,5-8: Nam ad eum fama peruenerat quod idem rex gloriosus, uidelicet Eadmundus, florenti aetate et robustis uiribus bello per omnia esset strenuus (my italics). I have resolved MS. c̄es$$on as cum esperon, but the comparison with a spur is puzzling. I can find no other examples of esperon in comparisons of this nature although the OED quotes: 1484 Caxton Chivalry 62: The spores ben gyuen to a knyght to sygnefye dylygence and swyftnesse and notes that the word spur occurs in various prepositional or elliptical phrases denoting speed, hastiness, eagerness etc. Bell suggests (Bell 1956, p. 57) that we read MS. es$$on as espreon and regard this as a form of the more frequent esprohon starling, but somehow the likening of the king, ready and willing to do battle, to a quarrelsome rather than belligerent bird seems a little incongruous (the examples cited by Bell linking the starling and the world of courtesy notwithstanding). If esperon is not to be interpreted as spur then it could possibly be considered an alteration of espervier sparrow-hawk < Goth. *sparwareis (REW 8126) with change of suffix to suit the rhyme. Cf. dublein 700, and possibly ravin 350, faire trespas 644, turner a jugleis 1368 also probably formed for the purposes of the rhyme. prez here and prest 651 are both followed by a plus infinitive where in normal O.F. usage the infinitive would be introduced by de: cf. T.-L. 7,1815.76
                   Le son cors est sicum flurL305 [L305sicum flur is probably inspired by Abbo 6,7 florenti aetate cited Note ll. 303-4.76
                   Ki creist en l'arbre tut entur.
                   Si sunt ses membres de valurL307 [L307valur strength, power. Cf. Abbo 6,7 robustis uiribus cited Note ll. 303-4. Valur generally had the significance merit, worth in O.F. However, in Medieval Latin, valor can also have the meaning of valetudo, viz. health, strength (cf. Horn II, Note l. 3502) and it is with similar significance that it is used here and again at l. 378.76
           308  Qu'il n'ad de nul mortel pour.
                   Quant aveit çolui fait oid,L309 [L309çolui The MS. clearly reads colui whose orthography probably reflects the influence of ço. Regular celui occurs twice: ll. 1051, 1685, as a pronoun in each case.76
                   Mult duremen[t] esteit marid,L310 [L310] duremen followed by an erasure76L310 [L310] MS. duremē is followed by an erasure. For loss of final supported t cf. Introd. p. 57.76
                   E nequedent un poi suffridL311 [L311suffrid paused, waited. Cf. T.-L. 9,741 for this significance.76
           312  E nule ren les respondit.L312 [L312] and made them no reply. Respondre governs two direct objects here, one animate and one inanimate, where normal usage is for the animate object to be indirect. For the occasional confusion of direct and indirect pronoun objects in this text cf. Introd. p. 36. Alternatively nule ren might possibly represent original de riens (cf. Durm.2 749 Ne de riens ne le respondi cited in T.-L. 8,1069).76
                   Il n'e[st] guaires demurantL313 [L313n'e[st] MS. ne. Cf. Introd. p. 58.76
                   Que a ses humes ne cumant
                   Qu'il algent la gent destr[u]iant,L315 [L315destr[u]iant While it is possible that the MS. orthography represents the W. and A.N. reduction of O.F. [yi] >[i] (cf. Introd. p. 21), the diphthong is spelt ui in the two other occurrences of destruire in the text, the similar la gent del pais destruiant 270 and dest[r]uite 265; I have emended accordingly.76 [f.109b]
           316  Que aprés als nul seit vivant;
                   Que li reis issi seit supris
                   Qu'il n'ait nul ki li seit amis
                   Dunt pusset a ses enemisL319 [L319] Dunc76L319 [L319Dunt with whom . . . MS. dunc. These two words were not infrequently confused in O.F. and I emend here for clarity's sake.76
           320  Cumbatre cume poestis,
                   Mais tut parfacent sun talent;
                   Nul ne sei[t] fait demurement;L322 [L322] let there be no delay. The locution faire demurement occurs elsewhere: cf. Horn 1047 Herland li seneschal n'i fait demurement (cf. also similar faire demurer at Passiun 946), but reflexive se faire demurement is unattested. Since, moreover, this is the last of a series of commands (ll. 315ff.), all of which are conveyed by verbs in the subjunctive, I have emended MS. sei to sei[t]. For the effacement of O.F. final unsupported t cf. Introd. p. 57.76
                   Puis s'en irunt cummunement.
           324  Ne lur en chalt ki s'en repent.

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                   Ne s'en retraient li serjant
                   De faire ço que lur cumant.L326 [L326cumant (: grant etc.) is, as it stands, subj.pr.3 where cumande ind.pr.3 would be expected. For other instances of effacement of postconsonantal unstressed -e in verbs occurring at the rhyme cf. Note l. 184. Cumant has been glossed as ind.pr.3.77
                   De jur en jur sunt malfeisant,
           328  Ne n'unt pour de Deu le grant.
                   Le pis que funt li turmentur,
                   Le plus se plaist a lur seignur.
                   Unkes devant ne fud tristur
           332  En Estengle, n'itel dolur.
                   Icist de Deu est escumengéd
                   Ki champiun fud al malféd.
                   Ne voleit estre reprovéd
           336  Que fust cuard ne dechacéd.
                   Pur ço de nuit celeementL337 [L337] Pro co77L337 [L337Pur MS. $$.77
                   Sun host muveit od mil e cent.
                   Si soleit faire mult suvent,
           340  E par nul altre hardiement.
                   Ses nefs fait forment aguaiter
                   Que n'i avenged desturber
                   Dunt puissent aver encumbrer
           344  Qu'aprés ne purrunt eschaper.
                   Unkes nen osad envair
                   Ses enemis ne survenir,
                   S'il ne poust ben de als fuir,
           348  U faire les de mort murir.
                   Mais cum li lup en larecin [f.110a]
                   De nuit solt faire sun ravin,L350 [L350sun ravin (: larecin etc.) is sm. as it stands yet only ravine sf.<L. rapina (REW 7055a) is attested (cf. T.-L. 8,346, Gdf. 6,628a). The use here of the form without unstressed -e has probably been determined by the word's position at the rhyme (cf. Note l.184 for occasional effacement of unstressed postconsonantal -e in verbs at the rhyme and Pope § 1135 for its effacement here), while its gender may echo that of the Latin: cf. Abbo 6,20 cum . . . studeat rapto uiuere.77
                   E son repair fait par matin
           352  Que il ne seit pris par engin,

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                   Si fist tut tens icest traitur:
                   Veilliout la nuit, dormid le jur.
                   Quant fait aveit tut sun estur,
           356  Mist les Engleis en grant dolur.
                   Or fait des sons un demander
                   Ki fust ben hardi chivaler,
                   Qu'il vienge tost a lui parler.
           360  De lui volt faire messager.
                   Puis lui mustrat par sermun
                   Ço que pensa li mal felun:
                   'Tu t'en iras, nus t'atendrum.
           364  Quant tu vendras, nus en irum.
                   Al rei ki maint en cest pais
                   Direz li tut le men avis:L363 [L363] Off you go! We will wait here for you. When you come back we will move off. Tell the king who dwells in this country. . . The punctuation raised certain difficulties which have not been fully resolved. As the lines are printed al rei 365, the indirect object of direz 366, is echoed by pleonastic li 366, but the balanced structure of ll. 363-4 is preserved and the messenger is told to whom he is to deliver his message. If the full stop were suppressed after irum 364 and placed instead after pais 365 the two lines would run when you return we will go off to the king. . ., but this creates awkward switches of subject and the messenger is not told where or to whom he is to go. Alternatively
                   nus t'atendrum
                   quant tu vendras nus en irum
363-4 could be treated as an aside interpolated in the command, but this involves breaking the balance and symmetry of ll. 363-4 and would result in an awkward construction.78

                   Reis sui fort e poestis,
           368  Si n'a mun per nul ki seit vis.L368 [L368] Perhaps There is not (as) my equal any man alive; but n'a may be an error for n'est.78
                   Inguar par nun sui apelléd,
                   Si sui de grant poestéd.
                   N'a en cest siecle tant dutéL371 [L371] ceste78L371 [L371] MS. ceste siecle While there was uncertainty in O.F. and in A.N. regarding the gender of certain substantives (cf. Introd. p. 23), siecle, which is quite regularly masculine elsewhere in the text (cf. cest secle 1614, 1619), is not a substantive whose gender tended to fluctuate. If the final e of ceste is scribal the line is octosyllabic.78
           372  Cum jo sui e tut mun barné.
                   La tere m'est obeisant;
                   Alsi la mer ki mult est grant.
                   Li vent n'est pas sei retraantL375 [L375] For abnormal position of sei cf. Introd. p. 37.78
           376  De faire tut mun avenant.
                   N'a si fort empereur,
                   S'il ad sentu de ma valur,
                   De mei tut dis avera pour,
           380  Si servira cum a seingneur.

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                   Soleil e la clarté del cel,
                   Les elemenz tut altretel
                   A mei cunsentent en oel,L383 [L383] accept me as their equal? T.-L. 2,733 lists se consentir a (+ inanimate object in all the examples cited) zustimmen, einwilligen and consentir (+ animate object) jem. zulassen, dulden, but not consentir a (+ animate object) as here.79
           384  Ja seit iço que sui charnel. [f.110b]
                   Pluie, tuneire, tempestéd
                   A mun voil sunt atempréd.
                   Ne funt cuntre ma voluntéd
           388  Rien dunt deient estre blasméd.
                   Jo sui ça venu yvernalL389 [L389yvernal for the winter, to set up winter quarters rendering Abbo 7,10 hiematurus (cf. Note l. 398). T.-L. 4,1506 cites one instance of this rare adjective with the similar significance in Winterquartieren liegend: GGui. I 1298 En leur navie se rembatent Pelerins, qui armes i portent Et de ce petit se deportent Qu'il ont taut esté yvernaus.79
                   E ai fait a plusurs grant mal.
                   Ici prendrai mun estal
           392  De ci que tens seit estival.
                   Puis li diez mult baldementL393 [L393diez subj.pr.5 of dire used with imperative force; so also at l. 671.79
                   Que nefs ai mené plus de cent.L394 [L394] Cf. Note l. 241.79
                   Arivé sui en orient
           396  Pur sujurner ben lungement.
                   Aprés li dites par amur:
                   Inguar li mand, vostre seingnur,L398 [L398] I, Inguar your lord, bid him. . . I take mand as ind.pr.1 expressing the first of a series of commands in which Inguar refers to himself in the first person. Alternatively, mand could be taken as ind.pr.3, with loss in the orthography of final unstressed e falling at the fifth syllable (cf. Introd. p. 49) but this would lead to an awkward shift of person in the next line where Inguar refers to himself as mei 399 and in the following lines. The A.N. author has clearly experienced difficulty in rendering Abbo 7,8-22 where Inguar dictates his message to the envoy in the words the envoy will use: Terra marique metuendus dominus noster Hinguar, rex inuictissimus . . . ad huius prouinciae optatum litus cum multis nauibus hiematurus appulit; atque iccirco mandat ut cum eo . . .79
                   Qu'a mei seit aclin nuit e jur.
           400  Dunc ne li estot aver pour
                   De nul ki seit el mund vivant,
                   Ne seit si fort ne si vaillant,
                   S'il seit a mei obeisant,
           404  Que jo ne li seie guarant.L400 [L400] Then he need never fear anyone alive in the world, however powerful or valiant he might be, if he is obedient to me, without my acting as his protector. For ne seit 402 see Introd. p. 42.79
                   Puis a mei sun tresor departL405 [L405depart let him divide is ind.pr.3 as it stands and guaranteed by the rhyme (: art etc.), yet is one of a series of commands, all expressed quite regularly in the subjunctive: seit 399, 407, tienge 410, face 421, requerie 422. Cf. Note l. 184 for other occasional instances of suppression of unstressed -e in verbs occurring at the rhyme. I have glossed depart as subj.pr.3.79
                   Que ses ancestres ourent tart.L406 [L406tart Nabert prints cart, commenting: cart ist unklar. Hs. cart oder tart. The ductus of the first letter of the word is the same as that of the initial t of tut 409 and supports the reading tart which I take as an adverb rendering Abbo's antiquos and paternas (cf. Abbo 7,11-12: atque iccirco mandat ut cum eo antiquos thesauros et paternas diuitias sub eo regnaturus diuidas) with the probable significance in the past, in earlier times, a meaning not attested elsewhere. Bell comments in similar vein (cf. Bell 1956, pp. 57-8), citing in support of tart adv. of late Gaimar, Estoire 5390-1 Les heritez bien lur rendra Ke li ancestre ourent devant.79
                   Que ne seit pris par nul art,
           408  Se ço cuvent k'il se guart.
                   Aprés iço tut sun regnét
                   De mei tienge en heritét,
                   Si me serve cum avuét;
           412  En tuz lius sera dutét.L412 [L412] tuz luis79

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                   E lui pramet uncore duner
                   Ço qu'a tenu meint jur li ber;
                   Ço fud le regne qu'aveit tant cher.
           416  De rien ne lui voil amender.L413 [L413] A difficult quatrain which seems to convey Inguar's promise to leave Edmund as the ruler of his beloved East Anglia, but as a sub-ruler owing allegiance to him, Inguar, as already expressed in the preceding quatrain. I take pramet 413 as ind.pr.1 I promise, and l. 416 as in no way will I better it, i.e. these terms are final and non-negotiable. For amender qc. verbessern, nachhelfen cf. T.-L. 1,335.80
                   S'il ne me seit obeisant
                   E face tut le men cumant,L418 [L418] For the non-repetition of ne before face, coordinated with ne seit 417, cf. Introd. p. 41.80
                   Ne li pot estre nul guarantL419 [L419] Ne la p.80L419 [L419] MS. Ne la pot Since the position of la (adv. of place?) is abnormal and, moreover, its significance in the sentence is obscure, I have emended to ne li pot following similar ne lur pot estre nul guarant 263.80 [f.111a]
           420  K'il ne perisse par mun brant;
                   Mes face cum li est mester,
                   Requerie mei senz demurerL422 [L422Requerie subj.pr.3. Cf. Introd. p. 54.80
                   Que li ne vienge desturber
           424  De mei, ne nul mal encumbrer.
                   Or dites lui certeinement:
                   Jo sui de grant mercie suvent.L426 [L426mercie Cf. Introd. p. 54.80
                   Cuvent lui qu'il ne seit lent
           428  De faire tut mun cumandement.'
                   Cum sa raisun aveit fini,
                   Li message ben l'entendi,
                   Sin est alé cum hardi
           432  Pur mustrer ço qu'a oi.
                   Quant est devant lu rei venud,
                   N'a chose dit dunt bel li fud.
                   Ne volt estre pur fol tenud
           436  Quant ert de sun seingnur venud.
                   A seint Aedmund ad tut mustréL437 [L437Aedmund Here, and in subsequent occurrences of this spelling, Nabert has not recognised the scribe's use of initial Ae- and prints the name with E-.80
                   Quanque Inguar li aveit mandé,
                   Dunt li reis ne fud gueres lié,
           440  Mes piece fud en grant pensé.

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                   Parmi tut ço si n'a parlé.
                   Un son evesque ad apellé
                   Ki lui soleit estre privé,
           444  A ki cunseil ad demandé
                   Que fust a faire e que nun.L442 [L442] Neither Abbo nor the Passiun identifies this bishop whom other accounts name as Humbert. Cf. also Note l. 1202.81
                   Mustrat lui par bref sermun
                   Que n'alast a perdiciun
           448  Pur pour de cel felun.
                   Li evesque fud mult dolerus
                   Pur seint Aedmund le precius,
                   Kar il esperout tut a estrusL451 [L451esperout he was afraid. Cf. T.-L. 3,1183 for esperer fear, be afraid.81
           452  Que li reis ne pout vivre plus.
                   Pur ço cunseil li ad duné:
                   Tenir sun cors tut a celé
                   En alcun liu ki seit privé,
           456  Que ne seit de sun gred vif damné. [f.111b]
                   E aprés que serunt alé,
                   E le siecle ert amendé,
                   Revenge dunc en sun regné,
           460  Si seit cum enz aveit esté.L460 [L460enz The ductus of the z is unclear and the letter may well have been written originally as a t and then changed to a z. Cf. Note l. 266 and Introd. pp. 55-6 for scribal confusion of t and z.81
                   Tant cum li evesque od lui parlad
                   Li reis se tut, mot ne sunad,
                   Neis ses oilz amunt levad,L463 [L463] He did not even raise his eyes. The construction here with omission of ne before levad is unusual.81
           464  Mais en la tere fiché les ad.
                   A la parfin sun chef levad
                   E li evesque reguardad.L465 [L465] As the lines stand they convey In the end he raised his head and the bishop looked (at him) with li evesque 466 n.sg. and subject of reguardad. From the flow of the passage, however, one would have expected it to have been Edmund who, after raising his head, looked at the bishop prior to addressing him. There seems to have been some uncertainty in the transcription of l. 466: evesque is abbreviated as ev'q̄ – the only instance in which s is not included in the abbreviation – and the ad of reguardad is somewhat separated from the body of the word. The line may originally have read E l'evesque reguardé ad with the auxiliary ad at the rhyme as at ll. 464 and 467.81
                   Itel respons fait li ad
           468  Dunt en penser lungtens serad.
                   'O tu, mi pere espiritel,
                   Jo sui sergant Deu del cel.
                   Vus avez dit; tut sera el.L471 [L471] You have spoken; it will be otherwise i.e. you have given me your advice but I shall act contrary to what you have suggested.81
           472  Jo n'ai pour de nul mortel.

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                   Altre cunseil a mei cuvent.
                   Maluré est ki ne crent.L474 [L474ne crent i.e. does not fear the Lord; cf. Ps. 112.1: Beatus vir qui timet Dominum.82
                   Perdu sera tut a scient
           476  Que nez n'est quant le fiz Deu vientL476 [L476] Deu iuent82L476 [L476nez adj.m.n.sg. spotless, without sin. Cf. T.-L. 6,616 and Cambr.Ps. 17.32 Deus ki . . . posat nete la mete veie (posuit immaculatam viam meam).82
                   Al jur que sera de dolur,
                   Quant meint averad mult grant pour,
                   Si s'en irunt puis en tristur
           480  Que senz fin ert e mal e dur.
                   Jameis ne m'ert repruvé
                   De cuardise ne de malvestéL481 [L481] I shall never be reproached with cowardice . . . The construction jameis ne m'ert repruvé de cuardise is unattested (cf. T.-L. 8,951 for repruver qc. a qn. and for repruver qn. but not repruver a qn. de qc. as here) and may reflect confusion of ne m'ert repruvé cuardise and ne serai (n'erc?) repruvé de cuardise, the latter possibly echoing the construction of pruver qn. de qc. (cf. T.-L. 7,2011). Repruver occurs again in the text, in the construction estre repruvé que 335.82
                   Tant cume vivrai en cest regné.
           484  Melz voil murir tut de mun gré.
                   A mei sereit verguigne grant
                   Si m'alasse de ci fuiant
                   E laissasse ma gent a tant;
           488  Dunc freie jo que recreant.
                   Unc de chose ne forfis
                   Vers nul de ses enemisL490 [L490Vers may be scribal for an original envers (in its one other occurrence vers 133 expresses physical direction). – ses is for ces; for confusion of initial c and s cf. Introd. p. 56.82
                   Pur quei sereie d'als supris
           492  Ne guerpireie mun pais.L491 [L491] wherefore I should be attacked by them or should abandon my country.82
                   Ja pur pour de mort [f.112a]
                   Ne obeirai a ces a tort,
                   Ja seit iço que seient fort.
           496  Deu nes aime ne leur sort.
                   Tant ne me saverunt manascier,
                   Ne prametre, ne losenger,L498 [L498] logenger82
                   Que ja me pussent tresturner
           500  Pur als servir ne Deu laisser.

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                   Unkes pur chivaler failliL501 [L501] chivaler ne failli83
                   De tant cum ai vesqui
                   Ne fui pruvé, la Deu merci.L501 [L501] Never as long as I have lived was I shown to be a cowardly warrior. I have suppressed MS. ne 501 and take failli as an adj. and pruver as occurring in the construction pruver qn. pur qc. (cf. T.-L. 7,2010). The lines as they stand in the MS. are difficult to interpret and are no doubt corrupt. Nabert prints 501 as in the MS. and 502 as [A dieu]; de tant . . .; but he has not taken into account Abbo 8,25-6: Semper delatoriae accusationis calumniam euitaui, numquam relictae militiae probra sustinui, on which these lines are based.83
           504  Tut tens serai par Deu hardi.
                   Jo vei mult grant chaitiveisun
                   De çols que guverné avum.
                   N'est pas dreit qu'aprés als vivum
           508  Quant sucurs als fait n'avum.L508 [L508sucurs als may represent an original sucurs a als (cf. T.-L. 9,309 for faire secors a qn.) with syneresis of the preposition a and als (for which see Pope § 1137), in which case the line would have been octosyllabic.83
                   Jo tienc de mun cors poi de pris
                   Quant vei les mens partut occis
                   E tut mun regne prof malmis,
           512  Que ja n'i truverai mes amis.
                   A mei plaist en mun regne murir.
                   N'a ren el mund que tant desirL514 [L514desir with effacement of final unstressed e as is occasionally noted in the ind. and subj.pr.1 of this verb in Continental and in A.N. texts (cf. Pope § 1299). This form has been glossed as subj.pr.1, the normal mood in a relative clause qualifying a negative antecedent (cf. l. 851 for the subjunctive in an almost identical clause) although there is a certain amount of hesitation in the use of moods in such clauses in this text, for which cf. Introd. pp. 41-2.83
                   Cum vei mes humes tuz perir,
           516  Que jo nul d'als ne puis guarir.
                   Delit est grant suffrir la mort
                   Pur le salvur ki n'aime tort.
                   Ja seit iço qu'al cors seit fort,
           520  Suffrir l'estot senz deport.
                   Al trestut poant creatur
                   Me testemonie nuit e jur
                   Que n'a si fort emperur
           524  Que me pot partir de s'amur.
                   Quel que morc u sui vivantL525 [L525morc ind.pr.1 with the W. and A.N. termination -c found in the ind.pr.1 and the fut.1 of several verbs in this text (cf. Introd. pp. 32 and 33) and coordinated with sui vivant in a construction introduced by quel que . . . u . . . whether . . . or. Cf. also Note l. 119.83
                   Serai sun fedeil sergant.
                   Lui mesmes trai jo a guarant [f.112b]
           528  Que n'amerai jamés nul tant.

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                   Quant jo esteie baptizé
                   E cristien fui apellé,
                   Iloc guerpi jo le malfé
           532  E quanque il ad en poesté.
                   E pur ço que jo ço fis
                   Les fedeilz Deu sunt mes amis,
                   E mei en tienc en mult grant pris.L535 [L535] and I consider myself greatly honoured by this.84
           536  Unke de ren ne lur forfis.
                   De mei quant Sathan fud chacé
                   E tute la sue poesté,
                   Treis feiz de cresme fui sacré
           540  El nun de Seinte Trinité:
                   Primes quant jo fui baptizé,
                   E puis de l'evesque cunfermé,
                   E enuint a rei puis e sacré
           544  Pur maintenir cristienté.
                   En peisat ço mun enemi,
                   Si me maneça de di en di
                   Desque il m'ad truvé ici.
           548  Or me cuvent cumbatre a lui.
                   D'enfance pris Deu a servir,
                   Si frai tut a son plaisir.L550 [L550] I shall do everything. . . or I shall act wholly . . ..84
                   Or m'estot ses preceps tenir
           552  Que n'aie dute quant dei murir.
                   A mei sereit verguine grant,
                   Si fereie que recreant,L554 [L554] Si sereie84L554 [L554fereie que recreant MS. sereie was probably induced by sereit 553 (cf. Note l. 644 for similar scribal sera for fera). For the locution faire que which occurs frequently in this poem cf. Introd. pp. 37-8. Cf. also ll. 485-8:
                   A mei sereit verguigne grant . . .
                   dunc freie jo que recreant
which are echoed here.84

                   Si jo dutasse nul vivant
           556  Tant cum jo sui a Deu servant

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                   Ki cunseiliet nuit e jur
                   A lui servir par bon amur.
                   Ne puis faillir al chef de tur
           560  Que ne me face grant honur.
                   Nostre aversarie ki ne dort [f.113a]
                   Ad mis sun las ki ben est fort
                   Pur prendre cristiens a tort.
           564  S'il pot ne lur fra nul deport.
                   Pur ço feruns nus que gentil;
                   Cuntresterum fort e barnilL566 [L566] burnil85L566 [L566barnil MS. burnil is unattested. Only the variant bernil is cited (cf. T.-L. 1,846, Gdf. 1,588b).85
                   Que ne seuns tenu pur vil,
           568  En fin perdu cum ert il.
                   Il m'a mandé qu'il m'avra cher.
                   Ço qu'ai me pramet a duner,L570 [L570] Co quei me85L570 [L570Ço qu'ai me pramet . . . MS. Co quei me pramet . . . as it stands or even as representing a possible Ço que i[l] . . . makes no real sense. In the passage on which ll. 569-76 are based (cf. Abbo 8,45-6: Vitam indulget, qua necdum careo; regnum promittit, quod habeo; opes conferre cupit, quibus non egeo) three promises are mentioned: life, kingdom and wealth, two of which: life (cf. ll. 571-2) and wealth (cf. ll. 573-6) appear explicitly in the poem. The third, that of kingdom, may well be expressed in l. 570 whose me pramet a duner echoes Abbo's promittit. I therefore have emended MS. Co quei to Ço qu'ai which I take as rendering Abbo's quod habeo, that which I (already) have. Nabert prints Ço [est] qu'il me pramet (a) duner and comments: Hs. ql oder qi. Unklare Stelle.85
                   Puis ma vie me volt granter
           572  Si jo purpos a lui tenser.L572 [L572purpos has been glossed as ind.pr.1, occurring as it does in the protasis of an open conditional sentence. Cf. however Introd. p. 43 for the use of either the indicative or the subjunctive in the protases of such sentences in this text. tenser Cf. T.-L. 10,232 for se tenser a qn. put oneself under another's protection and S. J. Browne, Romania LXXXIII (1962), 105-8. The refl. pn. may have been omitted with the infinitive, or the line may originally have read Si jom purpos . . ..85
                   Aveir me pramet a duner.
                   De ço n'ai jo nul mestier:
                   Ainz que cumençai a regner
           576  Le mund m'ert vil e nient cher.
                   Evesque, par vus voil saveir
                   Si dei d'als auvez aver.
                   Ne pot pas estre mun espeir
           580  Kar Jhesu Crist l'a dit pur veir.
                   Icel seingnur qu'ai choisi,
                   Lu rei del cel ki m'a saisi
                   E desque ça seuf nurri
           584  Tut tens de mei sera servi.

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                   Ja mun nun plus ne celerai;L585 [L585] I shall conceal my name no longer. There is no suggestion in Abbo or in the Passiun that the king hid himself or his name from Inguar. This line may point to the author's acquaintance with other accounts or legends in which Edmund at first actively resisted the Danes, fighting a series of battles with them, hiding and for a time escaping capture by various ruses. Cf. Whitelock 1969, pp. 221, 224-5 for these, the earliest of which to mention Edmund's endeavouring to escape by concealing his identity is Gaimar's Estoire (cf. ll. 2885-8). The various references in the Passiun to Edmund's military prowess and bravery (cf. ll. 300-8, 481-8, 501-4) probably echo Abbo's brief and conventional description of the king's valour for which cf. Notes ll. 303-4 and 501-3, rather than indicate that the king at first offered armed resistance to the Danes.86
                   Uvertement le musterai.L586 [L586musterai fut.1. A typically A.N. form with the loss of the -r of the radical resulting either from metathesis of this r (musterrai) and simplification of the resultant rr to r (cf. F. J. Tanquerey, L'Evolution du verbe en anglo-français (Paris, 1915), pp. 706-9) or alternatively from dissimilation of the r-r of mustrerai (cf. Bell 1960, p. xxxii).86
                   Pur ço que jadis mult amaiL587 [L587] Presumably For the sake of that which I greatly loved (i.e. Christianity), but jadis is puzzling; perhaps it is an error for tut dis.86
           588  Mun cors a peine livr[er]ai.'L588 [L588livr[er]ai The sense of the passage indicates that this verb which, with celerai 585 and musterai 586, expresses resolves made by the king should be in the future tense. While MS. livrai might be considered an early instance of an A.N. graphy attested for the future of livrer from the end of the thirteenth century (cf. Tanquerey, Evolution du verbe, pp. 704-5) it seems probable that the scribe has simply neglected to represent -er- here as at l. 656.86
                   Quant li reis a si tut parlé,
                   Al messager s'en est turné.
                   Ne volt mais que li seit celé
           592  Ço qu'e[n] sun quor a purpensé.L592 [L592Ço que MS. here, as at l. 1420, probably represents qu'en rather than que. Cf. the similar e en sun quer mult ad pensét 1508 and also R Violette SAT 523 En son corage a pourpensé cited in T.-L. 7,1533. Purpenser has an animate subject in its other occurrences in this poem cf. ll. 627, 1209, 1216), as was usual in O.F. (cf. T.-L. loc. cit.), and the scribe has occasionally neglected elsewhere in the text to represent nasality (cf. Note l. 71).86
                   Mais parlé a curteisement
                   E dit li a ben gentement:
                   'Par Deu, lu rei omnipotent, [f.113b]
           596  Descovrir vus voil mun talent.
                   Entendez a mei, bel ami.
                   Pur bien est ço que jol vus di.
                   Folement estes venu ici
           600  Si jo de vus n'aie merci.
                   Par dreit devreie vus tuer,
                   U faire tut vifs escorcier,
                   U faire vus tut desmembrer,
           604  Si ço me cundunast mun quor.L604 [L604quor MS. qo2 (cf. also quor MS. qor 592), a spelling which is attested elsewhere but does not represent the author's pronunciation since the word rhymes here with tuer etc. The form quer occurs elsewhere in the text, at the rhyme (: urer etc.) 1268, (: truver etc.) 1654 and mid-line, cf. ll. 1420, 1456, 1508.86
                   Vus e tut vostre per
                   A mei fait m'avés encumbrer.L606 [L606] have done me harm. I print fait m'avés with m' a pleonastic pronoun object referring back to a mei, avés the ind.pr.5 of aveir and the only instance in the text of the spelling -és for the -ez termination. The word-order past participle, auxiliary verb occurs elsewhere with faire, cf. ll. 467, 508, 1389. MS. maves may well result from confusion by the scribe of malveis and (m')avez.86
                   Nul ne volsites vif laisserL607 [L607volsites pret.5 probably represents either volistes, regular pret.5 of voleir with metathesis of the preconsonantal s, or volsistes, the analogical sigmatic pret.5 of voleir (cf. Pope § 1011) with loss in the orthography of preconsonantal s. Nabert prints volsicés but the ductus supports volsites.86
           608  Des miens que porriez truver,
                   Que lur sanc nen espandisez
                   E a mort tuz les metiez.L609 [L609espandisez is subj.impf.5 in a negative subjunctive construction dependent on pret. ne volsites laisser 607. With metiez 610 ind.impf.5 the author passes over to a principal clause in the affirmative indicative.86
                   Li reis del cel vus cumpensez.L611 [L611Li reis del cel vus cumpensez A puzzling line. Li reis n.sg. cannot be the subject of cumpensez with -ez guaranteed by the rhyme. In the light of Edmund's statement (ll. 612-14) that neither he nor his followers will actively avenge the death of his subjects one would expect l. 611 to convey that God will do the avenging, yet the line as written does not express this at all. If vus is the subject of cumpensez then li reis cannot be the object and even if the original reading were le rei or possibly l'ireis del cel the anger of heaven (cf. T.-L. 4,1458 for ireis) the meaning of cumpensez is still not clear. None of the meanings attested for this verb: erwägen, überlegen (cf. T.-L. 2,626 which cites one instance only) or fixer entre soi, faire un accord (cf. Gdf. 2,206a) is appropriate here. Nabert comments: Unklarer Vers and Bell, after pointing out the discord between li reis and cumpensez adds (Bell 1956, pp. 58-59): Moreover . . . cumpenser does not seem to have the meaning required here and has not yet been found before the fourteenth century.86
           612  Par mei ne serunt il ja vengez.
                   Vengement n'ert de vus pris
                   Par mei ne par nul de mes amis,
                   Ja seit iço que m'avez quis.
           616  Par diable n'erc jo ja supris.

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                   A Jhesu Crist voil obeir,
                   Pur lui mort e peine suffrir,
                   Sicum il fist par sun plaisir
           620  Quant il deigna pur mei murir.'
                   Uncore dist il al messager:
                   'Ne vus cuvent meis atarger.
                   Ariere vus estu[v]ra aler
           624  A dire ço que voil mander.
                   A vostre seignur direz tant:
                   Qu'il est le fiz al diable vivant
                   Ki del cel cai puis purpensant
           628  A Deu estre cuntrariant;
                   Par qui maint fud dampné [f.114a]
                   E [en] enfern puis penéL630 [L630] Cf. l. 959 for a similar haplography in [en] engleis.87
                   Dunt ja ne sera delivré
           632  Pur nul ki ert de mere né.
                   Quant aveit fet la traisun
                   A sun seingnur cume felun,
                   Si s'en vait a perdiciun
           636  Dunt ja n'avra remissiun.
                   E plusurs en chaitiveisun
                   Mena, e a damnaciun
                   U ja n'avra salvaciun,
           640  Ne nul ki seit lur cumpainun.
                   Ço fud li malveis Satanas
                   Que Deus a mis de halt si bas.
                   Ki lui sert al derain ert las
           644  Quant del siecle fera trespas.L644 [L644] sera trespas87

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                   Inguar, ki est vostre avué,
                   Si est sergant a cel malfé
                   Ki ert tut dis od lui damné;
           648  Guardez qu'a lui ne seit celé.
                   Mais or venge hastivement
                   E face tut le son talent.
                   Prest sui pur Deu omnipotent
           652  A suffrir fort martirement.
                   Quel ore qu'il ça vendra,L653 [L653] Que i or Quei ore quis ca uendra88L653 [L653] MS. Q'i ore qis ca uendra is clearly faulty and makes no sense as it stands. I emend, following Professor Reid's suggestion, to Quel ore qu'il ça vendra At whatever time he comes here. For quel ore que + fut. cf. T.-L. 6,1224. Nabert emends to: Quei ore [ai] quis, ç[o] avendra.88
                   Senz arme, sul, me truvera.
                   Tant manacier ne me savra
           656  Que ja mun cors li s[er]vira.L656 [L656s[er]vira MS. suira. While suira will follow is a possible reading, Edmund is here replying to Inguar who on several occasions has demanded that he should obey and serve him (cf. ll. 399, 403, 411, 417-18) and the emended reading will serve more probably represents the author's intentions. The scribe has similarly failed to represent -er- in livr[er]ai 588 and has elsewhere occasionally omitted abbreviations, words or letters (cf. Notes ll. 71, 136, 630, 1087). The pronoun li, unstressed masculine indirect object, would be the normal form with servir which in this text governs objects introduced by a as well as direct objects (cf. Note l. 380); if governed by suira, li would be irregular, though, given the confusion of li and lui in this text (cf. Introd. p. 36), not an impossible reading.88
                   Tant ne me savra bel parler
                   Vostre seingnur ne manascier,L658 [L658] Ne vostre s. m.88L657 [L657] Your lord will never manage to flatter or threaten me sufficiently to . . . For the word-order cf. Introd. p. 44.88
                   Que ja me purra desturner
           660  De Jhesu Crist que mult ai cher.
                   Tut dis vos deus vil me serunt,
                   E tuz ki lur servirunt.
                   Finablement si perirunt
           664  Quant a diable s'en irrunt. [f.114b]
                   Vostre avué si ert en chef,
                   Si serunt tut si machecref.L666 [L666machecref Cf. also macecref(s) 837, 869, and macecrief 853 murderers, killers here and at l. 869, executioner 837, 853. Both the spelling and the sense are rare. The dictionaries list many variant spellings: macacrier, macecrier, maceclier, macheclier, etc. (cf. T.-L. 5,754 and Gdf. 5,57b) but none with the termination -(i)ef which is found in all four occurrences of the word in this text, whether at the rhyme, as here, or mid-line. The word's basic and most frequent significance in O.F. was butcher (tradesman); T.-L. loc. cit. cites only two instances with figurative meaning as here.88
                   De vus ne sera fait relef,L667 [L667] You will not be shown any mercy, You will not be given any relief seems to be the sense required by the context, yet this significance is not noted among the various meanings of relief (cf. T.-L. 8,683-5, Gdf. 6,765a, 10,531b) although in Old Provençal releu had the meaning soulagement (cf. FEW 5,281b), nor is the locution faire relief de qn. attested. It seems that, in order to fulfil the requirements of the rhyme, the author has created the expression, possibly, as he had done with faire trespass (for which cf. Note l. 644) deriving the substantive from the verb, in this case relever. Relever, in the locution relever qn. de mal, had the significance heal, cure from the time of Wace (cf. FEW 5,277b and T.-L. 8,679) and that of délivrer de peine since Bersuire (d.1362) (cf. FEW 5,281a), although it seems to have been used with similar significance almost a century earlier in the A.N. Secré de Secrez 806-9: kar dunc apent Al rei fees fere dreit a la gent K'aillurs sunt a tort grevez; La deivent estre relevez. It is from relever with this latter meaning that English relieve is derived (cf. FEW 5,286a, Note 40).88
           668  N'a nul des voz n'iert Deu suef.
                   Alez vus e[n], ne vus targez
                   Desqu'a vostre seinnur vengez.
                   Lui de la meie part diezL671 [L671diez Cf. Note l. 393.88
           672  Qu'as mens a fait mal asez.

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                   Or voil que ça vienge a mei
                   Pur estancher tute sa sei,
                   Que ne seit avilé ma lei,
           676  Ne n'ert pur lui sicum jo crei.
                   Oste mei de mun fié real,
                   Si me rue encuntreval:
                   Tant ne me purra faire mal
           680  Que tut dis n'ierc a Deu leal.
                   Primes me prenge a [e]scoper,L681 [L681[e]scoper Cf. escopent 749 <*skuppire (REW 8014). Instability of prosthetic e was a feature of early A.N. texts (cf. Pope § 1106).89
                   E aprés colees a duner;
                   Puis face mun cors flaeler,
           684  E mun chef couper
                   Que puisse mun seingnur par mort
                   Sivre cum champiun fort.
                   Pur lui murir m'est grant deport;
           688  Pur lui suffrir peine m'est cunfort.
                   Prenge mun or e mun argent,
                   E tut mun altre guarnement,
                   Si sache sun cors pulent:
           692  De tut ço n'ai que faire nient.
                   Fort rei des reis en qui me fi,
                   Omnipotent, merci vus cri,
                   Cum me parsiut de di en di
           696  Inguar, mun mortel enemi,
                   Que mun travail ne seit en vein,
                   E tenu seie pur vilainL698 [L698] For the non-repetition of ne before seie cf. Introd. p. 41.89
                   Quant vus vendrez al jur derein [f.115a]
           700  El quel meint avera dol dublein.L700 [L700dublein twofold, redoubled. The meaning indicated by the context is unattested for this rare word which has the significance lined with double mail (with reference to armour) in its only other attested occurrence: Ch.R. 3088 (cf. T.-L. 2,1971, Gdf. 2,778c). T.-L. loc. cit. cites an instance of the adjective doble in a context similar to ours and with similar meaning: An. et Rat. XI 28 dovle poene et dovle bature (duplex damnatio). The form dublein (: derein etc.) here may have been created (<duble + ein) for the purposes of the rhyme.89
                   Jo cri a tei en durableté.
                   As voz serai acumpanié.
                   Serunt devant vus coruné,
           704  Cheschun par sei en grant belté.'

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                   Cum seint Aedmund a tut mustré
                   Al chivaler quanqu'ad pensé,
                   Li messager n'est plus targé;
           708  Hastivement s'en est alé.
                   Tresque sun seingnur a truvé,
                   Unkes sun cors n'a reposé.
                   De mot en mot li a cunté
           712  Quanque li reis lui ad ruvé.
                   Tant tost cum li tirant le vit
                   Mult bel l'apele, si li dit:
                   'Par vus voil saver quel delit
           716  Li reis a e cum il vit;
                   S'il volt estre supliant
                   E faire quanque jo cumant,
                   A mes deus estre obeisant.'
           720  Respont li messager a tant:
                   'Nel fera pur nul ki seit vivant
                   Estre lu rei trestut poantL722 [L722] Estre lur r.90L722 [L722lu rei MS. lur rei. The messenger is talking about Edmund and, while reference to their (ie. the Christians') king is not wholly inappropriate, the king seems a more likely reading in the context. Lu, an A.N. form of the masculine definite article, occurs at ll. 433, 582, 595, 1117, in every case before rei.90
                   Ki cel e terre est guvernant.
           724  Lui voldra traire a guarant.'
                   Li chivaler fud afaité;
                   A son seingnur a bel parlé.
                   De chef a fin li a mustré
           728  Quanque li reis a mandé.
                   Cum li tiran e sun barné
                   Entendent tut pur verité
                   Que seint Aedmund, li reis senét,
           732  A lui ne servira de gré,

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                   Nen unt fors un poi demuré,
                   Si sunt d'iloc avant alé [f.115b]
                   D'isi que sun cors unt truvéL735 [L735d'isi que Cf. Introd. p. 56 for confusion of c and s in the text.91
           736  Que tant aveient cuveité.
                   Senz culpe pris fu e lié.
                   Devant Inguar l'unt posé,
                   Sicum Jhesu nostre avué
           740  Devant Pilate fu mené.
                   Si fu cel Deu cumpaignun
                   Jugé devant cel mal felun
                   Senz forfet a perdiciun.
           744  Ço fu par mult grant traisun.
                   I[l] l'unt batu e turmenté,
                   Ensurquetut forment gabé.
                   Quanque li funt tut prent a gré
           748  Pur ço que volt estre salvé.
                   Escopent en sun vis de gré;
                   Buffez, colees il unt dun[éd]L750 [L750] dun followed by an erasure91L750 [L750dun[éd] MS. dun followed by an erasure, the letters erased having been written superscript. The letters ed were written in the right hand margin and then barred, but no correction was made to the text itself.91
                   E durement l'unt flaelé,
           752  E sun cors unt mult travailé,
                   Pur ço qu'il volt paremplirL753 [L753paremplir follow to the full, follow to the end. A rare word; T.-L. 7,234 cites only two instances: Horn2 3888 (of a journey; as variant to acumplir) and Dial. Gr. 14,7 (of hymns), neither in a context similar to this.91
                   Ses preceps ki deigna murirL753 [L753] . . . follow to the full the commandments of Him who consented to die . . .91
                   Pur noz pechez, e nus guarir
           756  De mort e d'enfernal suspir.
                   Li reis paen a cumandé
                   A çous qui l'aveit enchargéL758 [L758qui l'aveit enchargé to whom he had entrusted him with qui for cui to whom. Cf. T.-L. 3,190 for enchargier qc. a qn. No instances are cited, however, of the verb with an animate direct object as here.91
                   Que il seit forment pené –
           760  Pur nul mortel n'ert ja vengé:

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                   'Ne seit laissee tresque a la mort.L761 [L761] Let him have no respite until he is dead. I can find no instance of laissee substantive (cf. T.-L. 5,64 for fourteenth century laiee only) and would interpret this form as past participle of laisser with the A.N. graphy ee for final [(i)e] which occurs elsewhere in the text (cf. Note ll. 113-16).92
                   Nos deus a blamé a grant tort.
                   S'il n'ait de sun Deu bon cunfort,
           764  De mal n'avra ja deport.
                   En tutes guises vus penez.
                   Pur nul[e] rien ne vus f[e]inezL766 [L766nul[e] rien The substantive rien is consistently feminine in this text and is preceded by nule at ll. 184, 312, 815. Non-representation of feminine -e with nul is undoubtedly a scribal error; its restoration also results in an octosyllabic line. f[e]inez Cf. ne vus feinez a deliverer 1349 for another instance of se feindre a + infinitive where normal O.F. usage is se feindre de + infinitive (cf. T.-L. 3,1688).92
                   A faire lui viltez asez
           768  Desque sun cors vencu av[r]ez.'L768 [L768av[r]ez I emend here and at l. 1651 to the future perfect, for which cf. ll. 457, 1251, 1584, 1622.92
                   Or l'unt cil saisi mult vilment [f.116a]
                   E cunreé mult laidement.
                   De bastuns l'unt batu suvent
           772  E d'escurgeez ensement.
                   N'est pas muable cume li vent.
                   Jhesu siut hardiement
                   Par passiun e par turment,
           776  Tut mais en cruiz ne pent.L776 [L776Tut mais except that (?) Tut is used in conjunction with various prepositions, adverbs and conjunctions (cf. tot par, tot por, tot por ce que, tot si com, tot ensi etc. cited in T.-L. 10,478-9), and can by itself introduce a concessive clause with the verb in the subjunctive, but I can find no instance of the locution tut mais as here.92
                   Un arbre ert iloc bien pres;
                   Ne fu pas cedre ne ciprés.
                   La l'unt mené li serfs engrés.
           780  Ço fu a tort e en travers.
                   Mult l'i unt forment lié.
                   Chascun l'unt par sei guaitéL782 [L782] They have each individually kept watch on him, with chascun reinforced by par sei as in 704 but here separated from it by the plural verb.92
                   Qu'il d'als poust estre encupé
           784  Devant Inguar lur avué,
                   Sicum Jhesu nostre salvere
                   Devant Pilate le jugere
                   Fut encusé de grant manere.
           788  Ço firent dui malveis trichere.L788 [L788dui malveis trichere Cf. Matt. 26.60 where Christ is accused by two false witnesses. For trichere false witness, perjurer, a substantive from legal terminology, cf. E. Meynial, Mélanges Chabaneau (Erlangen, 1907), pp. 559, 562.92
                   Seint Aedmund, li reis glorius,
                   Le chivaler Deu precius,
                   Despuillé fu – que dirai plus? –
           792  Sicum le fiz Deu fu pur nus.

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                   De fort baleis est batu.L793 [L793fort baleis The discord here between adjective and substantive may have arisen from scribal confusion of -t and -z (cf. Introd. pp. 55-6).93
                   Ja pur ço n'ert d'als vencu,
                   Ainz serunt tut en fin perdu
           796  Cors e aneme e cunfundu.
                   Del fiz Marie a grant cunfort.
                   Ki pur nus en cruiz suffri mort.L798 [L798] pur nur93L798 [L798nus MS. n2 probably induced by preceding p2 (pur).93
                   Quant il l'apele, il pas ne dort.
           800  Sun eslit est senz resort.
                   Li archier venent or avant,L801 [L801] paragraph sign in margin93
                   Setes de lur arcs trahant. [f.116b]
                   Ço fu sur le Deu serjant
           804  Ki mult fu humbles e sufrant.
                   A l'arbre u il fu lié
                   De saetes fu il si plaé
                   Que pur nul hume n'ert sané,
           808  Ne sun dammage restoré.
                   Le heriçun cum est veluL809 [L809cum The scribe initially wrote ∸, elements of the abbreviation for est, the next word in the line, then wrote a c under the bar and actually below the line of writing to correct his error.93
                   D'aspre peil e mult agu,
                   Alsi sun seint cors asis fu
           812  De darz, e bien prof cunfundu.L812 [L812] prof e c.93
                   Semblant est a seint Bastien,
                   Noble martir e cristien.
                   Ne se retrait de nule rien;L815 [L815] se retrahait de93L815 [L815retrahait occurring in a quatrain in which all the verbs are in the present tense, is undoubtedly scribal for retrait ind.pr.3 which occurs also at l. 1341. Retrahait here and trahait 843, 853, similarly scribal for trait, pp. of traire, would give these lines nine syllables and may reflect in their spelling the influence of L. trahere.93
           816  Quanque li funt tut prent en bien.
                   En ço qu'unt sa char peneeL817 [L817En ço qu'unt In printing En ço quant sa char [unt] pené(e) Nabert renders MS. qunt as quant, having misread superscript u as superscript open a. These are clearly differentiated by the scribe and the letter here is definitely u. Cf. T.-L. 3,150 for en ço que while, a conjunction which is usually followed by verbs in the present or imperfect indicative and not in the compound perfect as here. penee The final ee of this past participle may be an instance of the A.N. graphy -ee for final [e] which occurs elsewhere in the poem (cf. Note ll. 113-16), or alternatively may represent [eə] and mark agreement with sa char, the preceding feminine direct object. In the latter case the rhyme penee (: gré etc.) would illustrate the reduction of [eə] to [e] which is noted in A.N. from the later twelfth century (cf. Pope § 1133). The two phenomena, loss of final [ə] in hiatus with preceding [e] and the graphy ee for [e], are linked and it is not possible to determine which, in fact, is operating here.93
                   Pur sei e sons a Deu preeeL818 [L818preee A further instance of the A.N. graphy ee for final [(i)e] (cf. Note ll. 113-16).93
                   Que si li plaist prenge a gré
           820  Quanqu'a suffert e travaillé.L820 [L820] everything he had suffered and ?undergone. travaillé, coordinated with quanqu'a suffert, is v.a., yet I can find no instance attested of travailler qc. suffer or undergo (pain etc.). T.-L. 10,542 and Gdf. 8,25a list the v.n. only in the senses, sich mühen, sich quälen, être tourmenté, souffrir une peine.93

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                   Pur ço que il iço faseit
                   Le plus d'als anguissé esteit.L822 [L822Le plus all the more. Cf Introd. p. 38.94
                   Li reis del cel ki est beneit
           824  Ne volt suffrir que peri seit.
                   Tant cum de buche pout parler
                   Ne fine de Deu gracier,
                   De ci que ne pot mot suner.
           828  Dunc le cumencent a gaber.
                   Inguar, cel malveis traitur,
                   A seint Aedmund fu aspre e dur.
                   De lui n'a peine ne dulur,
           832  Si l'ad le diable mis en errur.
                   A ses serjanz a cumandé
                   Qu'il de l'arbre seit remué.
                   Avant d'iloc sera mené [f.117a]
           836  En tel liu u sera tué.
                   Un macecref si vint avant
                   Od une espee mult trenchant.
                   Le seint cors deslie a tant
           840  Que uncore esteit demi vivant.
                   Avishunkes poet ester;
                   Un sul mot ne pot suner.
                   D'iloc l'unt trait pur decoler.L843 [L843] trahait94L843 [L843trait MS. tahait. Cf. Note l. 815.94
           844  Melz volt iço que plus targer.
                   Entr'als estut cum li mutun
                   Del fuc eslit senz cumpaignun.
                   Ne poet aveir guarantesun
           848  Que ne sufre occisiun.L848 [L848sufre has been glossed as subj.pr.3, the normal mood in a subordinate clause dependent on a negative main clause. Cf. however Introd. pp. 41-3 for variation in the use of mood in this text.94

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                   Devant als iert sacrifié
                   El nun de Seinte Trinité.
                   N'est rien que tant ait desiré
           852  Pur ço que volt estre salvé.
                   Li macecrief a trait sun brant.L853 [L853] trahait95L853 [L853trait MS. tahait. Cf. Note l. 815.95
                   Al rei fait metre le chef avant
                   Que noble fu e avenant,
           856  Real corune sustenant.
                   Ne li a fors un colp duné.
                   Par grant force l'a decolé,
                   Que le chef est del buc volé
           860  Ki mult esteit devant grevé.
                   Li angle vienent a sun dos;
                   L'aneme portent en repos,
                   En joie grant si est ja clos.
           864  Des seinz Deu'avra tut dis los.
                   Quant li reis fu martirié,
                   Inguar d'iloc s'en est alé.
                   Mena od lui tut sun barné
           868  La u ses niefs aveit laissé.
                   As macecrefs a cumandé
                   Que le chef d'iloc seit porté [f.117b]
                   El bois qu'iloc esteit delé,L871 [L871delé Cf. Note l. 295.95
           872  Que Hengelsdune fud apellé.
                   Tant tost cum l'aveit cumandé,
                   Parfund el bois l'unt porté.
                   En un buissun l'unt jeté
           876  De runces – si s'en sunt turné –

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                   Que mult fu espés e velu
                   De runces e d'espine agu.L878 [L878agu. (: velu adj.m. etc.) qualifies espine which is normally feminine in O.F. There may be confusion here and again at l. 1634 between espine sf.<L. spina (REW 8150) and espin sm.<L. spinus (REW 8155). T.-L. 3,1207 cites a case of similar confusion, Adam 432: Son fruit a toi deveerat, Espines e chardons te rendrat. Alternatively we may have here in agu an instance of loss at the rhyme of final unstressed e following a stressed vowel (cf. Note ll. 113-16 and Pope § 1133).96
                   Un guardein l'ad reçu,
           880  Unkes mais tel ne fu vou:
                   Ço fu un lup cruel e grant.
                   Entre ses piez le prent devant.
                   De tute rien l'est defendant,
           884  De bestes e de oisals volant.
                   Suvent baise le embraçant.L885 [L885] He kisses it repeatedly as he holds it in his paws. Here le follows baise even though the verb is preceded by the adverb Suvent which would support the pronoun object. For other instances of similar postposition cf. Introd. pp. 36-7. I print MS. ēbracant as embraçant (cf. T.-L. 3,59 for embracier) and not en braçant, since the three instances of bracier cited in T.-L. 1,1106 are all doubtful. The original reading may have been en embraçant. Cf. en + present participle at ll. 990, 1069, 1225 and scribal omission of the preposition en before initial en- at ll. 630, 959.96
                   Ço fu par vertu Deu le grant
                   Pur ki a suffert peine grant.
           888  Ne dute mais nului vivant.
                   [O]re entendez trestuz a mei.
                   Dirai vus que fu fait del rei
                   Ki Deu ama en mult grant fei
           892  Pur sons salver e pur sei.
                   Le[s] sons que furent eschapéL893 [L893Le[s] sons Cf. also l. 983. As the spelling le (for les) is more characteristic of later A.N. works (cf. Pope § 1253(i) ), and since the masculine plural article is regularly spelt les elsewhere in the text, I emend here, and at l. 983, for clarity's sake and following les sons amis 23 where les is found in the same context.96
                   Al cors se sunt tuz asemblé.
                   Gent i unt cil menéL895 [L895] The line has six syllables and its sense They brought people there seems only loosely to fit in with that of l. 896 because they had found him dead in that fashion. Nabert prints Grant [dol] i unt [i]cil mené, misreading MS. Gent as Grant but nevertheless furnishing an emendation which seems to fit better with the sense of l. 896 and which is taken up by d'iço sunt il le plus dolent 897. Abbo can be cited to support either Gent or Grant dol: cf. Abbo 12,9-16 (my italics): Quo propter antiquam beneficiorum memoriam et ingenitam regis clementiam populi undique gratuito confluentes coeperunt mesto animo grauiter ferre quod caruissent tanta corporis portione. Quorum animis superna inspirauit benignitas, postquam audierunt illius uerba utilia qui tantae uisionis, ut dictum est, particeps astiterat, ut collecta plurimorum multitudine quaqua uersum per inuia siluarum experirentur, . . .96
           896  Pur ço qu'i[l] l'unt si mort truvé.
                   D'iço sunt il le plus dolentL897 [L897le plus all the more. Cf. Introd. p. 38.96
                   Que n'unt le chef pas en present.
                   Trestuz en plurent mult tendrement,
           900  E crient Deu merci suvent,
                   E lui prient par sa bunté
                   Que lur mustrast par verité
                   U fu le chef d'iloc porté,
           904  Que ne seit de rien entamé.

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                   Un prodhum entr'als vent avant [f.118a]
                   Ki bien fu sage e vaillant,
                   Ki trestut vit en sun vivant
           908  Quanque fu fait del Deu serjant.
                   Pur ço l'aveit Deu si guardé
                   Que par lui fust tut demustré
                   Cument li reis esteit pené
           912  E al derein a mort livré.
                   Icist lur ad tut recunté
                   Cum forment l'unt turmenté,
                   E aprés cum fu decolé,
           916  E cum sun chef en unt porté
                   El bois que fu iloc delé,L917 [L917delé Cf. Note l. 295.97
                   Que Henglesdune fu apellé,
                   Que jamais ne fust puis truvé
           920  De nul ki aimt cristienté,
                   Mais fust iloc tut devuréL921 [L921devuré is glossed as tear to pieces, the frequent significance of this verb in O.F. (cf. F. Lecoy in Romania LXXVIII (1957), p. 416).97
                   De bestes e d'oisals mangé.
                   Ne voleit ço sun avué.
           924  Mult bon gardein li a truvé
                   Ki ben l'a salvement guardé
                   D'ici que l'ourent truvéL926 [L926] Dici qui97
                   Içous ki mult l'unt desiré
           928  E al seint acumpaigné.L926 [L926] until those who have greatly desired it had found it and joined it to [the body of] the saint.97
                   La gent ki sunt al cors venu,
                   Si quidouent estre deceu
                   Pur ço que n'unt le chef veu,
           932  Un[t] duté que l'avrunt perdu.L932 [L932un[t] Cf. Introd. p. 57 for loss of final supported t.97

Page 97

                   Purposent ore li bacheler,
                   Si funt li viel ki l'orent cher,
                   Qu'el bois irunt pur e[n]serchierL935 [L935e[n]serchier investigate (cf. T.-L. 3,178). The scribe may have been influenced by the initial syllable of espleiter 936 in omitting to represent nasality here. Cf. Note l. 71 for other, similar, cases of omission. Nabert prints eserchier.98
           936  Que purrunt del chef espleiter.
                   Ainz ourent trestut purparlé:
                   Par ki que pout estre truvé,
                   Hastivement seit demustré –
           940  Ne seit pas tenu a celé – [f.118b]
                   Par voiz u par corn suner,L941 [L941] par comsuner98
                   Que puissent trestut asembler
                   A cel liu, e Deu gracier,
           944  E al cors ariere porter.L944 [L944] and take [it (i.e. the head, last referred to at l. 936)] back to the body.98
                   Entrent el bois pur espleiter.
                   Ne volent faire demurer
                   Dunt aient puis repruver
           948  Ne de nul mal hume encumbrier.
                   Il sunt departi a l'entrer.
                   Chescun cumence Deu preer
                   Que parface lur desirer
           952  Dunt puisent joius repairer.
                   Li un a l'altre guaimentant
                   Si vunt partut dol menant,L954 [L954] dol superscript in same hand98L954 [L954dol written superscript in the MS. in the same hand as the rest of the text; its place in the line is indicated by a comma on the line of writing.98
                   Suventes feiz entr'als disant:
           956  'U est tu, reis, pere vaillant?'
                   Ais vus le chef respunt a tant,
                   Sicum vus ore orrez avant.
                   Ço fu [en] engleis bel sunant,L959 [L959] This line which, as written, has seven syllables, was very probably originally an octosyllable: ço fu [en] engleis. . . paralleling ço est en franceis. . . 965. Cf. l. 630 for another instance of omission of the preposition en before a word commencing with en-. 98
           960  Que ne seient pas mescreant.

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                   Tres feiz a suné: 'Her! her! her!'
                   Ne volt un mot avant parler.
                   Ço fist Deu pur als cunforter,
           964  Que ne cessent de lui loer.
                   Ço est en franceis: Ici! ici! ici!
                   Ço fu de Deu mult grant merci.L966 [L966] de superscript in same hand99L966 [L966de written superscript in the same hand as the rest of the text; its place in the line is indicated by a comma on the line of writing. For a further instance of omission of de before Deu cf. l. 1087.99
                   Nel volent pas metre en ubli;
           968  Mult furent haité, sacez de fi.
                   La voiz que rendi le sun
                   Trestuz les a trait al buissun
                   U truverent, plus fier que liun,
           972  Ki tient par grant devociunL972 [L972Ki must have the unusual significance of one who (holds).99
                   Le chef entre ses pez devant:
                   Ço fu un lu, cruel e grant,
                   Que tut dis li fu defendant [f.119a]
           976  De bestes e d'oisel[s] volant.L976 [L976oisel[s] Cf. de bestes e de oisals volant 884, de bestes e d'oisals mangé 922 and Introd. p. 57 for occasional omission of final supported s in the spelling.99
                   Ço ne fu pas a merveiller
                   S'il unt oi le chef parler –
                   Kar Deu ki l'out a gu[v]ernerL979 [L979gu[v]erner MS. gu'n'.99
           980  Nel voleit iloc celer –
                   Sicum fist l'asnesse jadis,L981 [L981] fist il a snesse99L981 [L981] just as the she-ass did (i.e. spoke) referring back to s'il unt oi le chef parler 978. The MS. reading and word division: sic̄ fist il a snesse iadis suggest that, in writing fist il, the scribe was influenced by fist Deu 983.99
                   Dunt fu aprés tenu en pris.
                   Ço fist Deu pur le[s] son[s] amisL983 [L983Ço The scribe originally wrote So, then erased the S and wrote a C in its place. Cf. Introd. p. 56 for confusion of c and s in this text. le[s] son[s] qualifying amis acc.pl. as guaranteed by the rhyme (: jadis etc.) and the plural verb fuissent 984. For le[s] cf. Note l. 893. For suppression in the orthography of the final supported s of son[s] cf. Introd. p. 57. The reference here is to the Israelites whom Balaam was setting out to curse.99
           984  Que ne fuissent a tor[t] malmis.L984 [L984fuissent subj.impf.6 where O.F. would regularly have fussent. Cf. also duissum 1023 subj.impf.4 and Pope § 1227 for the A.N. representation of O.F. [y] by ui. In both cases the orthography may reflect the influence of pret.1 fui, dui. tor[t] Cf. Introd. p. 57 for loss in the spelling of final supported t.99
                   Quant Balaam voleit alerL985 [L985Balaam Abbo does not mention the name.99
                   Le pople Deu a escumenger,
                   Si li avint cest desturberL987 [L987cest disturber obstruction, hindrance. The ass saw an angel blocking her path.99
           988  Pur quei cumence a parler.L988 [L988] on account of which she begins to speak with cumence where one expects cumença.99

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                   L'asnesse dist: 'N'irai avant.
                   Jo vei un angle en volant
                   Ultre mun chief ici devant,
           992  Mei de un espee manesçant.'L992 [L992un espee I follow the MS. in printing un espee with suppression of final unstressed e prevocalic in the phrase. Cf. Introd. p. 56 for other instances of this suppression in the text. Alternatively the words could have been printed une spee with loss in the orthography of prosthetic e, for which cf. Note l. 681. Regular une espee occurs at l. 838.100
                   Quant la prophete l'entendi,
                   Icele chose e a oi,L993 [L993] When the prophet heard her and heard this thing; but it is also possible that l' 993 merely anticipates Icele chose 994.100
                   Graces al creatur rendi
           996  D'iço qu'i[l] l'a si bien guarni.L981 [L981] The author here expands the brief reference to the story of Balaam and his ass (Num. 22) made in Abbo 12,36-8: Palpitabat mortuae linguae plectrum infra meatus faucium, manifestans in se uerbigenae magnalia, qui rudenti asellae humana conpegit uerba, ut increparet prophetae insipientiam. Cf. also Note ll. 7-8.100
                   Alsi dous corpf un Deu privé,L997 [L997dous corpf two ravens. L. corvum>O.F. corp, corb, corf, cors etc. (cf. REW 2269, T.-L. 2,892, Gdf. 2,310c) which was replaced early by the more individual corbeau (B&W; 155b).100
                   Helias ki fu apellé,
                   Jadis nur[ir]ent tut de lur gré,L999 [L999nur[ir]ent MS. nurent, modified by jadis, very probably represents an original pret.6 nurirent. Cf. nurri pp. 583 (: servi etc.) and nurit mid-line 1458. T.-L. 6,815 lists both norrir and norrer.100
         1000  Sicum Deus lur ot destiné.
                   Pen li porterent al matin,
                   E ca[r] ovoc, si sunt aclinL1002 [L1002ca[r] Cf. 1 Kings 17.6: deferebant ei panem et carnes mane.100
                   Al Deu sergant tut sen[z] engin,L1003 [L1003sen[z] engin While sen might be taken as the Northern form of the masculine atonic possessive adjective (cf. sen 1663, also doubtful, and Note to that line), it is difficult to see it functioning as such in this locution. I have emended to sen[z] and interpret sen[z] engin as without guile, without deception, i.e. faithfully, honestly, with a significance similar to that of the more frequent (servir) a gré. Though the locution par engin is frequently attested (cf. T.-L. 3,389) I can find no instance of senz engin as here with engin <L. ingenium (REW 4419) although T.-L. 3,373 cites examples of senz engan<enganer<*ingannare (REW 4416) from the time of Ph. de Thaon (cf. Comput 2426, 2436) and Gdf. 3,171c notes the much later sans enghien, dated 1256, and sans mal engeinh, sans mal enginh dated 1360.100
         1004  E lui crement pur lur veisin.L1004 [L1004e with adversative force even though. Cf. Bell 1956, p. 59 and F. J. Tanquerey, Et particule, in Studies . . . presented to M. K. Pope (Manchester, 1939), pp. 346-50.100
                   Al vespre firent altresi;
                   Ço fu par Deu e sa merci.
                   Si lui servent de di en di,
         1008  Nel metent pas en ubli.
                   Aprés de l'ewe a bou
                   Que clere e curante fu. [f.119b]
                   Par ço a il bien entendu
         1012  Que Deu l'aveit si purvou.
                   El pais fu ço d'Israel
                   Que jadis esteit bon e bel,
                   E tut tens fu a Deu nuvelL1015 [L1015] The significance of nuvel in the locution estre nuvel a qn. is uncertain, though the general sense of the locution would seem to be along the lines of the interpretations suggested in the Glossary.100
         1016  Dementiers qu'a lui fu leel.L997 [L997] Cf. 1 Kings 17.1-6 for this account of the ravens feeding the prophet Elijah in the desert. Abbo does not mention the episode which seems to have been added by the author of the Passiun in place of Abbo's brief reference to Daniel (Abbo 12,47-8) following the story of Balaam and his ass (cf. Note ll. 981-96).100
                   Li creatur ki fist Adam,
                   E guari de la beleine Jonam,
                   Si pout par oisels Helyam,
         1020  E mult bel guari Balaam,

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                   Icist fist par vertu su[ner]L1021 [L1021] su followed by an erasure101L1021 [L1021su[ner] MS. su followed by an erasure. No correction was written in.101
                   Le seint chief treis moz e parler,
                   Que nus ne duissum duterL1023 [L1023duissum subj.impf.4 where O.F. would regularly have dëussons. Cf. Pope §§ 1132 and 1279 for the effacement in A.N. in the course of the later twelfth century of unstressed e in hiatus and Note l. 984 for A.N. representation of O.F. [y] by ui.101
         1024  Que il ne feist a loer,
                   E pot faire par son plaisirL1025 [L1025] For the affirmative indicative pot cf. Introd. p. 41.101
                   Les morz lever, les vifs murir.
                   N'a nul si for ki pot guenchir
         1028  Que n'estoce de li sentir
                   Cum il de poesté est grant
                   E ses amis partut aidant.
                   Ki qu'a lui seit obeisant,
         1032  D'enfernal peine li ert guarant.
                   Icés vertuz qu'ai dit devant
                   Si furent trestuz par semblant
                   Que nul ne li seit mescreant
         1036  Qu'il ne seit trestut poantL1035 [L1035] that no one should doubt that he was omnipotent. Mescreire, listed in T.-L. 5,1605 as v.a. etw. (oder jem.) bezweifeln, here governs two objects: the pronoun li 1035 and the clause qu'il ne seit . . . 1036.101
                   Ki fist del chef le leu guardein
                   Al seint martir bon e certein.
                   Il nel guarda pas en vein;
         1040  Bien l'a guardé sauf e sein,
                   Desque la vint icele gent
                   Ki l'unt devant quis bonement,
                   Si sunt devant lui en present.
         1044  Dunc l'a baisé e puis lur rent.L1044 [L1044] then he kissed it and gave it back to them.101
                   I[l] l'unt receu par grant amur, [f.120a]
                   Sin rendent graces al salvur
                   Ki lur a fait itel honur
         1048  Par quei perdrunt lur grant dolur.

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                   Le chief al cors en unt porté
                   Que lunges ourent cuveité.
                   N'a celui ki ne seit mult haitié
         1052  Pur ço qu'i[l] l'unt issi truvé.
                   Asemblent tut cil envirun
                   Ki furent venu al buissun
                   Quant virent tel salvaciun,
         1056  Si s'en vunt a processiun.
                   Li lu l'ensiut dol menant,
                   Sicum mustre par semblant.
                   Nes volt laisser pur nul vivant
         1060  Desque il vindrent al cors gisant.
                   Idunc al bois est repairé
                   U mult aveit cunversé.
                   Ne volt estre desnaturé;
         1064  Pur ço s'en vait tut de sun gré.
                   Le chef cum est al cors venu,
                   A grant joie est receu,
                   Sicum Deu aveit purveu,
         1068  Kar il ne volt que fust perdu.
                   Il le pernent tut en chantant,
                   Sil metent al cors mort gisant,
                   Si prient Deu trestut poant
         1072  Que lur mustre cum est vaillant.
                   Aprés ço qu'il unt Deu preé,
                   Al sepulture l'unt livréL1074 [L1074Al sepulture Elsewhere in the text al represents a le m. (cf. al rei 8, al tirz jur 29, al tiran 297, al cors 519 etc.), yet here it precedes sepulture, a substantive which was normally feminine in O.F. While al<a la is occasionally attested from the thirteenth century onwards (cf. Södergård 1948, p. 89) and while there is also a certain degree of uncertainty in A.N. texts regarding the gender of substantives (cf. Introd. p. 23 for such uncertainty in this text), sepulture may well be scribal for an original sepulcre sm., rendering as it does Abbo 13,4-5 ad locum sepulchri and especially 12-13 tradiderunt . . . competenti mausoleo. Cf. Note to P 287 in La Seinte Resureccion (ANTS IV) where le sepulture with a rare mistake in the gender of the article is similarly probably scribal for sepulchre. Sepulcre sm. occurs at ll. 21 and 1435 of our poem. Alternatively, the original reading may have been A sepulture l’unt livré.102
                   Bien prof del liu u fu tué.
         1076  Lungtens iloc s'est reposé.
                   Une chapele, n'est pas grant,
                   Que bele fu e avenant
                   Unt mis ultre le rei vaillantL1079 [L1079ultre over rendering Abbo's desuper (cf. Note l. 1083) with a significance hitherto unattested.102 [f.120b]
         1080  Pur ki Deu fait vertuz grant.L1080 [L1080vertuz grant The number of grant is guaranteed by the rhyme (: vaillant etc.). The -z of vertuz could either represent E.O.F. [θ]<L. intervocalic t become final or further illustrate scribal confusion of -t and -z (cf. Introd. pp. 55-6). For faire vertut manifest one's power cf. Ch.R. 3931 Escrient Franc: Deus i ad fait uertut..102

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                   La gent ki furent del pais
                   Le liu tienent en mult grant pris.
                   N'est pas si vil cum fu jadis,L1083 [L1083vil echoing Abbo 13,13 edificata uili opere desuper basilica and 20-21 sub uili tugurio sanctificate domus.103
         1084  Kar seint Edmund i est remis.
                   De tel bien cum lur a presté
                   Li rei del cel, sin unt porté
                   Al liu [de] Deu seintefié,L1087 [L1087liu [de] Deu coordinated with e del martir 1088. The line as copied by the scribe has seven syllables. For similar omission of de before Deu cf. l. 966 where the scribe corrected his error.103
         1088  E del martir lur avué.
                   Ki la vint mu u forsené,
                   U seit avuogle u desvé,
                   Clop, surd, cuntrait, tost est sané,
         1092  E de quel mal dunt seit grevé.
                   Enfermeté n'a nul si grant,
                   S'il vient al martir merci criant,
                   Qu'il nel deliveret a tant,
         1096  Senz respunt e senz cuntremant.L1096 [L1096] without argument and irrevocably, i.e. swiftly and surely. Respunt and cuntremant are both legal terms, respunt being the reply made by a defendant following his accuser's claim and prior to the court's passing its jugement (cf. T.-L. 8,1072 which cites among other examples M.Fce Lais L 427 Li reis demande le recort Sulunc le cleim e les respuns: Ore est trestut sur les baruns). Cuntremant can signify a request for a deferment, the deferment itself or delay in general. The locution senz cuntremant irrevocably is of frequent occurrence (cf. T.-L. 2,798, Gdf. 2,275c).103
                   Renumé est par le pais
                   Cum seint Edmund est poestis
                   E delivre tuz les chaitis
         1100  Ki sun cors pur mal unt requis.
                   Or entendez, seignurs, a mei,
                   Si vus dirai pur quei
                   Une vile ki fu al rei
         1104  La gent unt chois[i]e entre sei.L1104 [L1104chois[i]e MS. choise may be an analogical form choisé based on the past participle of the first conjugation. However, since regular choisi (-id, -it) 96, 581, 1179 is guaranteed by the rhyme in the other occurrences of this pp., choise probably represents an original choisie with -e marking agreement with une vile, the preceding direct object, and has been emended to this effect.103
                   Bedericheswrte out a nun;L1105 [L1105Bedericheswrte with full stops under the final -te in the MS. Cf. Abbo 13,23-5: in uilla regia quae lingua Anglorum Bedricesgueord dicitur, Latina uero Bedricicurtis uocatur. This is modern Bury St. Edmunds which was originally known as aet Baederices wirde, aet Beadriceswyrd̄. The earliest references to St. Edmunds Bury or Bury St. Edmunds are dated c. 1035 (cf. E. Ekwall, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names, 4th ed. (Oxford, 1960), p. 78).103
                   Issi numer oi l'avum.
                   Real esteit, ben le savum.
         1108  Pur ço de cele parler volum.
                   Dedenz un mustier unt asis
                   Icil ki furent ses amis,
                   De fust ben grant ço fu jadis,
         1112  U enz le seint rei unt mis.

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                   Quant trestut fu aparillé [f.121a]
                   Sicum l'ourent purposé,
                   Onestement l'unt aturné,
         1116  E puis s'ent sunt d'iloc turné
                   Al cors lu rei que mult unt cher,
                   Pur ço quel voldrent la porter
                   Qu'il pousse illoc reposer,L1119 [L1119pousse While this form could be taken as an A.N. variant of puisse subj.pr.3 there is no example other than this in the text of the A.N. graphy ou for [yi], and, since the verb is subordinated to voldrent 1118 pret.6, it more probably represents the impf.subj.3 poust.104
         1120  Que n'ait de nul mal encumbrer.
                   Mais il quident par verité
                   Qu'en puldre seit tresturné
                   La char qu'avant fu mult grevé.L1123 [L1123] quaveit104
         1124  Mais Deus ne volt ki l'a salvé.
                   Il unt quis u fu enterré,
                   Si l'unt entier e sein truvé,
                   Le chef al buc si ben sané
         1128  Que jamas plus n'iert desevré.
                   Al cors si bien est asembléd,
                   E juint par Deu e engluéd,
                   Cum unkes ne fust entaméd;
         1132  Le rei del cel seit graciéd.
                   Mais une reie, n'est pas grant,
                   El col al rei fu parissant,
                   Sicum seie vermeil luissant,L1135 [L1135vermeil qualifying seie. Cf. Introd. p. 24.104
         1136  En signe de martirie grant.L1136 [L1136martirie Cf. also l. 1286 and martiriement 178 (but martirement 652). This is a learned form from L. martyrium (REW 5386) in which L. post-tonic i is retained in the spelling without, it would seem, syllabic value (cf. Waters 1928, p. xlviii and Introd. p. 54).104
                   De tere fud pris, puis portéd
                   Ensemble od als en grant chertéd
                   En mult bel liu qued unt guardéd,
         1140  Dunt jamais plus n'iert remuéd.

Page 104

                   Finablement i est remis
                   Pur ço que mult l'amat jadis
                   Dementiers que fud sein e vis.
         1144  Ore a sun os est tut purpris.L1109 [L1109] The date of the translation of Edmund's body from its first resting-place near where he had been martyred to this wooden church in Bury St. Edmunds cannot be determined. Abbo states merely that the king remained in the first tomb multis annis (Abbo 13,14) and is followed in this by the Passiun: lungtens iloc s'est reposé 1076. Other accounts set the date variously at 903, 906, or as during the reign of King Athelstan (925-941) (cf. Memorials I, p. xxi). It must certainly have taken place prior to 945, the date of a charter in which Edmund, son of Edward the Elder, granted the adjacent lands to the keepers of St. Edmund's shrine at Bury. The original wooden church was replaced by a stone edifice, started in 1020 on the orders of King Cnut when Benedictine monks from St. Benet Hulme and Ely under Abbot Uvius assumed responsibility for the martyr's shrine. This stone church, consecrated in 1032, was later replaced by the great Norman church, begun by Abbot Baldwin, to which the body of St. Edmund, along with those of Sts. Botulph and Jurmin, was translated in 1095 (cf. Memorials I, pp. xxiv-xxxiv; VCH: Suffolk II, pp. 56-59 and M. R. James, On the Abbey of St. Edmund at Bury, Cambridge Antiquarian Society: Octavo Publications No. XXVIII (Cambridge, 1895), p. 117). The author of the Passiun indicates by his comment de fust ben grant ço fu jadis 1111 that he was aware that the church in which Edmund's body was lying at the time he composed his poem was not the original wooden church referred to by Abbo. Unfortunately the dates of the construction of the later churches are too early for this comment to be of any help in dating this poem.105
                   Tel vis ad e tel semblant,
                   E tel colur cum fust vivant,
                   El quel iloc iert atendant
         1148  Le Deu juise qued iert mult grant,
                   E la grant resurectiun,
                   E glorie senz cunfusiun,
                   Quant irunt a pardiciun
         1152  Li malfaitur e li felun. [f.121b]
                   Oez que fist une muiller
                   Ki seint Edmund aveit mult cher.
                   Oswen suvent l'oi numer.
         1156  Entur lui prent a cunverser.
                   A Deu del cel criet merci,
                   E al seint rei fait altresi.
                   Nel volt pas metre en ubli;
         1160  Pur ço n'ad repos ne nuit ne di.
                   Suvent chet en afflictions,L1161 [L1161chet en afflictions prostrated herself in penitential supplication, a clerkly expression. Ducange glosses Afflictio as psalmi poenitentialis recitatio quae ab humi prostratis fiebat maxime per Quadrigesimam et Adventum. Cf. also Vie S. Thomas 772 jut en affliction and Seinte Resur. P 121 se culcha en affliccions (and Note to that line). The locution faire lur afflicciuns occurs at l. 1273 of our poem.105
                   Aprés si dit ses oreisuns
                   Pur sei e pur ses cumpainuns
         1164  Que n'ai[e]nt part od les feluns.L1164 [L1164ai[e]nt MS. aint has been emended to aient rather than ait following the general sense of ll. 1162-4: then afterwards she prayed for herself and her companions that they might not share the fate of the wicked. Moreover, as written in the MS., l. 1164 has seven syllables. 105
                   Al rei par grant devociun
                   Sert ele senz altre cumpainun.
                   Le jur de l'absoluciun,L1167 [L1167Le jur de l'absoluciun Holy Thursday. Cf. T.-L. 1,68 and Abbo 14,17 dominica caena.105
         1168  Quant ad pris sa cunfessiun,
                   Devant la Pasche le quart jur,L1169 [L1169le quart jur the fourth day including both Easter Sunday and Holy Thursday in the count.105
                   Si vient al seint par grant amur.
                   Descovert l'ad par grant dulçur,
         1172  Ja seit iço qu'el ait pour.

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                   Aprés ses ungles ad tailliéd,
                   Sa barbe res, sun chef ruinéd,L1174 [L1174ruinéd trimmed <L. *rotundiatum (REW 7399). Cf. T.-L. 8,1464.106
                   Sicum fud acustuméd
         1176  D'an en an par Deu cungiéd.
                   Si lungement cum ele vesquid
                   Al seint de cel mester servid,
                   Kar Deu l'aveit devant choisid
         1180  Qu'ele fust par lui guarid.L1180 [L1180] Presumably so that she should be saved (from damnation) by the saint.106
                   Quanque de sun seint cors ad pris
                   En un bel vaissal si ad mis;
                   Desus l'auter si est asis.L1183 [L1183auter an archaic form <L. altare (REW 381) replaced early in O.F. by autel (cf. Waters 1928, p. clvi and B&W; 45b).106
         1184  Iloc serad pur veir tut dis,
                   Honestement e bien guardéd
                   E mult tenu en grant chertéd,
                   Kar de Deu est seintefiéd.
         1188  Ja plus d'iloc n'iert remuéd.
                   Une feiz cum le rei guardat
                   En sun col bel signe truvat,
                   Une reie vermeil qu'il at.L1191 [L1191vermeil qualifying une reie. Cf. Introd. p. 24.106 [f.122a]
         1192  Que martir fu signefiad.
                   Une petite, ne fud pas grant,
                   Cum ço fust seie aparisant.
                   Nel volt celer desornevant
         1196  Pur ço que fud a lui servant.
                   Apertement l'ad mustrét,
                   Que il seit plus honurétL1198 [L1198] Nabert prints Que [li reis] seit . . . and notes: Hs. Que li. The MS. however clearly reads il and not li.106
                   Cum martir e cum avuét,
         1200  E Jhesu Crist d'iço loét.
                   Un evesque mult glorius,
                   Seint Theodret le precius,L1202 [L1202Seint Theodret The details furnished by Abbo (cf. 15,1-3: Sed et beatae memoriae Theodredus, eiusdem prouinciae religiosus episcopus, qui propter meritorum prerogatiuam Bonus appellabatur . . . and 33: . . . predicti sancti episcopi Theodredi . . .) do not allow positive identification. East Anglia was under the jurisdiction of the bishops of Elmham but no name of a bishop of that see is recorded between that of Humbert (attested between 824 and November 845, said to have anointed Edmund in 869 and made by Symeon of Durham to share the king's martyrdom (cf. D. Whitelock, The pre-Viking age church in East Anglia, Anglo-Saxon England I (1972), 22 and Note ll. 442-5 above) ) and 956, the date of the first recorded signature of bishop Eadulf (cf. W. Stubbs, Registrum Sacrum Anglicanum, 2nd ed. (Oxford, 1897), p. 231). As the province of East Anglia, or at least of Suffolk, was under the jurisdiction of the bishops of London from the time of the reconquest of the area c. 920 until 956 (cf. R. Rainbird Clarke, East Anglia (London, 1960), p. 173), Abbo's Theodred may possibly be identified with Theodred, Bishop of London, whose signatures are noted between 926 and 951 and whose will indicates he was also bishop of Suffolk, if not of all East Anglia (cf. D. Whitelock, Anglo-Saxon Wills (Cambridge, 1930), p. 99 and English Historical Documents I (London, 1955), pp. 509-511). The most recent editor of Abbo's Passio makes this identification (cf. M. Winterbottom (ed.), Three Lives of English Saints (Toronto, 1972), p. 83 Note 15,1). There were, however, also two bishops of Elmham named Theodred who held office during the period between the reestablishment of the see and the end of the century: Theodred I 964/974-979/982 and Theodred II 979/982-995/997 (cf. HBC p. 222). If Abbo's phrase beatae memoriae indicates that Theodred was dead at the time he composed his Passio (985-7; cf. Introd. p. 4) then he could have been referring to either Theodred of London or Theodred I of Elmham, but since the phrase could also be applied to living people (cf. Memorials I, p. 20) Theodred II of Elmham is not necessarily excluded. The A.N. poet's statement (ll. 1203-4) that Theodred made many gifts to the shrine is similarly of little help, for Theodred of London made bequests in his will to the monks of St. Edmunds (cf. D. Whitelock, Anglo-Saxon Wills (Cambridge, 1930), p. 4), while one of the Theodreds of Elmham is noted in an Abbey cartulary as a generous benefactor of the foundation (cf. V. H. Galbraith, The East Anglian See and the Abbey of Bury St. Edmund's, English Historical Review XL (1925), 222-228).106
                   Le liu honurt cum pot plusL1203 [L1203honurt ind.pr.3 and possibly an analogical form influenced by curt ind.pr.3 of curir (cf. Pope § 1310 for such analogical forms in A.N. texts). Alternatively, the form could represent regular honuret with suppression in the orthography of the unstressed e of the termination (cf. also Notes ll. 1164, 1271). The fact that the line as written has seven syllables would tend to support the latter interpretation.106
         1204  De dons mult bons tut a estrus,

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                   Si funt cil ki sunt del pais
                   Od tel ben cum lur est remis.
                   Le martir unt suvent requis,
         1208  Kar jadis lur fud mult amis.
                   Oi[t] malhouré unt purpenséd
                   A faire grant iniquitéd
                   Si il pouent de nuit en celéd;
         1212  A lur voil ne serat celéd.L1212 [L1212ne serat celéd The rhyme celéd (: en celéd 1211) is awkward and, although there are other instances of the same word rhyming twice in the one quatrain (cf. Introd. p. 48), none involve adjacent lines as here. Celéd 1212 might possibly represent seelé sealed, impervious (to the robbers' attempts to depecier 1213 the church and purfuir 1233 its walls) with effacement in the orthography of unstressed e in hiatus before a stressed vowel as has been noted elsewhere in the text (cf. Introd. p. 56) and representation of initial s by c (cf. Notes ll. 109, 148, 983 for scribal hesitation over the letters c and s and Pope § 1231 for this feature of A.N. orthography).107
                   Le muster volent depecierL1213 [L1213depecier break into. The sense seemingly required by the context is not attested for this verb whose basic significance (cf. T.-L. 2,1412) is that of to shatter of idols, statues etc., destroy of edifices, churches etc., break down of doors etc. (as at l. 1227).107
                   Que seint Aedmund aveit mult cher.
                   Ço que dedenz poent truver
         1216  Od [als] purpensent a porter.
                   Al seint ne volent estre enclin.
                   Chascun cuntrovet sun engin,L1218 [L1218] cunstrouet107L1218 [L1218cuntrovet MS. cunstrouet. Nabert emends to cunstrouit and prints: Chascun [d'als] cunstrouit sun engin. Bell rejects Nabert's emendation in favour of the one that has been adopted here which is, as he points out, simpler and (Bell 1956, p. 59) harmonizes with l. 1231: Chascun ad ustil aturnét; and with l. 1253: Chascun atent en sun engin. For cuntrover cf. T.-L. 2,812.107
                   Que puissent de icel larecin
         1220  Que unt pensét faire fin.
                   Tant tost cum cil sunt la venud
                   Del martir sentent grant vertud.
                   Chascun en sun fait est tenud,
         1224  Si sunt par diable deceud.
                   Tel par eschele en muntant
                   A la fenestre est pendant,
                   Tel od martel l'us depeçant [f.122b]
         1228  Que ja ne irat d'iloc avant.
                   Besches e picois unt portét,
                   E limes trestut de lur gret.
                   Chascun ad ustil aturnét
         1232  Pur parfaire lur volunté.L1229 [L1229] From the general sense and from comparison with the relevant section of Abbo (cf. Abbo 15,13-25) this quatrain could well have been intended to be read between the present 305 and 306. For another possible instance of misplacement of a quatrain, cf. Note ll. 113-16.107

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                   Ki les pareiz voult purfuirL1233 [L1233purfuir dig through, breach. Cf. Abbo 15,19-20 suffossionem parietis. Foïr, fouïr <L. fodere (REW 3401) is well attested (cf. T.-L. 3,1985, Gdf. 4,108c, 111b and 9,632c) but purfuir is not listed.108
                   Retenud est par le martir.
                   Ne purrat ça ne la guenchir
         1236  Desque il seit jugét a murir.
                   Cascun el fait que ad cumencét
                   La vertu del seint l'ad liédL1237 [L1237] The power of the saint has bound each one in the act he has begun (cf. Abbo 15,21-2: sanctus martyr eos ligat in ipso suo conamine), with Chascun 1237 duplicated by l' 1238.108
                   Desque al matin que fud levéd
         1240  Li soleil e dunat clartéd.
                   Les serjanz al noble martir
                   Dedenz cumencent a dormir.
                   Ço fu devant le lur venir
         1244  Que als ne purent pas oir.L1244 [L1244] with the result that they (i.e. the sleeping monks) could not hear them (i.e. the robbers). als stressed pronoun object, cf. Introd. p. 36.108
                   Un de çous qui fud el muster
                   Funt par le grant croiz esveiller.L1246 [L1246croiz noise, din <O.F. croissir<Frk. krostjan (REW 4781). Cf. Abbo 15,28-9: sonus fragoris creber custodis pulsaret aures interius and T.-L. 2,1075 where the earliest occurrence listed is that in the late twelfth-century Reimpredigt I 101.108
                   Ne pot purquant un mot suner,
         1248  Ne sun cors amunt esdrescer,
                   Kar Deu volt que cele vertu
                   Partut seit oid e conut,
                   E cil ki bien l'avrat vout
         1252  Ne seit perit n'en fin perdut.L1251 [L1251E cil . . . ne seit perit . . . a substantival clause coordinated with
                   que cele vertu
                   partut seit oid e conut
1249-1250 and object of volt 1249. The conjunction que is not repeated before the second clause. Cf. also ll. 1337 and 1382 for other instances of non-repetition of que before the second of coordinated subordinate clauses.108

                   Chascun atent en sun engin
                   Forment liéd desqu'al matin
                   Que venent iloc li veisin,L1255 [L1255venent ind.pr.6 as it stands, is coordinated with the subj.pr. seit vout 1256. The mixture of moods here is puzzling and venent may possibly be scribal for an original subj.pr.6 vengent.108
         1256  E seit vout cel larecin.
                   Li serjant dedenz esveilléd
                   Dunt ci devant vus ai cuntéd
                   Quant ajurnat e[st] deliéd,L1259 [L1259e[st] MS. é. Cf. Introd. p. 58.108
         1260  Ses membres mot, e ad parléd.
                   A Deu del cel ad graciéd
                   E al martir suvent a voéd
                   Que si bel l'at delivréd [f.123a]
         1264  De ço qu'esteit ainz encumbrét.L1261 [L1261] These lines present several problems: (a) A Deu. . .ad graciéd 1261. The verb gracier, occurring here with an indirect object, normally takes a direct object and does so in its other occurrences in the text: ll. 826, 943, 1132. T.-L. 4,502 cites one instance of gracier with indirect object, but in the construction gracier. qc. a qn. If this construction were applied here, ll. 1263-4 would have to be taken as the direct object of gracier and also, presumably, of voer 1262. The use here of gracier with indirect object may have been influenced by the construction rendre graces a qn. employed at ll. 995, 1046, 1512. (b) a voéd 1262 MS. avoed. I have not followed the MS. word division since none of the meanings attested for avoer (cf. T.-L. 1,749) is appropriate to the context, and, while reflexive s'avoer a qn. dedicate oneself to (cf. T.-L. 1,750) would not be impossible, the fact that it is modified by the adverb suvent renders it an unlikely reading (?he repeatedly dedicated himself to the martyr), as does the fact that the man in question was one of the guardians of the shrine and already, presumably, dedicated to the martyr's service. I have therefore printed a voéd with the construction voer a qn. adresser des voeux à, rendre hommage à attested in both the Cambridge Psalter LXXV, 11 Vuez e rendez al Seignur vostre Deu, . . . (cf. Gdf. 8,277c and 10,864b) and the Oxford Psalter (identical except for initial Voez . . .). I have a strong suspicion, however, that MS. suvent avoéd may be a misrepresentation of an original sun avuéd. This substantive, which is always spelt with a u, is frequently preceded by a possessive adjective (cf. ll. 739, 784, 923, 1088, 1406) and occurs in a similar context at ll. 1405-6:
                   Tant ad le rei del cel preiét
                   e seint Aedmund sun avuét. . . .
(c) que 1263. If ll. 1263-4 are not the direct object of ad graciéd 1261 then que is very probably an example of the A.N. use of this form as a nominative relative pronoun (cf. Introd. p. 30). (d) qu' 1264 with which, by which (cf. que 1323 with similar significance) where dunt would be expected and is used in similar dunt fud anceis mult encumbrét 1408 and dunt devant fud encumbrét 1415.108

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                   Li serganz les us del muster
                   Uverirent quant esteit jor cler.
                   La gent i entrent pur urer,
         1268  Sicum lur cundunat le quer.
                   Entre als nen est icel serjant
                   De ki parlé ai ci devant.
                   Le seint aurt agenuilant,L1271 [L1271aurt ind.pr.3, possibly an analogical form influenced by curt ind.pr.3 of curir (cf. Note l. 1203). Alternatively the form may be scribal for an original aure or possibly even auret with omission in the orthography of final unstressed e forming a fifth and supernumerary syllable (cf. Note l. 38).101
         1272  Sicum soleit ici devant.
                   Quant unt fait lur afflicciuns
                   E dit a Deu lur ureisuns,
                   A tant si vien[en]t fors as laruns,L1275 [L1275vien[en]t This verb, coordinated with unt truvez 1276 and occurring in a passage describing the people's coming to morning mass at the abbey, is repeated, again with plural reference, at l. 1281: la gent cum sunt defors venud. Plural vien[en]t as emended very probably represents the original reading, the scribe having again suppressed in the spelling an unstressed final syllable forming a fifth and supernumerary syllable (cf. Note l. 38).101
         1276  Sis unt truvez cum mals bricuns.
                   En l'ovre chascun est liéd
                   Que folement ad cumencéd,
                   Par Deu vertud, estre lur gred.
         1280  Jamais ne serat plus celéd.
                   La gent cum sunt defors venud
                   E unt cel miracle voud,
                   Il unt mult tost aparceud
         1284  Que Deu l'at fait par sa vertud
                   Pur seint Aedmund qui l'amat tant
                   Que suffert out martirie grant,L1286 [L1286martirie Cf. Note l. 1136.101
                   Sicum mustréd l'avum devant,
         1288  Pur ço que fud fedeil serjant
                   A Jhesu Crist, nostre salvur,
                   Ki nus apelet par bon amur
                   E volt mener a grant dulçur,L1291 [L1291volt mener Nus, object of apelet 1290, functions also as the object of volt mener but is not repeated before this locution. Cf. Note l. 12.101
         1292  Si lui servum cum a seingnur.
                   Il pernent ore un messager
                   Qu'il volent enveer
                   A Theodret senz demurer,
         1296  Qu'il puisset a lui demustrer

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                   Cumfaitement il unt truvét
                   Les laruns e cum unt uverét. [f.123b]
                   Iloc n'est gueres demurét;
         1300  Lur message ben ad portét.
                   Icés nuveles cum oid
                   Seint Th[e]odret e entendit,L1302 [L1302Th[e]odret I emend to the spelling employed at ll. 1202, 1295, 1378.110
                   Le messager bel recoillit,
         1304  E nequedent si fud marrit.
                   Li messager quant ad mustrét
                   Iço que a lui fud chargét,
                   Ignelement ad pris cungiét,
         1308  Si s'en est arere turnét.
                   L'evesque prent tut sun clergét
                   Que fud iloc od lui privét.
                   Le creatur unt aurét
         1312  E puis aprés lui sunt alét.
                   Quant a cest liu sunt venud,
                   De lur chevals sunt descendud.
                   Cum unt cest miracle voud,
         1316  Sevent que fud par Deu vertud.
                   L'evesque est entrét el muster,
                   E les freres pur aurer
                   Le seint martir que ourent cher.
         1320  Ore lur cuvent la demurer.
                   Tant lungement sunt demurez
                   Que les laruns sunt deliverezL1322 [L1322] deuuerez110L1322 [L1322deliverez Bell suggests correcting MS. deuuerez to denuez a correction which keeps closer to the MS. (Bell 1956, p. 59). Denuer, however, is not used elsewhere in the poem while deliv(e)rer occurs frequently and I emend as above since the first u of MS. deuuerez could very well be a misrepresentation of the -li- of deliuerez.110
                   Des liens que furent liezL1323 [L1323que with which. Cf. Note ll. 1261-4.110
         1324  En l'ovre que ourent cumencez.

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                   L'evesque fud mult curucéd.
                   A pendre tuz ad cumandéd;
                   Que pur hume ne seit laisséd
         1328  Iço qu'il d'als aveit jugéd.
                   Cum entendent que sunt damnez,
                   E trestuz a la mort jugez,
                   Mult durement sunt esmaez,
         1332  Si sunt chaeit l'evesque as pez,
                   E prient lui pur Deu amur, [f.124a]
                   E pur la sue seint dulçur,L1334 [L1334la sue seint dulçur Dulçur, clearly feminine here as at l. 1672, is at ll. 1171 and 1291 preceded by the adjective grant. I suspect that in writing seint adj.masc. the scribe was influenced by seint 1335 and that the original reading here may well have been pur la sue grant dulçur.111
                   E pur seint Edmund, sun seingnur,
         1336  Que ne seit envers als issi dur,
                   Mes ait merci par sun plaisirL1337 [L1337Mes ait merci . . . the second of two coordinated clauses dependent on prient 1333. The conjunction que 1336 which introduces the first clause has not been repeated before the second. Cf. also Note ll. 1251-2.111
                   De als, cum out le seint martir,L1338 [L1338De originally written Ne or Ke. The faulty letter was then erased and a d was written in, far to the left of the word.111
                   Que puissent trestuz espenir
         1340  Lur pechez e a Deu servir.
                   Ne sei retrait de ço qu'ad dit:
                   De mort ne averunt ja plus respit.
                   Penduz sunt trestuz senz cuntredit;
         1344  Kar ne pensat que est escrit
                   U Seint Espir[i]t ad parlétL1345 [L1345Espir[i]t Cf. Esspirit 1662, 1687 and also Note l. 25. Waters expressed doubt as to the existence in O.F. of the form espirt (cf. Waters 1928, p. 101, Note ll. 131-2). Moreover, the line as written has seven syllables.111
                   Par Isaie, sun privét,
                   Que a nus suvent ad demustrét
         1348  Sicum est en escrit truvét:
                   Ne vus feinez a delivererL1349 [L1349feinez Cf. Note l. 766.111
                   Icés que heom voldrat tuer.
                   Tut i metez vostre poeir
         1352  Que a vus ne avienge encumbrer,L1344 [L1344] Cf. Abbo 15,37-9: non reducens ad memoriam quod Dominus per prophetam admonet: Eos qui ducuntur ad mortem eruere ne cesses. The syntax of l. 1344 For he was not mindful of what is written reflects that of the Latin. The O.F. author's attribution of the admonition to Isaiah (l. 1346) was probably influenced by Abbo's reference to a prophet. Similar injunctions are expressed in Isaiah 58.6-7 but in quite different terms. Proverbs 24.11 is clearly being quoted here, not Isaiah.111
                   Cum fist Heliseus jadis:
                   Les laruns delivrat senz pris
                   De mort, sis ad mené tut vifs
         1356  Que ne sunt uniz ne malmis.L1356 [L1356uniz a highly unusual spelling of hon(n)iz.111

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                   De Dathan, une grant citez,L1357 [L1357Dathan Abbo did not name the city (cf. Note ll. 1353-76).112
                   Par sun purchaz les ad menez
                   Desque a Samarie en celéd
         1360  Que unkes ne fud desturbéd.L1357 [L1357] The occurrence of the locution en celéd 1359 at the rhyme would seem to indicate that these lines rhyme in final stressed e and that the -z of citez 1357, in apposition to Dathan accusative (cf. also en Rume jadis la citét 1544), and also of menez 1358, where it is grammatically justified, is scribal. The -z in these two words may further illustrate scribal uncertainty in the use of the letters t and z or alternatively may represent E.O.F. [θ] from L. intervocalic t become final (cf. Introd. pp. 55-6).112
                   Devant le rei Joram vint ilL1361 [L1361Joram Abbo did not name the king (cf. Note ll. 1353-76) and 2 Kings 6.21 similarly mentions only a rex Israel. The A.N. author here again displays his knowledge of the Bible (cf. Introd. p. 50).112
                   Cum bon prophete e gentil.
                   Icés qu'ad guari de peril
         1364  Ensivent lui fort e barnil,
                   Les quels occire volt li reis;
                   Mais li prophete fud curteis
                   E li cumandet sur ses leis
         1368  Que ço seit turnét a jugleis,L1368 [L1368] that he should make light of the matter, that he should dismiss the matter. The word jugleis is of rare occurrence; T.-L. 4,1712 lists only two instances: Chr.Ben 21536 Dunc i avint li quens Geofreiz Od Angevins pleins de jugleis and Perc. 15049 with the significance Gaukelei; Gdf. 4,659c cites Chr.Ben and Rom. des trois ennem., Ars. 5201 p. 288b Parole de ris, de juglais, Nuisable est a trestoz jongleus with the meaning forfanterie, plaisanterie. The locution turner a jugleis, which is not attested elsewhere and which here is affirmed by the rhyme (: reis etc.), may reflect a crossing of torner a joglerie (cf. Ille 3916 Chevalier gabent mais d'amors E tornent tout a jouglerie cited in T.-L. 4,1711) and the frequent torner a gabeis (cf. T.-L. 4,24), both of which having meanings similar to that required by the context.112
                   Kar il nes poeit purchacer
                   Par arme de fer ne de acer.
                   Pur ço ne lur deit encumbrerL1371 [L1371lur where les would be expected. Cf. Introd. p. 36.112
         1372  Par nul engin ne desturber. [f.124b]
                   Ore les ad trestuz delivrez,
                   De pain e de ewe saziez;L1374 [L1374] Cf. Abbo 15,40 pastos pane et aqua, cited Note ll. 1353-76.112
                   A lur pais les ad menez,
         1376  Tuz seins e saufs, al Deu cungiez.
                   De cest baron ici larrom;L1377 [L1377] paragraph sign in margin112
                   A Theodret repeirerum
                   De ki devant parlét avum.
         1380  Entendez ore que vus dirum.
                   L'evesque entent que mal ad fait
                   E ad cumencé itel plait
                   Que ben prof est a fin atrait,L1381 [L1381] The bishop realises that he has done wrong and [that] he has started on a course of action such that he has very nearly been brought to perdition. For the non-repetition of the conjunction que before ad cumencé . . . 1382, the second of two coordinated clauses dependent on entent 1381, cf. Note ll. 1251-2.112
         1384  Dunt li malfét ad grant ahait.

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                   Son cors mult forment ad chargéd
                   De penitence par son gred
                   Que ne seit pris en cel pechét
         1388  E pur lur mort senz fin damnét.
                   Quant fait fud cel occisiun,L1389 [L1389cel occisiun Cf. Introd. p. 56.113
                   Si quidat dunc li mal felun
                   Qu'i[l] l'oust trait a perdiciun
         1392  U n'avereit ja remissiun.
                   Mais il vait par son evesquét
                   E ses clers ad mult bel preiét
                   Que seit par auls as lais mustrét
         1396  Cumfaitement il ad errét,
                   E priet lur a cumander
                   Al pople treis jorz a juner
                   Que Deu li deinast parduner
         1400  Ço qu'ad jugét par fol penser.
                   Tant ad a Deu merci requis
                   Que ne pot estre pas suppris
                   De ses enfernals enemis
         1404  Ki mult l'unt aguaitét jadis,
                   Tant ad le rei del cel preiét
                   E seint Aedmund sun avuét,
                   Que cest peché est pardunét
         1408  Dunt fud anceis mult encumbrét.
                   Cum il entent veraiement
                   Qu'il ad fait acordement
                   Al rei del ciel omnipotent [f.125a]
         1412  E a seint Aedmund ensement,
                   E set qu'a lui est pardunét
                   De tut en tut icel pechét
                   Dunt devant fud encumbrét
         1416  Pur les laruns que aveit jugét,

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                   Hastivement ad demandét
                   Un de sons ki lui fud privét.
                   Ne volt que seit a lui celét
         1420  Ço qu'e[n] sun quer ad purpensét.L1420 [L1420Ço qu'e[n] sun quer Cf. Note l. 592.114
                   Primes demustret sun plaisir
                   De ço que fud tost a venir,
                   Puis priet Deu e sun martir
         1424  Qu'il pusset sun eire parfurnir.
                   Aprés s'e[n] sunt d'iloc alétL1425 [L1425s'e[n] sunt . . . alét Cf. Note l. 71.114
                   Desque seint Aedmund unt truvét.
                   Li evesque s'est engenuillét,
         1428  Sicum prudume e ben senét.
                   Ne se cuntint pas folement.
                   Le seint cors prent seurement,
                   Si l'ad lavét honestement.
         1432  De ço merciet Deu […]
                   Quant l'aveit de ses mains lavét,
                   De dras reals l'at aturnét
                   E en un sepulcre l'at posét
         1436  De fust mult bel aparaillét.
                   Puis al seint martir prent cungét,
                   E si l'ad a Deu cumandét.
                   Repeirét est en sun evesquét
         1440  U fud receu cum avuét.
                   Mult est icelui bonurét
                   Ki sert le seint martir a gret
                   Ki maint en pardurabletét
         1444  As privez Deu acumpainét,

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                   E est tut tens en ben creisant
                   El reg[n]e del ciel ben flurisant
         1448  Ki lui guarit de peine grant.L1448 [L1448peine with i written superscript in the scribe's hand and its place in the word marked by a comma on the line of writing.115
                   Alsi est icist maleurét
                   Ki fait cuntre sa volentét
                   Ço que lui turnet a viltét
         1452  Dunt purrat estre ben dampnét,
                   Grant piece cum fud ci devant [f.125b]
                   Uns riches hom e mult poantL1454 [L1454] hom est mult115
                   Ki vint al seint liu chevalchant,
         1456  Orguil en sun quer demenant.
                   Lefstan par nun fud apelét;L1457 [L1457Lefstan Cf. Abbo 16,1-2: Nec piget referre de quodam magnae potentiae uiro Leofstano uocabulo, qui . . .115
                   D'estengle fud nurit e net.
                   Tut tenz i aveit cunversét,
         1460  Sin out dedenz grant poestét.L1458 [L1458] He was born and brought up in East Anglia. He had lived there all his life and was a most powerful man in the region. Abbo is not the direct source of the statement that Leofstan was an East Anglian by birth though the O.F. poet may simply be embroidering upon Abbo 16,1-2 quodam magnae potentiae uiro rather than using material from other accounts or confusing Abbo's Leofstan and the evil East Anglian sheriff of the same name who figured in Hermann's De Miraculis (cf. Memorials I, pp. 30ff.).115
                   Ingnelement a sun plaisir
                   Le cors cumandet a descuverir
                   A seint Edmund, le bon martir,
         1464  Dunt li purrat mesavenir.
                   Ne pot sei memes refrener,
                   Ne la folie ne volt laiser.
                   Les os cumandet demustrer
         1468  Que ait honur al reguarder.L1468 [L1468] Qua ait115L1468 [L1468Que ait MS. qaait with superscript open a instead of ¯ or ', influenced probably by the a of ait.115
                   Li serjant que sunt del muster
                   E unt le martir a guarder,
                   Quant lui ne poent desturner,
         1472  Nen osent pas encuntrester

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                   A faire sun cumandement,
                   Al cors si vunt trestuz dolent
                   Sil demustrent apertement,
         1476  Dunt il fud mis en grant turment.
                   Tant tost cum fud a lui mustréd
                   Perdit sun sen, si fud devét.
                   Diables est en sun cors entrét
         1480  De qui jamais n'ert delivrét.
                   Quant aveit tut sun sen perdut
                   Par diable qu'il out reçut,
                   D'icés qu'il devant fudL1483 [L1483D'icés qu'il devant fud by those in front of whom he was, i.e. those present, with qu' here for E.O.F. cui. Cf. Introd. p. 30.116
         1484  Estreitement est retenud,
                   Si l'unt ben estreitement liét,
                   Puis a sun pere fud menét
                   Ki Elfgar esteit apelét.L1487 [L1487Ki Elfgar Cf. Abbo 16,11 Aelfgarus. Nabert prints Rïelfgar, mistaking the ductus of the K which the scribe writes with a straight hasp for that of an R which, in the scribe's hand, is written with a curving hasp. Bell, working from Nabert's edition, comments (Bell 1956, p. 59): as the name in Abbo is Aelfgar, I would suggest the correction to Ki Elfgar.116
         1488  Mult fud prudom e ben senét.
                   Cum vit si fiz si povrementL1489 [L1489si fiz Nabert prints le fiz but the MS. clearly reads si, possibly scribal for an original sun and influenced by si 1490, 1491.116
                   Devant li ester, si fud dolent,
                   Si lur demande nequedent
         1492  Pur quei suffret icel turment.
                   Il repunent mult sagement
                   E dient tut a lur scient [f.126a]
                   Que Deus en ad pris vengementL1495 [L1495] that God had taken revenge on him.116
         1496  Dunt n'avrat guarisement,
                   Kar folement aveit errét
                   Envers Deu e lur avuét,
                   Seint Aedmund qui fud apelét.
         1500  Entendent qu'il est vengiét.
                   De mot en mot li unt cuntét
                   Ço qu'aveit fait e cumandét
                   Par orguil e crueltét,
         1504  E par sa grant iniquitét.

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                   Quant saveit tute la veritét
                   Par ces qui l'ourent la menét,
                   Sun pere mult est corucét
         1508  E en sun quer mult ad pensét.
                   Ja seit iço que fust dolent
                   De sun fiz qu'il vit en present
                   Ateint si dolurusement,
         1512  Nepurquant graces a Deu rent.
                   A seint Aedmund ad merciét,
                   Quant nel voldreit servir a gret
                   Mais fist cuntre sa voluntét,
         1516  D'iço qu'il s'est si ben vengét.L1513 [L1513] He thanked St. Edmund (l. 1513) for taking such effective revenge (l. 1516) when he (i.e. Leofstan) would not serve him willingly (l. 1514) but acted contrary to his (i.e. Edmund's) will (l. 1515). The order of the lines here is unusual and unnatural.117
                   Aprés iço ad cumandét
                   Que d'iloc seit tost ramenét.
                   Pur ço qu'ot le seint avilét
         1520  A li n'ert mais acumpainét.
                   Tost fud fait sun cumandement:
                   Ostét en fud hastivement.
                   Ja plus n'ert en present;
         1524  Departit sunt finablement.
                   De diable est sun cors espris,
                   Sin est dedenz mult poestifs,
                   Kar tut l'at a sun os cunquis
         1528  Pur ço que servit l'out tut dis.
                   Si fort le faseit esrager
                   Que nuls n'osat a lui parler
                   N'en nule guise apresmer,
         1532  Tant fud replenit d'averser.L1532 [L1532] repleint117

Page 117

                   Tant est e la e ça alétL1533 [L1533] The line is obscure, and Abbo has nothing corresponding.118
                   Que verms l'unt trestut demangét.
                   A tele fin s'en est alét [f.126b]
         1536  Del siecle perit e dampnét.
                   Ici ad Jhesu Crist vengétL1537 [L1537Ici for Is(s)i thus. Cf. Introd. p. 56 for confusion of c and s in this text.118
                   Seint Edmund, sun ami privét,
                   Champiun fort e ben senét.
         1540  Por ço senz fin ert honurét.
                   Seint Gregorie nus ad cuntét
                   En un livre pur veritét
                   Cument fud altresi vengét
         1544  En Rume jadis, la citét,
                   Seint Lorenz, le noble martir,
                   De çous qui nel voldrent servir,
                   Mais l'unt guardét par fol desir
         1548  Pur quei lur estust tost murir.
                   Ne sunt avant d'iloc alét;
                   De mort subite sunt damnét.
                   Issi fud cel seint martir vengét,
         1552  Cum dire vus oid avez.
                   L'um deit ben cel liu honurer
                   U tel martir volt reposer
                   Cum seint Edmund, ki mult fud cher
         1556  A Deu qui nel volt ublier.
                   A hume resemblet dormant
                   Sun cors u est enter gisant,
                   Senz corumpure cum vivant,
         1560  Kar l'ot servid devant.
                   Ja seit iço que suffrit mort
                   E grant turment e peine fort,
                   E le cors pur li ja ne dor[t].L1563 [L1563e with adversative force. Cf. Note l. 1004. dor[t] (: mort etc.) Cf. Introd. p. 57 for loss of final supported t.118
         1564  De l'aneme avrat cunfort.L1561 [L1561] Although it suffered death and great torment and terrible suffering, the body in spite of having died does not sleep. It will be comforted by the soul. I have taken the pn. li 1563, which normally would refer to an animate object, as referring to mort 1561; but possibly it anticipates l'aneme 1564: it does not sleep for it. This quatrain opens a somewhat confused rendering (ll. 1561-96) of Abbo's account of Edmund's soul revisiting and comforting the body whose sufferings had earned the king's eternal salvation. Now it is the soul alone which enjoys the reward, but at the resurrection of the dead, the two will be reunited and will together enjoy eternal glory. Cf. Abbo 16,27-37: De quo constat, sicut et de aliis sanctis omnibus iam cum Christo regnantibus, quod, licet eius anima sit in caelesti gloria, non tamen per uisitationem die noctuque longe est a corporis presentia, cum quo promeruit ea quibus iam perfruitur beatae immortalitatis gaudia. Nam dum in aeterna patria ei iungitur qui ubique totus est, de eo habet posse quicquid habuerit et uelle, preter id solum quod infatigabili desiderio concupiscit ut per resurrectionem circumdetur stola demutatae carnis, quoniam tunc erit perfecta beatitudo sanctorum cum ad id fuerit Christo largiente peruentum.118

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                   Suvent en ad revisitét
                   L'aneme le cors, tut en celét,
                   E dulcement mult cunfortét
         1568  Pur ço que fud par lui salvét.
                   L'aneme del cors n'est luinz partit,
                   Ne a corsent qu'ad Deu servit.
                   Chascun le son ad mult cheritL1571 [L1571Chascun refers to l'aneme 1569, a substantive that could be either masculine or feminine in O.F. (cf. T.-L. 1,330), and is followed by singular ad cherit 1571, le son 1571 and sun seingnur 1576 and plural sunt guarit 1572. Le son 1571 is taken up by plural aus 1572. For similar alternation in number with chascun cf. ll. 1231-2.119
         1572  Pur ço que sunt par aus guarit
                   De peine grant e de turment,L1569 [L1569] The soul did not go far from its body nor [does it] from any holy body that has served God. Every soul greatly cherishes its own body because it has been saved by it from great suffering and torment.119
                   Se sunt guardét mult salvementL1574 [L1574Se and one of the rare instances of this spelling of the conjunction.119
                   En bon repos, priveement,
         1576  Par sun seingnur qui nent ne ment, [f.127a]
                   Desque vendrat a jugement
                   Le fiz al rei omnipotent
                   Devant que vendrunt tute gent,L1579 [L1579Devant que with que for qui in the sense of E.O.F. cui. Cf. Introd. p. 30.119
         1580  Voilent u nun, apertement,
                   Le cors a l'aneme acumpainéd,
                   Que ja plus n'ierent desevréd.
                   Chascun iloc serat jugéd
         1584  Sulunc iço qu'averat ovréd.
                   Ensemble avrunt pois le profit
                   Que sulement out en delit
                   L'anme, sicum truvum escrit,
         1588  Que n'i avrat cuntredit.
                   Amdui cum l'ourent deservit,
                   A Deu del cel serunt saisitL1590 [L1590A Deu appears to be in the sense of Par Deu.119
                   Al derein jur quant iert finit
         1592  Le secle que prof est perit.
                   Dunc averunt tut plenerement
                   La grant joie que lur atent,
                   Que unt desiréd lungement.
         1596  Senz fin l'averunt puis en present.

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                   Par cest seint pot l'um bien saveir,
                   Ki Deu sert od tut sun poeirL1598 [L1598] [that] he who serves God with all his might will not fail . . . a paratactic construction introduced by pot l'um bien saveir 1597.120
                   Ne pot faillir de od lui maneir
         1600  Aprés sa fin sicum sun eir,
                   A l'anniel Deu mult ben cunud,
                   Cum en l'esscrit avum voud
                   Des peres seinz e entendud,L1603 [L1603des peres seinz Cf. Abbo 17,3-6: eos . . . extollant catholici patres suae relationis indiculo de singulari uirginitatis adepto priuilegio cited Note ll. 1597-1616.120
         1604  Que jamés plus n'ert cunfundud.
                   Seint Jehan est testemoniant,
                   Le ewangeliste, a nus disant
                   Que erent le anniel ensivant
         1608  E il tut dis ert als devant
                   Ki finent en virginitéd,
                   Cum fist icist nostre avuéd
                   Seint Aedmund, li reis bonuréd,
         1612  Ki tut dis fud en chastetéd.
                   Ne jamés lur cors purrirunt,L1613 [L1613purrirunt with the i written superscript by the scribe and its place in the word marked by a comma on the line of writing.120
                   Ne en cest secle pas ne perirunt.
                   Senz corumpure mainderunt
         1616  Cum dreit est quant deservit le unt.L1597 [L1597] Cf. Abbo 17,1-9: Sed de hoc sancto martyre estimari licet cuius sit sanctitatis in hac uita, cuius caro mortua prefert quoddam resurrectionis decus sine sui labe aliqua, quandoquidem eos qui huiuscemodi munere donati sunt extollant catholici patres suae relationis indiculo de singulari uirginitatis adepto priuilegio dicentes quod iusta remuneratione etiam hic gaudent preter morem de carnis incorruptione qui eam usque ad mortem seruauerunt, non sine iugis martyrii ualida persecutione.120
                   Ne pot estre greniur amur
                   Que purchacer itel honur
                   En cest secle par sun labur, [f.127b]
         1620  Que jamais puis n'aie[n]t dolurL1620 [L1620aie[n]t MS. aiet. Cf. Note l. 71 for other instances of omission of the titulus indicating nasality.120
                   Icels que lur virginitéd
                   Al rei del cel averunt guardéd.
                   Lur cors n'ert jamés entaméd,
         1624  Tant les ad Deus en grant chertéd.
                   Par lur merite veirementL1625 [L1625Par lur merite as their reward. For merite reward cf. T.-L. 5,1526. Abbo stresses that incorruption of the body is a gift or reward from God (cf. Abbo 17,3-4 eos qui huiuscemodi munere donati sunt and 17,6 iusta remuneratione cited in Note ll. 1597-1616; 17,10 cum gratia cited Note ll. 1625-8; 17,11 quasi singulari quodam dono cited Note ll. 1605-9 and 16,36 Christo largiente cited Note ll. 1561-4). One would expect pur rather than par in this locution but cf. Note l. 138 for another possible instance of confusion of pur and par in this text and also Rose L 16448 Pour ce pri que vous le me dites Par (Var. Pour) guerredons e par (Var. pour) merites cited in T.-L. 5,1528 for similar hesitation in this locution.120
                   Averunt il tut dis en present
                   Devant le rei omnipotent
         1628  Ço [qu']angeles unt naturelement.

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                   Quant nus n'avum virginitéd
                   E sumes de peché grevéd,
                   Requerum tost nostre avuéd
         1632  Que pur nus fut sacrifiéd,
                   Jhesun, qui fud en cruiz pendud
                   E corunéd d'espine agud,L1634 [L1634espine agud Cf. Note l. 878.121
                   Que nus ne seium deçoud
         1636  Par le malféd, n'en fin perdud.
                   E puis seint Edmund, sun privéd,
                   Preium sicum nostre avuédL1638 [L1638Preium sicum MS. p̄iu sic̄. Preer pray to, entreat v.a. here as at ll. 818, 950 etc. echoes requerum 1631 initiating a series of requests addressed to Christ nostre avuéd and introduces a quatrain invoking Edmund similarly as avuéd. Nabert prints per men s[c]ïent[t]. . . .121
                   Qu'il nus tienge en chastetéd,
         1640  Sicum sun cors fit tut de gred;
                   E que lui puissum si servir
                   Que del tut seit a sun plaisir,
                   Que nus ne purrum puis faillir
         1644  En bon repos a lui venir;
                   Que quant al seint cors bel vendratL1645 [L1645bel I take this as an adjective beautiful in the sense of transfigured at the Last Judgement rather than as an adverb modifying venir.121
                   L'aneme, sil cunforterat,
                   E senz fin od lui maindrat,
         1648  Que plus de lui ne partirat;
                   Que nus ne seium chalengéd
                   De forfait ne d'iniquitéd
                   Que nus devant av[r]um overéd,
         1652  Dunt il a nus seit curucéd,
                   Mes façum nos cors espurger
                   Par penitence, tut de quer,
                   Qu'il nus puisset nuz truverL1655 [L1655nuz Without spot, faultless seems to be the meaning required here but nu<L. nudum (REW 5988) is not found elsewhere with this meaning. Nuz may be an error for nez which is attested with this meaning and which occurs in the poem at l. 476 (cf. Note to the line).121
         1656  E en sun servise loer;
                   Que ne seium pur ordeéd
                   De lui partit e desevréd,
                   E puis de tut en tut dampnéd
         1660  En peine grant e turmentéd.

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                   Kar Ysayas ben l'ad dit
                   En un liu par Seint Esspirit [f.128a]
                   Prophetizant sen mal respit,L1663 [L1663] uttering his ominous prophecy, . . . his ominous dictum. I follow the MS. in printing sen mal respit with sen the Northern form of the unstressed masculine possessive adjective, respit prophecy, dictum echoed by dit 1669 (for respit with this significance cf. L.Rois 95 en l'ancien respit (in proverbio antiquo) cited in T.-L. 8,1052) and ceo 1664 a pleonastic object referring back to respit. The construction is, however, awkward and sen mal respit may well represent an original senz nul respit (cf. T.-L. 8,1049 and 1050 for this locution and Note l. 1003 for another probable instance of sen for senz).122
         1664  Ceo qu'est a creindre senz delit:
                   Qui sur la tere a seint fait tort
                   E ovres mals, sin avrat mort.L1666 [L1666ovres mals For mals qualifying ovres cf. Introd. p. 23.122
                   Pur ço qu'il trop lunges dort
         1668  Deu ne verrat ne son cunfort.L1668 [L1668] Deu ne ne verrat122
                   D'ices[t] dit avum pour,L1669 [L1669D'ices[t] dit Cf. Introd. p. 57 for suppression of final supported t in the orthography.122
                   E requerum nostre seingnur,
                   Pur lui que est des martirs flur,
         1672  Que ne perdum ja sa dulçur.
                   Seint Aedmund, fort reis corunéd,
                   Devant le rei de maistéd
                   Pur nus seiez cum avuéd
         1676  A lui ki nus ad tut furméd,
                   Qu'il facet par sun plaisir
                   Nus a ses cumanz obeir;
                   Qu'a lui puissum si servir
         1680  Qu'il nus received al murir
                   En bon repos od ses amis
                   Qui par deserte l'unt cunquis;
                   Que lui puissum loer tut dis
         1684  En glorie grant devant sun vis.
                   Par celui qui regnet e vit
                   Od Deu pere, cum est escrit,
                   Avoc od le Seint Esspirit
         1688  Inguelement, od grant delit,L1688 [L1688Inguelement equally i.e. as a member of the Trinity. Cf. T.-L. 4,1294ff. for the many alternative spellings attested for this adverb. Nabert prints Ingnelement which he glosses as schnell.122

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                   Par trestuz secles veirement
                   Des secles, cum est dit suvent,
                   Que furent e sunt en present,
         1692  E si serunt finablement.AMEN.
                   Or est la passiun finid
                   De seint Aedmund qu'il suffrid.
                   Desornavant est il guarid
         1696  Sicum sages e ben guarnid.

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