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L'Estoire des Engleis by Geffrei Gaimar

Edited by A. Bell
Oxford, Anglo-Norman Text Society 1960
Genre: Chronicles
AND Bibliography: GAIMAR1

Original work © 1960 The Anglo Norman Text Society, which has granted permission for it to be digitised, browsed and searched on this site. Any other use, including making copies of this electronic version, requires the prior written permission of the copyright holders, who may be contacted via Birkbeck College, University of London, Malet St, London WC1E 7HX, UK

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2. MSS. and their Classification

The Estoire has survived in four MSS.; of these only two seem to have been known to F. Michel when in 1836 he published the post-Conquest section (ll. 5129-6526) of Gaimar in his Chroniques Anglo-Normandes, but the other two were already available to H. Petrie when in 1848 he included the pre-Conquest section (ll. 1-5340) of the Estoire in his Monumenta Historica Britannica. No trace has been found of the MS. which was known to the copyist of the British Museum MS. Addl. 32125, nor of the MS. which is entered in the medieval catalogue of Peterborough Abbey as Historia Anglorum Gallice et rythmice, and may have been a copy of Gaimar's work; neither is it known whether the Phillipps MS. 4156 which, according to Arnold (Le Roman de Brut, S.A.T.F., I xiii), is related to D and L once contained the Estoire.

The extant MSS. are:

D = Durham Cathedral, C.iv.27; early 13th cent.; 167 foll. in gatherings of eight; 2 cols. of 36 lines up to fol. 138v, from fol. 139r onwards 1 col.; initials red and green. The leaves were trimmed when the MS. was rebound in the 18th cent., but the average size is approximately 231 mm × 162 mm.; the average size of the written page is 190 mm. × 130 mm. up to fol. 138v and from there to the end 190 mm. × 112 mm. The pages are ruled horizontally and vertically, and the even lines of text are indented. The first page has at some time served as cover and the writing is in consequence

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a little obscured; the large illuminated initial on the same page is badly preserved, most of the gilt being rubbed off; similar large initials were to have appeared on fol. 94r and fol. 139r, but have not been filled in; many of the two-line high initials at the beginning of sections have been indicated, but not added, and from fol. 139r onwards all have been left untouched by the rubricator. Up to fol. 93v there are many markings (crosses and circles) in the margin, possibly by a reader who may also be responsible for a sketch of a crowned head to represent Brutus on fol. 8v. On fol. 1r is the heading: Hic incipit Brutus; at the foot of fol. 8v is the note: Brutus regnavit ·xxiiii· annos et habuit tres filios; at the top of fol. 42 d is written in red, though much blurred: Ci cummence la prophecie de Merlin; the actual prophecy does not begin until the following leaf.

The MS. has been written by four different hands who divide the work as follows:


Hand I: fol. 1r-fol. 59v; gatherings marked I-VI; last half-column on fol. 59v (not last leaf of gathering) blank;
Hand II: fol. 60r-fol. 96v; gatherings marked a-d; a recent hand has added at the top of fol. 60r: Poematis superioris continuatio ut videtur sed ab alio librario descripta;
Hand III: fol. 97r-fol. 138v; the first gathering is marked e, being the conclusion of the previous series of signatures; the remaining gatherings are unsigned; the lower half of the last column was left blank; the last couplet on fol. 96 d is repeated by the new copyist at the head of fol. 97 a; the last line of each column is, with one or two exceptions, not indented. On fol. 105r in the margin above the second column is a drawing of a three-tailed comet; on fol. 136r opposite the third line of the first column has been written by a later hand Willelmi 2di mors; on fol. 136v opposite the third line of the first column the same person has noted Robert fitz Hamun;
Hand IV: fol. 138v-fol. 167v; gatherings unsigned; follows immediately on the previous hand; lower half of final page was left blank, but a later hand added a long note in Latin.

The volume which seems to have been compiled as a whole forms a history of this country from earliest times down to the death of William II, with Henry II's Scottish campaign as an appendix. Its contents are:


1 fol. 1r-fol. 94 a: Wace's Brut; the Prophecies of Merlin are

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inserted between fol. 42r and fol. 48r in the version in decasyllables of one Helias who may also be the author of the lost translation of the Historia regum Britanniae, 170 lines of which were inserted before the Prophecies and are printed in an appendix by Arnold in his edition of the Roman de Brut (S.A.T.F.).
2 fol. 94 b-fol. 138v: Gaimar's Estoire des Engleis, concluding with the Description of England and the short epilogue.
3 fol. 139r-fol. 167v: Jordan Fantosme's Chronicle.

The MS. has been at Durham since the early eighteenth century, for it is described in the catalogue of the Cathedral MSS. compiled by Rud in 1727; he regarded the volume as containing one poem in three parts, but gave no indication of its provenance.

L = Lincoln Cathedral, 104, formerly A.4.12 and still earlier H.18; later 13th cent.; 2 cols. of 32 lines up to fol. 157v, from fol. 158r onwards 1 col.; initials red and blue. The MS. is the work of one scribe, and its contents are:


1 fol. 1r-fol. 108r: Wace's Brut; the Prophecies of Merlin are inserted between fol. 48r and fol. 57v by a certain Willame in a version which is found also in British Museum Addl. 45103 and, as a fragment, in British Museum Harley 1605.
2 fol. 108v-fol. 157 c: Gaimar's Estoire des Engleis, concluding with the short epilogue and the Description of England.
3 fol. 158v-fol. 189v: Jordan Fantosme's Chronicle; incomplete; though the catchword survives on the last page to show that it was intended to continue, it is not certain that this was done, as, according to D, only five lines remained; these were supplied on the present fly-leaf by F. Michel in 1837. The MS. has been at Lincoln since the time of Dean Honywood (1660-82) by whom it may have been acquired, as it figures in a list of books belonging to him, but with no indication of its provenance.

R = London, British Museum Royal 13 A xxi; late 13th cent. (foll. 40-150); 2 cols. of 42-48 lines; initials red and blue. The MS. is a composite one of three parts of which the first was originally a gathering of twelve leaves containing Herman of Valenciennes' Bible, but incomplete. The second part begins with the Imago Mundi, here attributed to one Henry, and continues (fol. 40 d-fol. 113 c) with Wace's Brut, but with the substitution of some seven

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thousand lines of another version instead of ll. 53-8728, and concludes (fol. 113 c-fol. 150 d) with Gaimar's Estoire des Engleis. The third part contains theological tracts. The Imago Mundi, if not the whole of the present second part, was at Hagneby Abbey (Li.) in the fifteenth century.

H = London, College of Arms, Arundel xiv; later 14th cent.; 2 cols. of 40 lines to fol. 149; initials red and blue. The MS. is a composite one and its contents are:

Part I.
1 fol. 1r-fol. 92v: Wace's Brut.
2 fol. 93r-fol. 124v: Gaimar's Estoire des Engleis, beginning at l. 819.
3 fol. 125v-fol. 132r: Le Lai d'Haveloc.
4 fol. 133r-fol. 147r: an account of the reign of Edward I, being a much revised copy of the third part of Peter de Langtoft's Chronicle and in a fresh hand.
5 fol. 148r-fol. 149r: La lignee des Bretuns, originally compiled during the reign of Edward II, but a later hand added the length of reign and also a complete entry for Richard II.
6 fol. 150r-221r: Chretien de Troyes' Perceval; contrary to what is stated in the introduction to the Rolls Series edition, and in my edition of the Lai d' Haveloc, the later continuations are not present, but there are two considerable additions to the text. Cf. A. Hilka, Perceval, App. II.

Part II. fol. 222r-fol. 229v: Walter de Henley's Hosebonderie in an older hand, but bound into the final gathering of part I.

Part III. fol. 230r-fol. 238r: an allegorical love-poem discussed by Miss C. B. West in her Courtoisie in A.N. Literature (Oxford, 1938), and edited by Ö. Södergård, Rom. 77 (1956), 289-330.

Such being the MSS. available, how are they to be classified? The close agreement in contents and arrangement of D and L suggests that they are more intimately related to each other than to the other two MSS. Now D, being the older, cannot be copied from L, nor, being the earliest extant MS. of the Estoire, can it be copied from either of the other two MSS. But L is not copied from D, as is shown by the presence in it of lines not in the other, e.g. ll. 1307-10, and, occasionally, of a more original reading, e.g. ll. 868, 2273. Hence the number of omissions of lines common to D and L, e.g. ll. 1035-6, and of readings they share against the other

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two MSS., whether correct., e.g. ll. 1031, 2912, or incorrect, e.g. ll. 899-1013, confirms their close relationship and allows us to postulate for them a common ancestor which, following Vising (Étude sur la dialecte anglo-normande, Upsala, 1882) I call Y. But there are in D and L other omissions which they share with H, a MS. not copied from either of them, as shown by the omission in it of ll. 3187-412, the two loose ends occurring consecutively in the middle of a column; they also share with H certain passages, of which ll. 1133-4, 5309-28 are the most important, not found in R. Hence it is permissible to postulate an earlier ancestor which, with Vising, I call β, from which both Y and H derive. Thus we are left with a family of three MSS. (D.L.H) on the one hand and a single MS. (R) on the other; this latter MS. is shown by occasional omissions of lines, e.g. ll. 2089-90, and by a few confusions, e.g. ll. 1248, 1815, not to be an absolutely faithful copy of the original text; and the mistake in the author's name in this MS. at l. 2921 suggests further that it may not be a direct copy of the original text.

But was there a common ancestor of the extant MSS. intermediate between the author's original text and β R? Vising postulated such an intermediate MS. and called it α, but based its existence mainly on ll. 1-38, which he referred to as a prologue and claimed were not by Gaimar. In my article The Prologue to Gaimar (M.L.R. XV (1920), 170-5) I showed that the lines in question are not a prologue but a connecting-link with Gaimar's lost Estoire des Bretuns and established their authenticity. In so doing I removed the main support of Vising's assumption, but the other ground for postulating the existence of α still remained: the presence in all the extant MSS. of Wace's Brut immediately preceding the Estoire. It was held that the two texts must have been combined in one volume, that from this volume our four MSS. are derived, and that this volume was to be equated with the α of Vising.

This was, indeed, the position I accepted in my edition of Gaimar's Haveloc episode, but further study now inclines me to scepticism on this point. Firstly, in two separate passages we find a break in construction which seems to be due rather to a lack of continuity in thought than to mechanical error in transcription: (i) In the account of the Settlement of Britain, which is found only in R, but which, as I showed in my article, The West Saxon genealogy in

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Gaimar (P.Q. II (1923), 173-86), is to be attributed to Gaimar, we read:


                   Mes pur ço ke Henges e Hors
                   E Certiz ki aprés lur morz
                   Ki vindrent en la terre
                   E tant sovent i firent guere
                   Furent de cest rëal linage
                   Cels e lur barnage
                   Nez del païs ki Ange ad nun
                   Engleis tuz les apela hom; (ll. 845-52)

here there seems to be something missing between morz and the following line. (ii) In the longer epilogue, which is found only in R, but which is to be attributed to Gaimar, as I have shown in The Epilogue to Gaimar's Estoire des Engleis (M.L.R. XXV (1930), 52-9), we read:


                   E de l'estoire de Wincestre
                   Fust amendé ceste geste
                   De Wassingburc un livere engleis
                   U il trovad escrit des reis
                   E de tuz les emperurs
                   Ke de Rome furent seignurs
                   E de Engleterre ourent treu; (ll. 6461-7)

here there seems to be something missing after the second line as the following line has no predicate. Secondly, there are two other uncertainties in the text which are scarcely to be regarded as scribal carelessness. (i) In the Wasing episode (ll. 895-918), which is common to all four MSS., we find a mysterious line–Il e Lowine de Gloucestre (l. 917); here all the MSS. diverge and none appears to have had an intelligible line to copy. (ii) In the account of the compilation of the A.S. Chronicle, inserted into the list of Bretwaldas, we read:


                   Mais n'alot pas la terre issi,
                   Que nuls hom né pur la guerre
                   Seüst cument alot la terre
                   Ne [en] cel tens sul ne saveit
                   Nuls hom ki chescon rei estait.
                   Moines, chanoines des abeïes
                   Escristrent de dis reis les vies,
                   Si adresça chascun sun per
                   Pur la veire raisun mustrer
                   Des reis; (ll. 2312-21)

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here the transition at the beginning is very abrupt and far from clear, and there is also uncertainty in the reading of ll. 2317-18. Also of interest is the fact that the Settlement, Wasing, and Chronicle passages are all later insertions by Gaimar and are all of the same length. Thirdly, we find in the earlier portion of the Estoire a number of couplets occurring only in R which are due to Gaimar, but possibly involve marginal additions made by him. As an example I shall consider one such couplet in some detail. At ll. 969-70, in a passage referring to the Pictish mission of St. Ninian, we read, but only in R: A Wyternen gist saint Dinan, Long tens vint devant Columban. It is clear that there is a mistake in the initial letter of the earlier saint's name, for he had been mentioned previously (l. 965); there DLH read Ninan, but R has the same corrupt form Dinan. Now this form would have made it impossible for anyone to find further information about the saint, so the couplet, with the correct name, must have been present at an earlier stage in the transmission of R. The whole passage is condensed and arranged from A.S.C. 565; from this annal Gaimar drew the fact of the donation of Ii (=Iona) (l. 963), the fact of St. Columba's abbacy there (l. 964), and the fact of the much earlier baptism of Picts by St. Ninian (ll. 965-6). It was natural for him to conclude, from the wording of the annal, which he must have read in order to obtain the above facts, that St. Ninian had come to those parts long before St. Columba and this conclusion, together with the burial-place, also supplied by the annal, are precisely the contents of the couplet found only in R. There are indications that Gaimar, when he first started to translate A.S.C., was not quite sure how to tackle the job; he seems to have read a group of annals first, and then to have made his translation; later he decided to deal with one annal at a time. The couplet I have just considered, and other similar ones, suggest that marginal additions, which could be understood as alternatives, are here involved. Thus the existence of a MS. intermediate between the author's original and (βR is, to say the least, problematical, nor, in view of the popularity of Wace's work, does it appear necessary to assume an actual combination of Brut and Estoire in one MS. only; Gaimar's work did not pass entirely unnoticed, and the idea of substituting the later, and more famous, account of British history for his Estoire des Bretuns could have occurred independently to more than one copyist; alternatively, the knowledge that such a change

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had been made by one could have inspired another to do likewise and add the Estoire to his copying of the Brut.

Nevertheless, except for the elimination of his α, the relationship of the MSS. first worked out by Vising seems to me still to hold good, subject to the provisos (i) the R is not a direct copy of the original, and (ii) that there appears to be some contamination between L and H in the last few hundred lines. To this I referred in my Haveloc edition (p. 99) and my collation of the Gaimar MSS. substantiates the claim there advanced. It is, of course, almost impossible to specify the exact point at which such contamination began, but somewhere between l. 5500 and l. 6000 the change in the relationship between L and H would appear to have taken place. At any rate I have counted only some thirty-six instances up to l. 6000 in which L and H agree in their reading against the other two MSS.; of these some sixteen occur between the limits just mentioned. That the two should occasionally agree in omitting some little word–a pronoun or an adverb, should agree in some odd spelling of an O.E. personal- or place-name, should now and then change the number or the tense of a verb, is only to be expected and is of no significance, nor is it impossible for two scribes to hit on the same word to substitute for an obsolescent one, e.g. guarneisun for guareisun (l. 4553). When, however, we find two scribes making the same spelling change in a place-name, e.g. Stanford for Estanfort (ll. 5558, 5564) and substituting one name for another, e.g. Bardenie for Aberni (l. 5711); when we find them agreeing in a change of rime which may be influenced by a following rime, as in ll. 5593-4, where D and R have mandot : -ot, but LH mandat : -at, and all four have mandat (: -at) in l. 5595; when LH agree in omitting three lines (ll. 5641-3) and in adding a line (after l. 5644); then we are justified in suspecting some change in the relationship of the two MSS. The instances of agreement between L and H become even more numerous (some 55) after l. 6000. We find, of course, the same types as previously, but many of them, trivial when taken singly, help to increase the sense of deliberate change when considered in the mass. Certain others are much more significant and go far to establish contamination between the two MSS., probably in the direction of H from L. Thus at l. 6036 the text reads: Sa verge aidier a sustenir; for this L has: La verge deir a sustenir; but H reads: La verge d'or a sustenir; which looks like a deliberate attempt to

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give meaning to the line rendered unintelligible by L. Again, at l. 6039 the text reads: E mult suvent s'est puis gabez, for this L has: E suvent s'et pus babedez, but H reads: Et sovent s'est puis bauboiez, which once more looks like a deliberate correction. Again, at l. 6202 the text reads: Li reis aver l'en ad doné; for this LH have; Al rei sun frere l'ont doné; which alteration does not make sense.

Thus, it will be seen, the hitherto accepted views on the affiliation of the MSS. require some modification and I append a revised stemma, keeping Vising's sigla where possible and indicating contamination by a dotted line.

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7. Establishment of Text

The edition is based on MS. D; a partial collation of the text in the Rolls Series showed that, apart from occasional reinterpretation of a succession of minims, it could be relied on to provide sense-variants, but in view of its importance the epilogue in that edition's MS. base–R–has been transcribed afresh. The text of the MS. base has been followed except where it has been necessary to make

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good omissions, or to correct mistakes by resort to other MSS. Words, or letters, supplied from other MSS. are enclosed in square brackets. Very occasionally ee is used by D to represent e; I have relegated these few spellings to the variants, so that in the text ee always represents two syllables.

Study of the author's versification shows that he usually kept the pretonic vowel in hiatus, so I have marked it, when e, with a trema and introduced it into the text where not present in the MS. base; this is the only systematic correction made for metrical reasons. I do not feel quite so sure about Gaimar's acceptance of hiatus before an initial vowel, so I have not used the trema in such cases.

All departures from the MS. base are grouped together immediately below the text; where the reading is shared with other MSS. or when the MS. base is not D, the appropriate sigla are added. In the second variants are grouped together those from the other MSS.; they include only those which affect the sense; I have, however, included tense-variations, as these may reflect later usage, and I also give some interesting verb-forms from H. In the variants capital letters are used (i) to indicate the first word in the line, (ii) when followed by a full stop, to indicate abbreviation of a name in the text.

Abbreviations and contractions have been expanded normally without special indication, all names and initial words have been capitalized and modern punctuation introduced. As the MS. base usually gives numbers in full, this has been done in the text, though in the variants numerals are kept if they appear in the MS. cited.

The acute accent has been placed on final tonic e and es to avoid confusion with the corresponding atonic endings; the cedilla is used to indicate the assibilated pronunciation of c before a, o, or u; i and j and u and v have been distinguished. There is no agreed division into sections, each MS. following its own plan, and it does not seem possible to establish such divisions in any logical way.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

The bibliography is selective; details of books and/or articles referring to specific points are given at the appropriate place in the introduction and/or notes.

A. Editions


1836. F. Michel, Chroniques anglo-normandes, I; gives ll. 5129-6526.
1848. H. Petrie, Monumenta Historica Britannica, I; gives ll. 1-5340 and ll. 6429-6526; cited as M.H.B.
1850. T. Wright, The Anglo-Norman Metrical Chronicle of Geoffrey Gaimar (Caxton Society, XI).
1888-9. Sir T. Duffus Hardy and C. T. Martin, L'Estoire des Engles (Rolls Series).
1925. A. Bell, Le Lai d'Haveloc; gives ll. 1-816.

B. Studies


1902. M. Gross, Geffrei Gaimar : Die Komposition seiner Reimchronik and sein Verhältnis zu den Quellen (Strassburg diss.).
1906. F. Rathmann, Die lautliche Gestaltung englischer Personennamen in Geffrei Gaimars Reimchronik (Kiel diss.).
1934. P. A. Becker, Der gepaarte Achtsilber in der französischen Dichtung (Abh. der philogisch-historischen Klasse der Sächsischen Akademie, XLIII).
1939. A. Bell, The Munich Brut and the Estoire des Bretuns, M.L.R., XXXIV, 321-54.

C. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle


1892-99. C. Plummer, Two Saxon Chronicles; cited as A.S.C., followed by appropriate siglum where required, for the text, and as Plummer for the introduction and notes.
1953. G. N. Garmonsway, The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (Everyman's Library, 624); translation of A.S.C.

Page 1

L'ESTOIRE DES ENGLEIS


                   [I comence l'estorie des Engles solum la translacion maistre Geffrei Gaimar].L0 [L0Before 1 in R: Ca en arere el livere bien devant Si vus en estes remembrant2L0 [L0] Rubric not in DL2 [f.94b]
                   [O]ïd avez cumfaitementL1 [L1] Avez oi R2
                   Coste[n]tin ot cest casementL2 [L2] C. tint apres artur tenement R2
                   E cum Yvain refait fu reisL3 [L3] Y. fud fet r. LR2
               4  De Mureif e de Loeneis.L3 [L3] In these details Gaimar differs from Wace who, in agreement with Geoffrey of Monmouth, makes Yvain succeed his father in Moray and his uncle in Alban. E. Brugger (Yvain and his Lion, M.P. XXXVIII (1941) 267-87) suggests that Gaimar may have been influenced in some way by the earlier Vita S. Kentigerni, which connects Yvain with Lothian and gives his mother's name as Erwegenda. This name Brugger would emend to Orwegenda, a form of Orwegen, and would then equate it with the Orwen of the Historia Meriadoci. As Orwegen is a possible etymon for the name of Argentille's mother (Orwain 61, Orewain 81), it may be that Gaimar obtained this name from the story of St. Kentigern; at any rate the possibility cannot be excluded.2
                   Mes de ço vait [mult] malement:L5 [L5] om  mult DL2
                   Mort sunt [tut] lur meilor parentL6 [L6] om  tut DL2
                   E li Seisne sunt espanduzL7 [L7] S. se s. R2
               8  Ki [od Certiz] erent venuz.L8 [L8] furent v. R2L8 [L8] de kerdiz DL2
                   Des Humbre desqu'en Kateneis
                   Duné lur ot Modred li reis,
                   Si unt saisi e tut purprisL11 [L11om  tut R2
             12  La terre que ja tint Hengis.
                   Cele claiment en eritage
                   Kar Hengis fud de lur lignage.L14 [L14] estait R2
                   Este vus ci une [acheson]:L15 [L15om  une R2L15 [L15] chancon DL2
             16  En grant travail entrent Bretun,L16 [L16] Dunt en R2
                   Si funt Escot e li Pecteis,
                   Li Galweien e li Cumbreis.L18 [L18] galwais L gawaleis R2L18 [L18] galwein2
                   Tel guerre funt la gent [estraine]L19 [L19] estrange DR2
             20  En grant dolur entrat Bretaine
                   E li Engleis tuz jorz creisseientL21 [L21] acreisseient R2L21 [L21] om  E DLR2
                   Kar d'ultremer suvent veneient;
                   Cil de Seisuine e d'Alemaine
             24  S'ajustoent a lur cunpaine;L24 [L24] Sajustent R2
                   Pur dan Hengis lur anceisur

Page 2


                   Les altres firent d'els seignur.
                   Tuz jorz, si cum il cunquereient,
             28  Des Engleis la [recunusseient],L28 [L28] recunciseient3
                   La terre que vunt cunquerant,L29 [L29] v. cumq. L conq. R3L29 [L29] t. kil R3L29 [L29] querant3
                   Si l'apeloent Engelant.L30 [L30] apelent DLR3
                   Este vus ci une [acheson]L31 [L31] chancon DL3
             32  Par quei Bretaine perdi sun nun.
                   E les nevoz Arthur regnerent
                   Ki encuntre Engleis guerïerent
                   Mes li Daneis mult les haeient
             36  Pur lur parenz ki mort esteient [f.94c]
                   Es batailles que Arthur fist
                   Cuntre Modred qu'il puis ocist.L1 [L1] This passage, often called a prologue, is really a connecting link between Gaimar's lost Estoire des Bretuns and his Estoire des Engleis; ll. 35-8 represent an extension made necessary by his decision to insert here his Haveloc episode; in R the opening is differently worded, but appears to refer to the arrangement of a particular MS. and has not been accepted into the text.3
                   [S]e ço est veir que Gilde ditL39 [L39] De L3L39 [L39] dist DLR3
             40  En la geste trovai escritL40 [L40] trova R3L40 [L40] g. quil escrist DL3L39 [L39] There is considerable divergence between DL on the one hand and R on the other, and neither reading, as it stands, is quite satisfactory. The objections to DL are that l. 40 is metrically incorrect and that, being a continuation of l. 39, we are left with an unfinished sentence. The objection to R is that his verb appears to be a 3 sg., but as he does very occasionally write a for ai in verbal terminations (e.g. l. 609 sa = sai) and as Gaimar is clearly appealing to the authority of Gilde, I have corrected the verb in the interests of clarity. Whether by Gilde Gaimar meant the author of the De Excidio Britanniae or whether he had in mind the Historia Britonum, a work often ascribed to Gildas in medieval times, cannot be determined, but neither of these works justifies in any way the appeal to its authority on the point of the two under-kings, though Gildas, of course, does feature a number of kings contemporary with Constantine.3
                   Que dous reis ot ja en Bretaine,
                   Quant Costentins ert chevetaine,L42 [L42] C. estait R3
                   Cil Constentins li niés Arthur
             44  Ki ot l'espee Kalibur.
                   [Adelbrit] ot nun un des reis,L45 [L45] A. aveit a n. li uns des R3L45 [L45] Achebrit DL3L45 [L45Adelbrit R, Achebrit DL. This difference in the name, with minor graphic variants in the last component, is constant in Gaimar's Haveloc story. As the name in R explains the two-syllable form Albrit, which is required by the metre at l. 89, and as most other independent versions of the story use an Æthel- name, I have accepted R's form into my text.3
                   Riches hum fud, si ert Daneis.
                   Li altres ot nun Edelsi,
             48  Sue [ert] Nincole e Lindesi;L48 [L48] fud DL3
                   Des Humbre desqu'en [Roteland]L49 [L49] orient DL3L49 [L49Roteland R, orient DL. The former reading has been adopted, because the other boundaries are very definite and because Gaimar is describing the kingdom in a north-south direction; the parallel passage in the Lai d' Haveloc also gives Rotelande (l. 200).3
                   Iert le pais en sun cumant.L50 [L50] s. cumandement L3
                   Li altre ert reis de la cuntree
             52  Ki ore est Northfolke apelee.
                   Tant s'acuinterent cil dui rei
                   K'il furent cumpaignun par fei
                   E que entr'els [dous] ot tel amurL55 [L55] om  dous DL3
             56  [Que] Edelsi dunad sa sorurL56 [L56om  Que R3L56 [L56] Qua3
                   A [Adelbrit] cel riche reisL57 [L57] achebrit DL3
                   Ki ert del lignage as Daneis.
                   Li altre reis esteit Bretun

Page 3


             60  Ki Edelsi aveit a nun.
                   Sa sorur ot a nun Orwain,
                   Mult ert franche e de bone main;
                   De sun seignur ot une fille,
             64  Que l'um apelad Argentille.
                   La pulcele crut e tehid
                   Kar asez fud süef nurrid,L66 [L66] f. ki la n. R4
                   Si avint ore tut pur veirL67 [L67] a. trestut p. R4
             68  Que sun pere n'ot nul altre eir.L68 [L68] p. uolt n. L4
                   En Danemarche le regnez
                   Avait quatre riches cuntez
                   E en Bretaine aveit conquis
             72  Kaïr Koël [od] le païs;L72 [L72] od tut le R4L72 [L72] ot4 [f.94d]
                   Des Colecestre desqu'en Hoyland
                   Durot sun regne en un tenant.L74 [L74] s. realme R4
                   Tant cum il fud si poëstis
             76  Edelsi fud bien sis amis
                   Mes dunc fud [Adelbrict] mortL77 [L77] d avint ke A. fu m. R4L77 [L77] achebrit DL4
                   [Enz] en la cité de Tiedfort.L78 [L78] om  Enz DL4
                   A Colecestre fud ported,
             80  Iloc fud li reis enterred
                   E Or[e]wain e Argentille –L81 [L81] orwain DL4
                   Ço fud la reïne e sa fille –
                   En sunt alé a [Lindesi],L83 [L83] lindesie4
             84  A sun frere rei Edelsi.
                   Le regne que [Adelbrict] teneitL85 [L85] achebriht DL4
                   Li unt livré que guarde en seitL86 [L86om  en L4
                   Kar la reïne ert enfermee,L87 [L87] afermee glossed infirmata L4
             88  Ne mes oit jorz nen ad duree.L88 [L88] vint j. ad R4
                   Aprés [Albrict], quant fud finie,L89 [L89] achebriht DL4
                   Unt la reïne ensevelie
                   E Argentille fud nurrie
             92  A Nincole e a Lindesie.
                   Si cum dient l'antive gent,L93 [L93] dit R4

Page 4


                   Ele n'ot nul chevel parentL94 [L94] chive L cheval R5L94 [L94] chievol5L94 [L94cheval R, chievol D, chive L. Evidently the adjective was not familiar to DL, which at l. 2282 again stumble over the word, and there H substitutes another word. The word occurs three times in the Estoire–here and at ll. 2282, 2591 – and each time with somewhat different meaning. Here I translate: She had no near relative.5
                   De part sun pere des Daneis.L95 [L95om  pere R5
             96  Oëz que fist cist feluns reis!
                   Pur l'erité qu'il cuveitad
                   Sa niece mesmariee ad;L98 [L98] mesmarier quidad L mesmariat R5L98 [L98] senes mariad5L98 [L98mesmariee ad. It is the disparity in status involved in the proposed marriage, and not its speediness, which is important to Edelsi's design. This leads me to abandon the reading of D–in itself acceptable–in favour of an emendation based on the occurrence in LR of the verb mesmarier, though neither MS. offers a metrically correct line.5
                   Il la dunad a un garçon
           100  Ki Cuaran aveit a nun;
                   Pur ço que abaisier la voleit,L101 [L101] que abassier LR5L101 [L101] que baisier5
                   Se purpensa qu'il li durreit.
                   Cil Cuaran esteit quistrun
           104  Mes mult esteit bel vadletun;L104 [L104] mult par ert b. R5L104 [L104om  Mes L5
                   Bel vis aveit e beles mains,
                   Cors eschiwid, süef e plains,
                   Li suen semblanz ert tut tens liez,
           108  Beles jambes ot e bels piez. [f.95a]
                   Mes pur ço que hardiz esteit
                   E volentiers se cumbateit,
                   N'aveit vadlet en la maison,
           112  Si li faiseit ahateisun
                   E sur lui cumençast medlees,
                   K'il nel ruast jambes leveesL114 [L114] rueit R5
                   E quant il bien se curesçot,
           116  De sa ceinture le liout
                   E cil dunc n'en aveit guarant,L117 [L117] E si cil d. naveit R5
                   Bien le bateit a un verjant.
                   E nepurquant tant francs esteit,
           120  Si li vadlez li prameteitL120 [L120] co DL5
                   Que pur [i]ço meins ne l'amast,
                   Senés l'ure le desliast.L122 [L122] Ignelure R5
                   Quant il [se erent] entrebaisiez,L123 [L123] serreient DL5
           124  Dunc esteit Cuaran haitiez.
                   E li reis e li chevalier
                   Lui dunoent de lur mangier;
                   Esquanz lui dunoent guastels,

Page 5


           128  Esquanz quartiers de simenels,
                   Les altres hastes e gelines
                   Ki lur veneient des quisines,L130 [L130] veneint R6L130 [L130] veneit DL6
                   Que tant aveit [pain e] cunreiL131 [L131] de c. DL6
           132  Que dous vadlez aveit od sei
                   E as vadlez de la [meisun]L133 [L133] meisuns DR6
                   Feseit suvent mult [large dun]L134 [L134] larges duns DR6
                   [De simenels, de canestels]L135 [L135] s. e de c. R6
           136  E de hastes e de gastels.L135 [L135] not in DL6
                   Pur ço qu'esteit si bien amezL137 [L137] co est. R6
                   E si preisiez e si loez,
                   N'aveit francs hum en la meisun,
           140  Si Cuaran en voleit dun,
                   Ke ne li dunast volentiers.L141 [L141] Kil R6
                   Mes il n'aveit suig de luiers,
                   De tant duner cum il avait –
           144  Ço li ert vis [ke] poi esteit –L144 [L144] om  ke DL6
                   E quant il n'aveit que duner,
                   Volentiers alot enpruenter;L146 [L146] V. lalout R6 [f.95b]
                   Puis le dunot e despendeit –
           148  Ço qu'enpruentot, tres bien rendeit –L148 [L148] b. soldout R6
                   Quanqu'il aveit, trestut dunot
                   Mes nule rien ne demandot.
                   Il iert issi en la meisun
           152  Escuieler [a un] quistrun;L152 [L152] E. a une q. R6L152 [L152] E. cume q. DL6
                   Dous vadlez ot qu'il nurriseit.L153 [L153] nurisout R6
                   Or oiez pur quei le faseit:L154 [L154] il le fesout R6L154 [L154] Seignurs oiez R6
                   Il quidot qu'il fussent si frere
           156  Mes ne lur [a]partint sun pereL156 [L156] partint DL6
                   Ne sa mere ne sun lignage
                   Ne n'esteit de lur parentage.L158 [L158] l. parage R6
                   Puroc, [s'il] iert en [tel] despit,L159 [L159] s. estait R6L159 [L159] P. nent s. L6L159 [L159] itel DL6L159 [L159] om  sil DL6
           160  [Venuz] esteit de gentil litL160 [L160] Gentiz home fu si cum jo quit L6L160 [L160] Ne nuls e.6
                   E se li reis [s']aparceüst,L161 [L161] aparceust DL6

Page 6


                   Ne qui que ja sa niece eüst.
                   Dunt il iert nez, pas ne saveit,
           164  De lui sun jugleür faseit.
                   Pur la terre Adelbriht tolirL165 [L165] albrict R7L165 [L165] akebriht DL7L165 [L165] In order to take Adelbriht's land. As the king is already dead, this must be the meaning; similarly constructed lines occur elsewhere in the Estoire. e.g. A la maisun Eiftroed alat (l. 3998), where only the context shows that we have the appositional genitive.7
                   Faseit sa niece od lui gisir,
                   La fille al rei en povre lit.L167 [L167om  en R7
           168  Ore est mestier que Deus aït
                   Kar ci ot fait grant cruelté
                   Pur cuveitise de cel regné,
                   Quant pur le regne sul aveir
           172  Hunist sa niece a sun espeir.
                   Il la dunad a sun quistrunL173 [L173] E la d. R7
                   Ki Cuarans aveit a nun.
                   Cil ne saveit que femme [esteit]
           176  Ne qu'il faire ne li deveit;L176 [L176] Second ne not in LR7
                   Des qu'il unkes el lit veneit,
                   Adenz giseit, si se dormeit.
                   Argentille ert en grant purpens
           180  Pur quei il giseit si adenz
                   E mult forment se merveillotL181 [L181] f. sesm. R7
                   Que [unques] vers li ne se turnotL182 [L182] unc7 [f.95c]
                   Ne ne la voleit aprismierL183 [L183] Second ne not in L7
           184  Cum hum deit faire sa muillier.
                   La niece [al] rei se cumplaineit,L185 [L185] lu DL7L185 [L185] the king's niece. The construction is the same as in ll. 167, 193 and DL seem to have altered the phrase in order to avoid possible ambiguity.7
                   Suvent sun uncle maldiseit
                   Ki si l'aveit deseriteeL187 [L187] Ke L7
           188  E a un tel hume dunee,
                   Tant qu'il avint a une nuit
                   Qu'il firent primes lur deduit.
                   Aprés iço si s'endormirent.
           192  Mult s'entramerent e joïrent.
                   La fille al rei en sun dormant
                   Sunjad qu'ele iert od Cuarant
                   Entre la [mer] e un boscage,L195 [L195] veie DL7
           196  U cunversad un urs salvage.

Page 7


                   Devers la mer vëeit venirL197 [L197] m. en un L8
                   Porcs e sengliers prestz [d'asaillir]L198 [L198] prist a. R8L198 [L198] de saillir8
                   Icel [grant] urs ki tant [ert] fierL199 [L199] k. si e. R8L199 [L199] esteit8L199 [L199] om  grant DL8
           200  Ki [voleit] Cuaran mangier.L200 [L200] Ke L8L200 [L200] volt DL8
                   Od l'urs aveit asez gupilz
                   Ki puis le jor orent perilz
                   Kar les sengliers les entrepristrent,
           204  Mult en destruistrent e ocistrent.
                   Quant li gupil furent destruit,
                   Cel urs ki demenot tel bruit,
                   Un sul senglier fier e hardid
           208  L'ad par sun cors sul asaillid;L208 [L208om  sun L8
                   Tel li dunad od l'une dent,L209 [L209] d. de l. R8
                   En dous meitiez le cors li fent.L210 [L210] le quer l. R8
                   Quant l'urs se sent a mort feruz,
           212  Un cri jetad, puis chaï jusL212 [L212] p. est chau R8
                   E li gupil vindrent curantL213 [L213] v. avant L8
                   De tutes parz vers Cuarant,
                   Entre lur quisses lur cüettes,
           216  Lur chiefs enclins en chatonettes,L216 [L216] enc. a genuletes R8
                   E funt semblant de merci querre
                   A Cuarant que firent guerre.L218 [L218] C. a ki f. R8 [f.95d]
                   Quant il les ot fait tuz lïer,L219 [L219] t. lever R8
           220  Envers la mer volt repairier.
                   Li grant arbre ki el bois erent
                   De tutes [parz] li enclinerent;
                   La mer munta e li floz vint,L223 [L223] muntout R8
           224  Dessi qu'al bois unc ne se tint;L224 [L224om  unc R8
                   Li bois chaeit, la mer veneit,L225 [L225] si c. R8
                   Cuaran ert en grant destreit;
                   Aprés veneient dous leons,
           228  Si chaeient a genuilluns
                   Mes des bestes mult ocieient
                   El bois qui en lur veie esteient.

Page 8


                   Cuaran pur poür qu'il ot
           232  Sur un [des granz arbres] muntotL232 [L232] grant arbre DL9
                   E les [leons] vindrent avantL233 [L233] urs DL9
                   Envers [cel] arbre agenuillant.L234 [L234] la. DL9
                   Partut le bois ot si grant cri
           236  Que la dame s'en esperiL236 [L236] sen eveilli R9
                   E cum ele ot iço sungié,
                   Sun seignur ad fort enbracié.
                   Ele le trovad gisant envers,
           240  Entre ses bras si l'ad aers.
                   Pur [la] poür ses oilz ovrid,L241 [L241] le9
                   Une flamme vit ki issidL242 [L242] ki sen i. DL9
                   Fors de la buche sun marid
           244  Que encore ert tut endormid.L244 [L244] Ki R9
                   Merveillad sei de l'avisiun
                   E de la buche sun barun
                   E de la flamme qu'ele vit.
           248  Ore entendez qu'ele ad dit.L248 [L248om  ad R9
                   'Sire', fait [ele], 'vus ardez.
                   Esveilliez vus, si vus volez.
                   De vostre buche une flamme ist,
           252  Jo ne sai unques qui l'i mist.'L252 [L252] ki i m. R9
                   Tant l'enbraçad e traist vers sei
                   Qu'il s'esveillad e dist: 'Pur quei [f.96a]
                   M'avez esveillié, bele amie?L255 [L255] Pur quei mav. R9
           256  Pur quei estes espoürie?'L256 [L256] e. esponti R9
                   Tant la preiad, tant la blandidL257 [L257] p. e tant R9
                   Qu'ele li cuntad tut e gehidL258 [L258] e regehit R9
                   De la flambe e de l'avisiun
           260  Qu'ele ot veü de sun barun.
                   Cuaran l'en respundidL261 [L261om  len R9
                   De l'avisiun qu'il oïd;
                   Sulunc sun sen espelst le sunge –L263 [L263] s. sens R9
           264  Quanqu'il [dist], tut i ert menconge.L264 [L264om  i R9L264 [L264] dit DL9

Page 9


                   'Dame,' fait il, 'ço serrad bienL265 [L265] dit il LR10
                   Ambure a vostre ues e al mien.
                   Ore m'est avis que ço puet estre,
           268  Que li reis tendrad demein feste.L268 [L268] sa f. R10L268 [L268om  Que R10
                   Mult [i] avrad de ses baruns;
                   Cerfs e chevrols e veneisuns
                   E altres chars tant i avrad
           272  En la quisine en remaindrad;L272 [L272] q. tant r. R10L272 [L272] E en R10
                   Tant en prendrum a espandant,L273 [L273] prendrun L prendrom R10L273 [L273] prendrunt10
                   Les esquiers ferai manant
                   Des bons lardez e des braüns
           276  Des escuieles as baruns.L276 [L276] E des DL10
                   Li escuier me sunt aclin
                   Ambure al seir e al matin.L278 [L278] al vespre e al m. R10
                   Cil signifient li gupil
           280  Dunt vus [sunjastes: ço] sunt il.L280 [L280] v. co sunjastes s. DL10
                   E l'urs est morz, er fud ocis,
                   En un bois fud salvage pris;
                   Dous tors i ad pur les leons
           284  E pur la mer pernum les pluns,
                   U l'ewe munted cume mer
                   Deci que freit la fait cesser;
                   La char des tors i serrad quite.
           288  Dame, l'avisiun est dite.'
                   Argentille quant [ot ço] dire:L289 [L289] q. co oid d. DL10
                   'Encore avant me dites, sire,L290 [L290] ll. 287-8 and ll. 289-90 interverted in DL10 [f.96b]
                   Que icel feu puet espelerL291 [L291] Quei R10
           292  Que vi en vostre buche arder.'L292 [L292] Ken v.b. vi a. R10
                   ['Dame,' fait il, 'ne sai ke dait]L293 [L293] dist il R10
                   Mes en dormant si me deceit;L293 [L293] not in DL10
                   Des que [jo] dorm, ma buche esprent,L295 [L295] om  jo DL10
           296  De la flamme nient ne me sent.
                   Vers tei en ai hunte mult grantL297 [L297om  mult L10L297 [L297] Veires jo en R10
                   Que ço m'avient en mun dormant.'L298 [L298] om  mun DLR10

Page 10


                   Dist Argentille: 'Ami, entend.L299 [L299] A. a moi e. R11
           300  Nus sumes ci huntusement;
                   Mielz nus vendreit estre issilliez
                   Entre paiens e enperrezL302 [L302] e enterrez L11L302 [L302] E. aliens R11
                   Que ci gisir en tel huntage.
           304  Amis, u est li tuen lignage?'
                   'Dame,' fait il, 'a Grimesbi;
                   D'iloc turnai, quant jo vinc ci.
                   Si la ne truis mun parenté,L307 [L307] ne trofs m. L11
           308  Suz ciel ne sai dunt jo sui né.'
                   'Amis,' fait ele, 'kar i alum
                   Saveir si ja i troverumL310 [L310om  i R11
                   Nul hum ki mei ne tei amast
           312  U meillor cunseil nus dunast.'L312 [L312] U mieldre c. R11
                   Dist Cuaran: 'La meie amie,
                   U seit saveir u seit folie,
                   Jo f[e]rai ço que vus volez,
           316  La vus merrai, si vus loez.'L316 [L316] si si v. l. L si v. me l. R11
                   La nuit jurent desqu'al cler jor.
                   L'endemein vunt a lur seignur,
                   Al rei vindrent querre cungié.L319 [L319] v. querent c. R11
           320  Quant il ço ot, sin est haitié,L320 [L320] si en fu h. R11
                   Tut en riant le lur dunad,
                   A tuz ses humes s'en gabad
                   E dit: 'S'il unt un poi de faim,
           324  U al tierz jor u al demein,
                   Tut se mettrunt el repairer,L325 [L325] remettrunt L11
                   Quant ne purrunt mielz espleiter.'
                   Ore s'en vunt cil a Grimesbi.
           328  La troverent un bon ami, [f.96c]
                   Pescheür ert, iloc maneit,
                   La fille Grim celui aveit.
                   Quant recunut les treis meschins,L331 [L331] meschines L11L331 [L331] meschiens11
           332  Cuaran e les dous fiz Grims,

Page 11


                   E il sot de la fille al reiL321 [L321] torn out in R12
                   […] [en la lei
                   Mult fu pensifs en son corage;
           336  Dist a sa femme que mult ert sage:
                   'Dame,' fait il, 'que ferom?L337 [L337] dist il R12
                   Si vus loez, descoverom
                   A Haveloc le fiz le rei]L334 [L334] not in DL12
           340  Nostre cunseil e le secrei.L340 [L340] e nostre s. L12
                   Dime[s] [li] tut overtement,L341 [L341] Dium L12L341 [L341] om  li DL12
                   Dunt il est nez e de quel gent.'
                   Dist la dame: 'S'il le saveit,
           344  Jo qui que il le descuvereit
                   En itel lieu par sun folage,L345 [L345] tel DLR12
                   U tost li vendreit grant damage.L346 [L346] t. len avendreit R12
                   Il nen est mie si savantL347 [L347] Il ne mie si s. R12
           348  Qu'il saced cuvrir sun talent.L348 [L348] saceit L12
                   S'il saveit qu'il de reis fust nez,L349 [L349] fud LR12L349 [L349] s. ke des r. R12
                   Curtes ures [serreit] celezL350 [L350] fust DL12
                   E nepuroc ore l'apelum,
           352  Dunt il est nez ore demandumL352 [L352] n. li d. R12
                   E si sa femme vient od lui,
                   Bien li poüm dire, ço qui,
                   Dunt il est nez e de quel terre,
           356  Cum il eisillad par la guerre.'L356 [L356om  la L12L356 [L356] E cum DL12
                   A tant apelent Aveloc –
                   E Argentele vint avoc –L358 [L358] argentille R12
                   E li pruedhueme e sa muillier
           360  L'unt pris mult bel araisuner.L360 [L360unt pris . . . araisuner. There is no assured example in Gaimar of prendre (= begin) followed by the pure infinitive and, in view of Brendan, l. 872, I now favour the explanation put forward by E. Burghardt, Einfluss des Englischen auf das Anglo-normannische, (Studien zur eng. Philologie XXIV, Halle, 1906, pp. 29, 32) and adopted by E. G. R. Waters, Brendan, l. 48 n, that the successive a's have coalesced. The construction still has inchoative value in the Estoire and has not yet become a mere periphrasis.12
                   'Amis,' funt il, 'dunt estes nez?L361 [L361] d. est n. L d. es tu n. R12
                   En quel lieu est tis parentez?'
                   'Dame,' fait il, 'ici laissaiL363 [L363] cil L12L363 [L363] ci12
           364  Mun parenté, quant m'en turnai.
                   Tu es ma suer, jo sui tis frere

Page 12


                   Ambure de pere e de mere;
                   Grim fud mis pere un [pescheür],L367 [L367] peschur13L363 [L363] torn out in R13
           368  Ma mere ot nun Sebruc sa uxor.
                   Quant furent mort, d'ici turnai,L369 [L369] de ci t. LR13
                   Mes dous freres od mei menai. [f.96d]
                   Ore eimes granz, revenuz sumes
           372  Mes noz [parenz] ne coneümesL372 [L372] conussumes R13L372 [L372] cunumes DL13L372 [L372] parentez DL13L368 [L368] partly torn in R13
                   Ne mes sul tei e tun seignur;
                   Bien sai, tu ies nostre sorur.'
                   Respunt Kelloc: 'Tut i ad el.
           376  Unc tis peres ne vendi selL376 [L376] ton pere R13
                   Ne ta mere ne fud salniere.
                   Grim vendi sel, si fud peschiere.
                   De mes freres grant gré te sai;
           380  Ço que[s] nurris, t'en mercierai.L380 [L380] De co kes as n. te m. R13L380 [L380] que13
                   Yer arivad laÿs al portL381 [L381] a leus al p. R13
                   Un bon kenard e grant e fort,L382 [L382] k. grant L13L382 [L382] grant and bon interverted in R13
                   Pain e char meine e vin e ble –
           384  De tel unt il mult grant plenté.L384 [L384] Dicel R13
                   Ultre la mer vuelent passer.
                   Si vus vulez od els aler,
                   [Jo quid k'il irrunt el païs,
           388  U sunt vos parenz e amis.L388 [L388] e vos a. R13
                   Si vus volez od els aler,
                   Nus les vus purrum alüer]L390 [L390] p. bien a. R13L387 [L387] not in DL13
                   Dras vus durrum a remuiers,
           392  Sin porterez de noz deniers
                   E pain e char e bon cler vin
                   Pur prendre al vespre e al matin;
                   Cunrei avrez, tant cum voldres,
           396  Voz dous vadlez od vus merrez.L396 [L396] Noz L13
                   Mes celez bien vostre secrei:
                   Vus fustes fiz a un bon rei;
                   [Danemarche out par heritage,

Page 13


           400  Si out son pere e son linage.L399 [L399] not in DL14
                   Li vostre pere ot nun Guntier,
                   Si prist la fille al rei Gaifier.
                   [Alvive] ot nun, ele me nurrid,L403 [L403] Allene L14L403 [L403] Alleve14L403 [L403Alvive R, Alleve D, Allene L. I have adopted the first form in the text, because a scribal corruption of Alvive to Alleve is rather more likely than one in the reverse direction; later in the Estoire Gaimar uses Elvive to render O.E. Ælfgifu (l. 4524).14
           404  Maint bien me fist, tant cum [vesqui];L404 [L404] c. fud vif DL14
                   Ele me levad, ço dist ma mere.
                   Fille sui Grim un sun cumpere.
                   Mes ço avint en vostre terre:
           408  Li reis Arthur la vint cunquerre.L408 [L408] A. lalot cumquere L14L408 [L408] cunqueere14
                   Pur sun treü que li detintL405 [L405] torn out in R14
                   Od mult grant gent el païs vint;
                   Al rei Guntier semblad [contraille],L411 [L411] cuntraire14
           412  Juste la mer li tint bataille;L412 [L412] E juste DL14L411 [L411] repeated by new scribe at f. 97a14 [f.97a]
                   Ocis i fud li rei GuntierL413 [L413] le r L li reis R14
                   E d'ambes parz maint chevalier.L410 [L410] partly torn in R14
                   Qui Artur plot dunat la terre.L415 [L415] A. volt d. R14
           416  Mais la reïne pur la guerre
                   Ne pot [el] païs remaneir,L417 [L417] p. en la terre r. R14L417 [L417] al14
                   Si s'en fuït od le dreit eir,
                   Ço este[s] vus, si cum jo crei,
           420  Danz Avelocs le fiz le rei.
                   Mis pere aveit mult bone nef,
                   La reïne amenot süef,
                   Vers cest païs l'en amenot,L423 [L423] lamenout R14
           424  Quant si avint cum [a] Deu plot:L424 [L424] om  a DR14
                   De uthlages fumes encuntrez.
                   En mer furent trestuz rüez
                   Noz chevaliers e nostre gent
           428  E la reïne ensement.
                   Unc n'i guarid hom fors mun pere
                   Ne nule femme fors ma mere.
                   Mis pere esteit lur conuissant;
           432  Pur ço garirent li emfant,L432 [L432] si e. L14
                   E jo e vus e mi dui frere,

Page 14


                   Par la preiere de mun pere.
                   En cest païs quant arivames,
           436  Nostre grant nef parmi trenchames
                   Kar tute ert frainte e malmise,L437 [L437] fu freite e malveise R15
                   Quant la reïne ert ocise.L438 [L438] fu R15
                   De nostre nef maisun feïmes;
           440  Par un batel bien garesimes,L440 [L440om  bien L15
                   Dunt nostre pere alad peschier.
                   Peissuns eümes a mangier,
                   Turbuz, salmuns e mulüels,
           444  Graspeis, porpeis e makerels;
                   A grant plenté e a fuisun
                   Oümes pain e bon peissun. [f.97b]
                   Del peissun cangïum le pain
           448  [Que] hom nus aportout a plain
                   E, cum nus eümes deniers,
                   Mis peres dunc devint salniers.
                   Tant cum vesqui il e ma mere,
           452  Bien [vus] nurrit mielz que mi frereL452 [L452] nus15
                   E jo remis, si pris seignur.
                   Cil m'ad tenud a grant onur.
                   Marchëant ert, mer sot passerL455 [L455] marchant DL15
           456  E set bien vendre e achater.L455 [L455] The change of tense of saveir here could be justified on the assumption that the first reference is to the time of marriage, and the second to the time of interview, but it is not certain that any such justification is necessary. For a similar change of tense, cf. Thomas, Tristan (ed. Wind, Sn1 609).15
                   En Danemarche fud le [autrer]L457 [L457] aut'er15L447 [L447] torn out in R15
                   E a plusurs oïd preier,
                   Si hom vus trovot, que venissiezL459 [L459] Sil vus trovast R15L458 [L458] partly torn in R15
           460  E le païs chalengissiez.
                   Bien [vus] loüm que la [turnez],L461 [L461om  la R15L461 [L461] turnissiez15
                   Voz dous vadlez od vus menez,L461 [L461] not in L15
                   Pur vus servir seient od vos.L463 [L463] serreient L15L463 [L463] I pur L15
           464  Si bien vus prent, mandez le nus;
                   Nus vus siuvrum, si vus volez,
                   Si Deu vus rent voz heretez.'L466 [L466] Si deus L15
                   Dist Aveloc e sa muillier:
           468  'Nus vus rendrum mult bon luier,L468 [L468] m. ben l. L15

Page 15


                   [Plus] vus [ferum] que ne [querez],L469 [L469] E plus L16L469 [L469] quidez DL16L469 [L469] rendrum DL16L469 [L469] E pus16
                   Se Deus nus rent noz heritez,
                   E les vadlez od nus merrum.
           472  Pur Deu pensez que nus passum.'L472 [L472] D. bien en penserom R16
                   Respunt la dame: 'Veirement
                   Ci remaindrez tant que aiez ventL474 [L474om  tant L16
                   [E] si jo puis, ainz que passez,L475 [L475] om  E DL16
           476  De meillurs dras vestuz serrez.'
                   Cil remistrent dunc a sujur,
                   Vestuz furent a grant enur.L478 [L478] f. par honur R16
                   Tant sujurnerent que vint l'oredL479 [L479] T. sujurnent R16
           480  E puis si sunt en nef entred;
                   E danz Algiers li marchëantL481 [L481] marchanz LR16L481 [L481] algers R16L481 [L481] algies DL16
                   Ad fait pur els le cuvenant.L482 [L482] les cuvenanz L li covenanz R16
                   [Lur froc dona il e Kelloc
           484  Pur la meisnee HavelocL484 [L484] meisne R16L483 [L483] not in DL16 [f.97c]
                   E] asez lur mist enz vitaille,L485 [L485] lur i m.v. R16L485 [L485] om  E DL16
                   Tresqu'a un meis ne ferad faille;L486 [L486] T. treis m. ne volt ke f. R16L486 [L486] frad DL16
                   Pain e vin e char e [peissunL487 [L487] e bon p. R16L487 [L487] peisuns16
           488  Lur ] mist es nefs a grant [fuisun]L488 [L488] fuisuns16L488 [L488] om  Lur DL16
                   E tresque unches la nef flotat,L489 [L489om  unches R16
                   Li esterman bien se drescat.
                   Dous nefs i ot tuit veirement,L491 [L491om  tuit L16
           492  Lur veilz drescent cuntre [le] vent.L492 [L492] L. sigles d. al v. R16
                   Tant unt nagied e governezL493 [L493] e sujurne L16
                   Qu'en Danemarche sunt arivez.
                   En la cuntree, u ariverent,
           496  A une vile s'en alerent,
                   La quistrent sumiers e [carrei],L497 [L497] charrei L16L497 [L497] careie16
                   Mener i firent lur [cunrei],L498 [L498] cunreie16
                   Les marchëanz sunt tuz [remés]L499 [L499] remeis16L499 [L499] marchanz DLR16
           500  Od lur herneis enz es dous nefsL500 [L500om  enz R16L500 [L500] half-lines interverted16

Page 16


                   E Aveloc e sa muillier
                   Vont a la vile herbergier.
                   Iloc maneit un[s] riches hom,
           504  Sigar [Estalre] aveit a nun,L504 [L504om  a LR17L504 [L504] lestarle DL17
                   Seneschal iert al rei GuntierL505 [L505] le r. G. L17L505 [L505] S. fu R17
                   E de sa terre justisier.
                   Mais ore est tels qu'en pais teneitL507 [L507] ore ert R17
           508  E icel rei forment haeitL508 [L508] E i. riche r. R17L508 [L508] E il cel r. L17
                   Ki dunc ert rei e poëstisL509 [L509om  e R17
                   Sur l'autre gent d'icel païs
                   [Pur] sun seignur qu'il aveit mortL511 [L511om  Pur L17L511 [L511] Sur17
           512  Par [la vertu Artur le fort]L512 [L512] de A. R17L512 [L512] artur le rei qui mult fud fort DL17
                   Qu'il ot par traïsun mandet
                   E cel païs li ot dunet.
                   Pur ço qu'il ert traïtre e fel,
           516  Plusurs unt tenud le cunseilL516 [L516om  le LR17L516 [L516] Plus en u. R17
                   Que ja od lui ne se tendrunt
                   Ne de li terre ne prendrunt,
                   Deci qu'il sachent del dreit eir
           520  De sa vie u sa mort le veir.L520 [L520] u de sa m. DL17 [f.97d]
                   Cist rei[s] ki dunc ert el païs
                   Il [esteit] frere al rei AschisL522 [L522] ert DL17
                   Qui pur Arthur suffrid la mort
           524  La u Modret li fist tel tort;
                   Il ot a nun Odulf le reis,
                   Mult fud haïz de ses Daneis.
                   Si cum Deu plut e aventure,
           528  Deus mist en Aveloc sa cureL516 [L516] partly torn in R17
                   Pur sa muillier qui tant ert bele,L529 [L529] q. trop ert R17
                   Fille le rei dam' Argentele.L530 [L530] La f. al r. R17L530 [L530] After 530 six lines blank in R17
                   Sis bacheliers dunc l'asaillirent,L531 [L531] It is probable that some reference was here made to the arrival of Haveloc and his company at their quarters, though only R actually shows a gap.17
           532  Pristrent s'amie, lui ferirentL532 [L532] assaillirent L (interlined above is another verb - ? ferent)17L532 [L532] P. la dame l. R17
                   E ses vadlez mult ledengerent,

Page 17


                   En plusurs lius lur chiefs briserent.L534 [L534] bruserent R18
                   Si cum [il] s'en vont od s'amie,L535 [L535] il vint od L il sen vnt od R18
           536  Danz Avelocs en ot envie,
                   Prent une hache mult trenchant,
                   Qu'en la maisun trovad [pendant];L538 [L538] Ken une m. R18L538 [L538] gisant18L538 [L538] Quil trovad en la m. DL18L538 [L538] None of the MSS. give a metrically correct line and there are also divergences in the readings, which seem, in part, to be connected with the gap assumed in the previous note. R uses the indefinite article, as though the house had not been mentioned before; DL, which have no outward sign of a gap, use the definite article, as though the house were already familiar to their readers; as the change in article renders R's line metrically correct, I have followed that reading; the agreement of LR shows that gisant is not original.18
                   Cels ad ateint a la rüele
           540  Qi menoent dam' Argentele,
                   Treis en ocist, dous en tuad
                   E al sist[e] le poin trenchad;L542 [L542] sist DL18
                   Prent sa femme, vint a l'ostel.
           544  Es vus le cri mult criminel!
                   Prist ses vadlez e sa muillier,
                   Si s'en entrat en un mustier,
                   Fermat les us pur la poür,
           548  Puis munterent sus en la tur.
                   Iloc aveit tel defensail,
                   Ja n'i fust pris senz grant travailL548 [L548] partly torn out in R18
                   Kar cil tres bien se defendirent,
           552  [Blescerent] cels kis asailirent.L552 [L552] Blescied ierent18
                   Quant dan Sigar i vint puignant,L553 [L553] om  i DL18
                   Veit cum les pieres vait ruantL554 [L554] p. vunt r. L18
                   Danz Avelocs qui mult ert fort;
           556  Les cinc bricuns aveit il mort.L556 [L556] b. esteient m. L18 [f.98a]
                   Sigar le vit, si l'avisat,
                   Del rei Guntier dunc li membrat.L558 [L558om  dunc L18
                   Tresqu'il unques l'ot choisid,
           560  Unc pur ses humes nel haïd.
                   A sun seignur si resemblotL561 [L561] om  si DL18
                   Que quant le vit, tel pitied otL562 [L562] p. avoit L18L562 [L562] en ot18
                   Qu'a mult grant paine pot parler.
           564  Tut l'asalt ad fait cesser,L551 [L551] torn out in R18
                   Pais e triwes lui afiad
                   E en sa sale l'en amenad,L566 [L566om  E LR18
                   Lui e sa femme e ses cumpainz,

Page 18


           568  [Les dous] vadlez dunt dis des ainz,L568 [L568om  des R19L568 [L568] E les v. DL19L568 [L568] The context shows that the reading of R is original, for Haveloc has received no accretion of strength.19
                   E quant furent aseürez,
                   Li riches hom ad demandez
                   Qui il esteit e cum ad num
           572  [E] dunt erent si cumpaignun,L572 [L572] U DL19
                   E de la dame lui demandatL573 [L573om  lui R19
                   Dunt ele vint, qui lui donat.L574 [L574] e ki li d. R19
                   'Sire,' fait il, 'ne sai qui sui,
           576  En cest païs quid que nez fui.
                   Uns mariniers qui Grim ot nun
                   M'amenat petit vadletun.
                   En Lindesie en volt aler;L579 [L579] second en not in R19
           580  Cum venimes en halte mer,
                   D'uthlages fumes asaillizL581 [L581] sumes R19
                   Par qui jo sui si malbailliz:L582 [L582om  jo R19
                   Ma mere i ert, si fud ocise;
           584  Jo guari, ne sai en quel guise,L584 [L584] mes ne sai L19
                   E li prodom en eschapad
                   Qui me nurid e mult m'amad.
                   Il e sa femme me nurirent,
           588  Mult m'amerent e encherirent.L588 [L588] E mult me nurirent e cherirent R19
                   Quant furent mort, si m'en turnai,
                   Un rei servi, u jo alai,
                   E dous vadlez furent od mei,L590 [L590] partly torn in R19
           592  Tant cum jo fui od [i]cel rei. [f.98b]
                   Tant fui od lui en ma juvente –
                   E ceste dame iert sa parente –
                   Si cum lui plut, la me donad
           596  E ensemble nus espusad.
                   Ci sui venud en cest païs,
                   Ne cunuis nul de mes amis
                   Ne jo ne sai a escient,
           600  Si jo ai ci un sul parent.L600 [L600] om  ci DL19
                   Mais par le los de un marchëant,L601 [L601] marchant DL19
                   A Grimesbi est remanant,

Page 19


                   Mult est prodom, nun ad Algier,
           604  Il me load e sa muillier
                   Ci a venir mes amis querre
                   E mes parenz en ceste terre.L592 [L592] torn out in R20
                   Mes jo ne sai un sul numer
           608  [Ne] ne sai cum jos puis trover.'L608 [L608] c. jo les p. L com les puisse t. R20L608 [L608] Ne sai DL20
                   Dist li prodom: 'Cum as tu nun?'
                   '[Sire], ne sai,' [cil li] respunt,L610 [L610] om  li L20L610 [L610] sil R20L610 [L610] Ne s. respunt li vadletun D20L610 [L610] The agreement of LR shows that D is at fault. For the imperfect rime, cf. nun : idunc (ll. 937-8).20
                   'Mais cum jo fui en la curt grant,L611 [L611] jo sui en R20L611 [L611] tant cum DL20
           612  Si me apeloent CuarantL612 [L612] mapelerent LR20
                   [E] tant cum jo fui vadletun,L613 [L613] jo sui v. R20L613 [L613] A t. L20L613 [L613] En20
                   Sai bien que Aveloc oi a nun;L614 [L614] oi n. L eut n. R20
                   A Grimesbi [quant] fui l'autrier,L615 [L615om  quant fui R20
           616  Haveloc m'apelad Algier.
                   Or sui ici, quel que voldrez
                   De ces dous nuns m'apel[er]ez.'L618 [L618] mapelez DL20
                   Sigar s'estut, si escutad,
           620  Del fiz lu rei si li membradL620 [L620] r. bien li R20
                   A icel nun dun[t] il [diseit],L621 [L621] esteit DL20L621 [L621diseit R, esteit DL. The mention of the name Haveloc has set Sigar's memory working and this leads me to follow R rather than DL.20
                   Le fiz Guntier cel nun aveit,
                   Si li membrat d'un altre vice
           624  Qu'il sot jadis par la nurrice,L624 [L624] Kil vit j. R20
                   De la flambe qui ert issant
                   De sa buche, quant ert dormant.L626 [L626] sa buchuche en d. L20
                   La nuit le fist tres bien gaitier
           628  La u il jut od sa muillier. [f.98c]
                   Pur ço qu'il ert forment lassed
                   De la bataille e del pensed
                   Que aveit eüd le jur devant,
           632  Si s'endormit, nul nel demant.L632 [L632] Sil sen R20
                   Eneslepas cume dormid,L633 [L633] ngnelpas cum d. L Ignelpas com il d. R20
                   De sa buche la flambe issid
                   E li sergant qui l'unt gaitedL635 [L635] vant ki R20
           636  A lur seignur l'unt tost [nuncié]L636 [L636] cunted20

Page 20


                   E li prodom levat del lit.
                   Quant il i vint, la flambe vit.L638 [L638] Q. a li v. L21
                   Dunc sot il bien que veirs esteitL635 [L635] partly torn in R21
           640  Ço que de lui pensez aveit;
                   Mais tant li ert cel pensé chier,
                   Unc nel voit dire a sa muillierL642 [L642] nel not d. L21
                   Tresqu'al demain qu'il levad.
           644  Dun[c] pur ses humes enveiad,
                   Si mandat pur ses chevaliers,
                   Pur geldons e pur peoniers;L646 [L646] Pur geldes e p. puigneres L21
                   De tutes parz vienent asez.L647 [L647] p. i v. DL21
           648  Quant il en ot mult asemblez,L640 [L640] torn out in R except for cher and moiller21
                   Dunc vait a Haveloc parler;
                   Bainer le fait e cunreier,
                   De novels dras le fait vestir,L651 [L651] d. lad feit v. R21
           652  En la sale le fait venir.
                   Cum en la sale est entrez,
                   [U] vit tanz homes asemblez,L654 [L654] v. de h. L21
                   Poür ot grant que cele gent
           656  Ne li facent mal jugement.
                   Pur les cinc homes que ot tuez
                   Quidat qu'il fussent asemblez.L658 [L658] Q. ke f. R21
                   Pur une hache en volt alerL659 [L659] h. i v. L om  en R21
           660  Que iloc teneit un bacheler;
                   Saisir la volt pur sei defendre.
                   Sigar [le vait, si l'ad fet prendre.L662 [L662] Ne trove nul quil voille attendre L21L662 [L662] S. la prist de sa main tendre21
                   Com il le tindrent de tuz lez,L663 [L663] leez R21L663 [L663] not in L21
           664  Sigar li dist: 'Ne vus dotez],L664 [L664After 664 in L: Mes la hache de vus metez21L661 [L661] Both in D and L we have obvious attempts to improve a passage already corrupt; the omission of ll. 663-4 in D is due to the repetition of Sigar in its source and the presence of l. 664 in L as well as in R confirms the authenticity of the couplet.21
                   N'aiez garde le mien ami.
                   Bien le vus jur, [sil vus] afiL666 [L666] j. e a. DL21 [f.98d]
                   Qu'ore vus aim plus que ne fis ier,
           668  Quant vus asis a mun mangier.'
                   Puis si l'asiet delez sei,L669 [L669] asist R21
                   Aporter fait le corn le rei;

Page 21


                   Ço fud le corn le rei Guntier;L671 [L671] c. al r. G. LR22
           672  Suz ciel n'i aveit chevalier,L672 [L672] c. nen ad c. L c. naveit nul c. R22
                   [Que] ja cel cor peüst sonerL673 [L673] Se22
                   Ne venëor ne bacheler,L674 [L674] ne chivaler L22
                   Si que ja [nuls] corner l'oïst,L675 [L675] nuls ja R22L675 [L675] nus22
           676  Si rei [u] dreit eir nel feïst.L676 [L676] eir le f. R22L676 [L676] Si d. eir le rei nel f. L22
                   De Danemarche le dreit eir
                   Le poeit [bien] corner par veirL678 [L678] pur v. LR22L678 [L678] b. soner p. R22L678 [L678] Le poit L Le pot R22L678 [L678] om  bien DL ben R22
                   Mais autre hom ja nel cornast,
           680  Nuls hom pur nïent s'en penast.L680 [L680] n. sen traveillast R22
                   Cel cor aveit Sigar guardé,
                   Li rei[s] Guntier lui ot livré.L682 [L682] G. laveit l. L22
                   Quant il le tint, nel pot suner;
           684  Un chevalier le fait livrer,L684 [L684] A un c. DR22
                   Si lui ad dit tut en riant:L685 [L685After 685 in R: Si ke jo en saie oiant22L685 [L685] not in R22
                   'Quil [sunerad], qu'il seit cornant,L686 [L686] sune si22
                   Jo lui dorrai un bon anel
           688  Qui a bosuin valt un chastel.
                   [Celui] qui en sun dei l'avrad,L689 [L689] Cil22
                   Si chiet en mer, ne neieradL690 [L690] Sil R22L688 [L688] partly torn in R22
                   Ne fu [nel] pot rien damagierL691 [L691] r. dampner L22L691 [L691] p. de rien LR22L691 [L691] ne li22
           692  Ne nul arme nel pot navrer.'
                   [Tels com vus di est li anel.L693 [L693] om  vus R22
                   Ore vont corner le meienel]L694 [L694] mainel R22L694 [L694] ll. 693-4 not in DL22
                   Li chevalier e li serjant;
           696  [Ne volt] soner ne tant ne quant,L696 [L696] Ne le poent s. tant L22L696 [L696] Nel porent22L693 [L693] The first couplet is not in DL, and there seems to be some connexion between this fact and the presence of the word meienel. In l. 697 we have, I think, a stylistic device to emphasize the complete lack of success among those who attempt the feat and the device loses its effectiveness without the repetition of ne volt soner, but if this expression is in l. 696, then li chevalier e li serjant have no predicate unless we accept the preceding couplet. Further, in DL l. 696 has a syllable too many and reads like a rewriting in order to supply a predicate to l. 695 left in the air by the omission of ll. 693-4. On balance I accept the authenticity of the couplet. Cf. ll. 6373-4, 6379-80 n.22
                   Unc pur nul d'els ne volt suner.L697 [L697] pur nuls LR22
                   Dunc l'unt bailliez al bachelier
                   Qu'il apeloent le prisun
           700  Qui Aveloc aveit a nun.L700 [L700] A. out n. R22
                   Quant cil le tint, si l'esgardat

Page 22


                   E dist qu'il unches [ne cornad].L702 [L702] u. cor ne sonat23
                   Al seignur dist: 'Larrai ester.
           704  Quant autre [home] nel pot corner,L704 [L704] om  home DL23 [f.99a]
                   Tut vus claim quite vostre anel,
                   [Ne rois pener le meienel].'L706 [L706] le mencebuel L23L706 [L706] meinel R23L706 [L706] Quant lunt asaiez tant damisel23L706 [L706] There seems to have been something not quite clear in the last word of the line, for D has rewritten the line completely; L has the meaningless men cebuel, which suggests the possibility of a hole in its copy at this point through which cebu was mistakenly read from the underlying folio.23
                   Respunt Sigar: 'Vus si ferez,L707 [L707] S. nun f. R23
           708  A vostre buche le metez.'L708 [L708] le mettrez L23
                   'Sire,' fait il, 'cel [ne] vus vied,L709 [L709] f. cil co ne R23L709 [L709] nert correction23
                   Ja serrad de mei asaied.'L710 [L710] De mai s. ja R23
                   [Donc prist le corn, si l'ad seigné,
           712  A sa buche l'ad asaié].L712 [L712] ll. 711-12 not in DL23
                   Tresque [sa] buche l'atuchad,L713 [L713] le tuchad LR23L713 [L713] Tost a sa b. L23L713 [L713] la23
                   Le corn [tant] gentement sunadL714 [L714] om  tant DL23
                   Que unc ne fud ainz oïd [son per];L715 [L715] suner DL23L715 [L715son per R, suner DL. As the line is referring to the quality of the sound, the reading of R is to be preferred.23
           716  Nuls hom ne sot si bien corner.
                   Sigar l'entent, salid en piez,
                   Entre ses braz l'ad enbraciez.
                   Puis [s'escriad]: 'Deu seit loed!L719 [L719] sescrie23
           720  Or ai mun dreit seignur trovez,
                   Ore ai celui que desirai
                   Pur qui la guerre maintendrai.
                   Ço est [li dreiz eirs] e la personeL723 [L723] le dreit eir23
           724  Qui deit porter d'or la corune.'L724 [L724or. This is the noun, not the adverb. Cf. l. 3915: Li reis corone d'or portad.23
                   Tuz ses [homes] ad dunc mandez,L725 [L725] baruns DL23L725 [L725homes R, baruns DL. There are two recognitions of Haveloc's position: (a) by Sigar and his personal retinue (ll. 725-8) and (b) by the disaffected barons (ll. 729-32); but this has been lost sight of by DL, so their reading is to be rejected.23
                   Lores li firent fedeiltez,
                   Il [meïsmes] s'agenuillad,L727 [L727] E il mesme DL23
           728  De fei tenir [l'aseürad].L728 [L728] lui seurad23
                   Puis [enveia] pur ses barunsL729 [L729] les b. R23L729 [L729] enveit DL23
                   A qui cel rei aveit tençuns,
                   Si sunt ses humes devenuzL731 [L731] Tuz sunt R23
           732  E a seignur l'unt [receüz].L732 [L732] E a lur s. unt tenuz L23L732 [L732] reconeuz23L732 [L732receuz R, reconeuz D, tenuz L. As DL diverge in their readings and as hiatus -e is generally maintained by Gaimar, I have followed R. The parallel passage in the Harley fragments (R. Imelmann, Lazamon, Versuch . . ., Berlin, 1906):
                   Li Bretun qui i ierent venu
                   Si hume sunt tu[it devenu],
                   A seinur l'unt tuit receu should be noted. For some reason DL take exception to this use of receveir on another occasion, viz. l. 2345: A Dorewit fud receüd, where DL read reconeud.23

                   Quant ço unt fait, asemblent gent,

Page 23


                   [En] quatre jurz [en] unt maint centL734 [L734] jurz unt DL24L734 [L734] An24
                   E el quint jur des chevaliers
           736  Orent il bien trente milliers.
                   Le rei Odulf dunc defïerentL737 [L737] Li reis O. R24
                   E en plain camp [s'entrecontrerent].L738 [L738om  camp R24L738 [L738] En un plein c. R24L738 [L738] sencuntrerent DL24
                   Asez i ot [granz] cops feruz,L739 [L739] grant24
           740  Li reis Odul[f] fud dunc vencuz
                   Car Aveloc si se cuntint, [f.99b]
                   Il sul en ocist plus de vint.
                   Dous princes [i ot] del païsL743 [L743] p. aveit el p. R24L743 [L743] ocist24
           744  Qui ainz erent ses enemis
                   E od Odulf s'erent tenud;
                   Ore sunt a sa merci venud.
                   Del païs la menue gent
           748  Vindrent a merci ensement
                   E Aveloc lur fist parduns
                   Par le cunseil de ses baruns.
                   Tuit lui jurerent fedeiltedL751 [L751] Tuz j. sa f. R24
           752  Li chevalier de cel regné
                   E li prodom e li burgeis
                   De lui firent seignur e reis.
                   Grant feste fist e grant baldoire,L755 [L755] f. tint R24
           756  Si cum nus dit la veire estoire.L756 [L756] la verai e. R24
                   Aprés sumunst tut son navire,L757 [L757] tut sa n. L tute sa n. R24L757 [L757] sumond R24
                   De sun rëalme tuit l'empire,L758 [L758] tute lemp. R24
                   Od sa grant ost la mer passad,L759 [L759] Od grant od ost L24
           760  Rei Edelsi dunc defiad;L760 [L760] Li reis E. R24
                   Celui [mandad] qu'il le defie,L761 [L761] Co li m. R24L761 [L761] mandet24
                   Si lui ne rent le dreit s'amie,L762 [L762] Si ne li r. L Sil ne li r. R24
                   E Edelsi [li remandad]L763 [L763] E. le r. L24L763 [L763om  E L Li reis E. R24L763 [L763] tost lui mandad24
           764  Qu'encuntre lui se cumbatrad.
                   Cumbatirent [sei] en un plainL765 [L765] enz en L24L765 [L765] Se c. en24

Page 24


                   [Des le matin tresk'al serain].L766 [L766] Del m. R25L766 [L766] Des le seir tresqual matin DL25L766 [L766] ll. 765 and 766 interverted25
                   Mult i ot humes [afolez]L767 [L767] asemblez DL25
           768  D'ambes[dous] parz [e mort ruez]L768 [L768] a m. dampnez L25L768 [L768] e m. rueiz R25L768 [L768] a m. navrez D25L768 [L768] om  dous DL25L765 [L765] In D the first couplet is interverted, as shown by the agreement in order of L and R. Further, in DL we have a faulty rime due to the interversion of matin and seir in l. 766, for the context requires an all-day battle with cessation of hostilities at nightfall and this is supplied by R. In l. 767 both D and L give a metrically faulty line and their readings diverge in the second half of the line, so it is advisable to follow R; moreover the construction calls for an expression at the end of l. 767 parallel in sense to that which terminates the couplet, and this is adequately supplied by R.25
                   Quant neire nuit les desevrad
                   Tresqu'al demain qu'il ajurnad.
                   Mais par cunseil de la reïneL771 [L771om  de L25L771 [L771] le c. DL25
           772  Qui enseignat une mescine
                   Remist le mal e la bataille,L773 [L773] Par ki r. R25
                   Sun regné ot senz grant cuntraille.L774 [L774] g. ?ca uaile L25L774 [L774] s. grei R25L773 [L773] line-ends torn in R25
                   Tute nuit fist enfichier pelsL775 [L775] f. en terre ficher p. R25
           776  Plus gros e greinurs de tinels,L776 [L776] que toneuls L ke tonels R25L776 [L776] e granz R25
                   Les morz humes i enficherentL777 [L777] h. en sus ficherent R25 [f.99c]
                   E tute nuit sus les drescerent;L778 [L778om  sus L25
                   Dous eschieles en firent granz,
           780  [Que] veirement furent semblanz,L780 [L780] v. estait s. R25
                   Cum fussent cumbatanz e vifs.L781 [L781] Que L Kil R25
                   Le jur devant furent ocis.L782 [L782] d. erent o. R25
                   Hom ki de luin[z] les [es]gardoutL783 [L783] agardout25
           784  Tute la char l'en heriçot
                   Ambure de luinz e de pres
                   Hysdus semblent morz descunfés.
                   L'endemain s'en raparaillerent,
           788  De cumbatre mult s'aficherent
                   [E les vëors vindrent devantL789 [L789] om  E R25L789 [L789] ll. 789-90 not in DL25
                   Vëeir la gent dan Cuarant].L790 [L790] Cuherant R25L790 [L790] Veher R25
                   Quant unt veüd quei il i ad,L791 [L791] v. que tant en i a R25
           792  Tute la char lur heriçadL792 [L792] c. len h. R25
                   Car encuntre un [hom] qu'il aveient,L793 [L793] home DL25
                   De l'autre part set en vëeient.L794 [L794] vaient R25L794 [L794] aveient DL25
                   [Arere en vont al rei] nuncierL795 [L795] Al rei le vont tost DL25
           796  Del cumbatre n'i ad mestier,L796 [L796] Le c. L Li c. R25

Page 25


                   [Rende] a la dame sun dreitL797 [L797om  a R26L797 [L797] Rendez L26L797 [L797] Rent26
                   E facet [pais], ainz que pis seit.L798 [L798] facez L26L798 [L798] plait26L797 [L797] The subjunctive is required in both lines, though D substitutes the indicative, giving a metrically faulty line. The reading of L is perhaps an indication that Gaimar used the same termination for the two verbs, so I have made the first conform to the second. Cf. the corresponding couplet in the Lai d' Haveloc:
                   A la dame rende sun dreit
                   E face pes ainz ke pis seit (ll. 1083-4).26

                   Li reis ne pot par el passer.L799 [L799] el aler R26
           800  Dunc li estuet [ço] graanterL800 [L800] granter DLR26L800 [L800] ico26
                   Kar si barun lui unt loed.L801 [L801om  si R26
                   Re[ndu] li fu tuit le regned
                   Des Hoiland tresqu'en Colecestre.
           804  Reis Havelocs la tint sa feste,L804 [L804] H. i tint L26L804 [L804] Rei R26
                   Les homages de ses baruns
                   Reçut par[tut] ses regïuns.
                   Pois aprés desque quinze disL807 [L807] a. co ke q. R26
           808  Ne vesquid li reis Edelsis.
                   Il ne ot nul eir si dreiturierL809 [L809] dreiturel R26
                   Cume Haveloc e sa muillier.
                   Il ot enfanz mais morz esteient.
           812  Les barnages tres bien otreient
                   Que Haveloc e sa amieL813 [L813sa amie. As we are without the reading of R, owing to a tear in the MS., we do not know whether this hiatus is due to Gaimar. As he nowhere uses the masculine form of the possessive to avoid hiatus before a feminine noun, I keep the reading of the MSS. A similar non-elision–sa anme–occurs in the Bestiaire, where the editor emends to sue anme (cf. l. 12 n), Tobler (Versbau3, p. 55, n. 1) adduces sa ante from Angier (S. Greg., l. 77) and in Ste. Marie l'Egyptienne (ed. A. T. Baker, R.d.l.r. LIX (1916-17), 145-400) we find sa ure (l. 835).26
                   Ait la terre rei Edelsie.
                   Ja si ot il, vint anz fud reis
           816  E mult cunquist par les Daneis.L816 [L816] om  E DL26 [f.99d]
                   Dunc ot des la Nativited
                   Bien pres de cinc cenz anz passed,
                   N'en ot que sul cinc anz a dire.L819 [L819] Niert ke c.a. R26L819 [L819] passed in text a dire noted in margin26
           820  L'autre Certiz od sun navireL820 [L820] La outre C. H26L820 [L820l'autre Certiz. The use of the same expression elsewhere, viz. l. 1779 to distinguish Wilfrid, successor of St. John of Beverley, from St. Wilfrid, l. 4207, to distinguish Edmund Ironside from a shadowy uncle of the same name, l. 5225 to distinguish Harold of England from his namesake of Norway, shows that Gaimar is distinguishing Cerdic of Wessex, of whom he is reading in A.S.C., from another Cerdic, to whom Modred gave land (ll. 7-10). This Cerdic somehow represents the Cheldric of Geoffrey of Monmouth, though we do not know, because of the loss of the Estoire des Bretuns, whether or no Gaimar had observed that there were really two Saxon leaders of that name in the Historia. At a later stage, at the meeting between Cnut and Edmund Ironside, he had forgotten this distinction, for he clearly makes Cerdic of Wessex the recipient of Modred's donation.26
                   [Ariva a Certicesore –L821 [L821] certesore R26
                   Ço est un moncel ki pert uncore –L822 [L822] om  Co est R26
                   La] arivad il e sun fiz,L823 [L823] om  La DLH26
           824  Engleis l'apelerent Kenriz.L824 [L824] En lap. H26
                   Hors e Henges fud lur ancestre,L825 [L825] furent l. a. H26L825 [L825] Hors e (et) added later26L825 [L825] This line, which is undoubtedly authentic, reaffirms the kinship of Cerdic and Hengist to which Gaimar has earlier given expression (ll. 14-17 and l. 25) and which later reappears, though indirectly, following the genealogy of Cerdic (ll. 839-40, 845-6).26
                   Si cum cunte la veire geste.L826 [L826] la vereie g. R26
                   Il fud fiz [Elessinc] le reis,L827 [L827] li r. RH26L827 [L827] f. a selinc L f. alsinc H26L827 [L827om  fud L26L827 [L827] alesinc26
           828  Icest Certiz, si fud Engleis.L828 [L828] si ert E. R26L828 [L828om  si H26

Page 26


                   [E Elessinc fu fiz Elese]
                   [E Elese fu fiz Esling
           832  Esling fiz Eslage fiz Wising
                   Fiz Gewis fiz Wigening
                   Fiz Wilte frere a Winsing
                   Fiz Fretewine fiz Freodagaring
           836  Fiz Freodegar fiz Brending
                   Fiz Brand fiz Beldeging
                   Fiz Beldeg nez Winhing
                   Beldeg fu del linage Wodnez
           840  De ki linage Hors e Henges furent nez.
                   De lur linage furent nez
                   Cels ki furent apelez
                   Lé Westsexiens e lé Suthsexiens
           844  E les Estsexiens e lé Midelsexiens.
                   Mes pur ço ke Henges e Hors
                   E Certiz ki aprés lur morz –
                   Ki vindrent en la terre
           848  E tant sovent i firent guere
                   Furent de cest real linage
                   Cels e lur barnage
                   E nez del païs ki Ange ad nun
           852  Engleis tuz les apela hom.
                   Vint e quatre] anz durad la guerreL853 [L853] Quatorze DLH27L853 [L853vint e quatre R, quatorze DLH. As Cerdic arrived in 495 and acceded in 519, which gives a period of 24 years, and as quatorze spoils the metre, we must accept the reading of R.27
                   Ainz que Certiz peüst cunquereL854 [L854] poust R la pout H27
                   Sur les Bretuns guerres de chose.
           856  Idunc iert Cirecestre enclose;L856 [L856] C. close R27
                   Par la mesgarde des BretunsL857 [L857] Mes par la m. as B. R27
                   Fud alumee par muissuns
                   Qui fu e sulfre dedenz porterentL859 [L859] d. getterent H27L859 [L859] e suffre LR et foudre H27L859 [L859] Quar f. L27L859 [L859] essulfre27
           860  E des maisuns mulz alumerent,L860 [L860] Et les m. a. H27
                   E li sieges qui defors fud
                   Firent l'asalt par grant vertud.
                   Dunc fud cele cited cunquise
           864  E Glouecestre refud prise;L864 [L864] G. fud p. L27L864 [L864] gloucestre DLRH27

Page 27


                   Tresqu'a Saverne tuit cunquistrent,
                   Tuz les meillurs Bretuns ocistrentL866 [L866] Et les H28
                   E des la mer, u ariverent,
           868  Tresqu'a Saverne [a els turnerent]L868 [L868] tur cunquistrent28
                   Tuit le païs e le regned
                   E les Bretuns en unt cacied.L856 [L856] This siege, and capture, of Cirencester is distinct from that recorded A.S.C. 577 and duly described by Gaimar in ll. 991-2. It is important, because it introduces the stratagem of the fire-bearing sparrows, which is later found attached to the Gormund story. Gaimar did not find it in Geoffrey of Monmouth nor in connexion with Gormund. The stratagem is an old folk-tale, it would seem, told of varying people, including Cerdic, and of varying places, including Silchester. It would appear that Gaimar found it attached to Cerdic and to Cirencester, hence its introduction here. Metre shows that the form of Gloucester used by Gaimar had four syllables, so I have emended here and elsewhere. Cf. l. 1030 n.28
                   Quinze anz regnad li reis Certiz.L871 [L871om  li reis L28
           872  Aprés sa mort regnad Kenriz,
                   [Fiz fud Certiz, mult gueread
                   E grant païs a sei turnad];
                   E les Bretuns mult le haeient,L875 [L875] le leidoient H28
           876  Suvent rancone li faseient.L876 [L876] E s. R28
                   Les autres Engleis s'espandirent,
                   En plusurs lius regnes saisirent.
                   Si cum Bretun furent enceis,L879 [L879] B. erent R B. firent LH28L879 [L879] li B.28
           880  Chescun se fist apeler reis.L880 [L880] se fesait R28 [f.100a]
                   D'ultre la mer Saines veneient,L881 [L881om  la LRH28
                   Cum arivoent, tut perneient
                   E les Bretons pur la lur guerreL883 [L883] Et aus B. H28
           884  Estuet guerpir la bone terre
                   E vers Guales, [vers] occident,L885 [L885] en loc. R28L885 [L885] Envers LR Vers H28L885 [L885] envers o. DH28
                   U erent lur autre parent,
                   S'en alouent e la fueient
           888  E cel païs bien defendeientL888 [L888] defendirent R28L888 [L888] En cel p. se d. H28L888 [L888] Icel p. R28
                   E mult suvent ost asembloent,L889 [L889om  mult H28
                   Ultre Saverne le menoent,L890 [L890] les m. RH28L890 [L890] Et vers S. H28
                   Si guerreoent les Engleis,L891 [L891] Et guerreroient H28
           892  Kenriz li e les autres [reis],L892 [L892] a. maneis L28L892 [L892om  li L28L892 [L892] engleis28
                   E mult sovent se cumbatirentL893 [L893om  E H28
                   E lur païs bien chier vendirent.L894 [L894om  bien H28
                   En Norfolke erent les Daneis
           896  Del tens que Avelocs fud reis,L896 [L896] El t. L Des le t. H28
                   Si defendirent lur païsL897 [L897] de. cel p. RH28L897 [L897] Si defendeient R28

Page 28


                   E cel qui fud rei Edelsis.L898 [L898] reis LR29L898 [L898] f. al r. RH29
                   Mais Wasing ert de lur [linage]L899 [L899] langage DL29
           900  Qui mult suvent lur fist ultrage;
                   Unc pur home ne volt pleier,
                   Tuz jurz fist tort senz adrescier;
                   [Unques] de rien ne s'adresçad,L903 [L903] U. de tort ne R29L903 [L903] Unc29
           904  Cuntre dous reis mult guerreiad.
                   Li uns ot nun [li] reis Burgard,L905 [L905] om  li DLH29
                   Li autre ot nun [Geine], cuardL906 [L906] gemecuard L geine le choard R29L906 [L906] Et li a. H29L906 [L906] gemetuard DH29
                   Qui pur poür guerpid sa terre.
           908  Poi tens durad entr'els la guerre.L908 [L908om  tens H29L908 [L908] P. de t. R29
                   Dunc vint Kenriz od ses Engleis,L909 [L909] K. li E. R29
                   Si guerreiad Wasing le reis,L910 [L910] li r. RH29L910 [L910] Qui H29
                   [Il e] sun fiz, Cheulinz ot nuns,L911 [L911] De s. L29L911 [L911] Un29
           912  Mult ot entr'els lunges tençunsL912 [L912] longe tencon R grant tencon H29
                   Tant que Wasing en fud ocis;L913 [L913om  en R29
                   Kenriz l'ocist sis enemis.
                   Li reis [Burgard] lur aïdatL915 [L915] lur adjuvat R29L915 [L915] hurgard29
           916  E des Seisnes dous reis menad,L916 [L916] E de ses nies R29 [f.100b]
                   Il e Lowine de Glouecestre.L917 [L917] gloecestre L29L917 [L917] Ireloune de leycestre R29L917 [L917] Il e li home de L Il e loune de H29L917 [L917] gloucestre DH29
                   Mort fud Wasing, ne pot el estre.L895 [L895] This passage, of which the source is unknown, is not without difficulties and obscurities, which are fully discussed in my article Gaimar's Early Danish Kings (PMLA LXV (1950), 601-40), where I give grounds for thinking that Gaimar actually called his Danish king Walsing, this is, however, not sufficiently certain to warrant its adoption into the text. The original wording of l. 917 cannot be satisfactorily established.29
                   Dous reis de Sesuine [itant] furent,L919 [L919] od els DH od li L29
           920  Trente anz regnerent, [puis] mururent.L920 [L920] dunc DL29
                   A Salesbiri par dous feiz
                   Se cumbatid Kenriz li reis,
                   Il e Cheulins, od les Bretuns
           924  Kar tuz jurz ot entr'els tençuns.
                   [E] en lur tens, quant il regnerent,L925 [L925] om  E DL29
                   Dous jurz tuz clers noit [anuiterent]L926 [L926om  noit H29L926 [L926] auorterent DL (eu- L)29
                   E aprés les noiz anoitandL927 [L927om  E L29
           928  [Ida] reçout Norhumberland.L928 [L928] resceu N. L rescut N. R receut N. H29L928 [L928] Iad DL29
                   Sachiez, ço fud li premier reis

Page 29


                   Qui la tenist del lin [d'Engleis].L930 [L930om  del lin H30L930 [L930] des E. DLH30
                   Icest [Ida] duze anz regnadL931 [L931] Icestui d. anz i r. L30L931 [L931] .iad. last two letters capitals in form, d somewhat compressed30
           932  E Baenbur[c] bien restorad,L932 [L932] baenbure30
                   Dechaette ert e mult defraite
                   De si cum Eubrac l'ot ainz faite.L934 [L934] c. embrauc lot H30L934 [L934] des ainz30
                   Ida fud fiz Cubbe, un tirantL935 [L935] f. umba H30L935 [L935] Icest I. DL30L935 [L935Cubbe. The name represents O.E. Eoppa, but apparently it was not in the version of A.S.C. used by Gaimar. There has been confusion of initial c and e, such as is found elsewhere in the Estoire, but the form of the consonant suggests borrowing from Nennius, where the name appears as Eobba.30
           936  Qui unc a Deu ne fud servantL936 [L936] ne fut a dieu s. H30
                   [E el] tens Ide encore iduncL937 [L937] e encore mun L30L937 [L937om  E LR30L937 [L937] Cel30
                   Norhumberland [aveit] sun nun.L938 [L938] ot DH30
                   [Deiron ert de l'est del Fossé,
           940  Berniche ert l'altre part nomé].L940 [L940] Herniche R30
                   Cist reis dunc Ide se cumbatidL941 [L941] E cist r. Ida se L Cist r. idonc se R Cist r. Ide donc se H30
                   Cuntre Bretuns k'il mult haïd
                   E tant forment le[s] guerreiad,
           944  Cel païs sur els cunquestad.L944 [L944] Le p. L30
                   Mult fud doté partut BretaineL945 [L945] par B. RH30L945 [L945] par tute DL30
                   Kar tuz jurz cresseit sa cumpaigne.
                   Elle e Ide furent regnanz
           948  Le un puis l'altre trente anz.L948 [L948] chescun .xxx. a. H30L948 [L948] Lun e p. R30L947 [L947] Here there is a double misunderstanding by Gaimar of his source, A.S.C. 560. Firstly, the phrase Idan forðgefarenum seems to have led him to think of Ælla as Ida's successor; secondly, and consequently, he has taken the phrase hyra ægðer to apply to the Northumbrian monarchs, not, as in the annal, to Ceawlin of Wessex and Ælla of Deira. Curiously enough he seems to have construed the annal correctly a little earlier, if the Rolls edition is correct in its assumption that ll. 919-20 contain a confused reference to Ceawlin and Ælla. As l. 948 is metrically incorrect in DLR, can it be that H, which reads chescun before trente, here preserves the true reading?30
                   Puis la neisance al Salveür,
                   [Danz] Jesu Crist nostre Seignur,L950 [L950] om  Danz DLH30
                   [Cinq] cenz e [seisante] cinc anz,L951 [L951] quarante c. H30L951 [L951] quatre c. DL30L951 [L951] Cinz30
           952  Si cum croniches est garanz,L952 [L952] sunt g. R30L952 [L952] c. cronikes L c. cronicles RH30L952 [L952] creniches30
                   Edelbrit fud fait rei de KentL953 [L953] E Ed. L30
                   E de Surrie ensement.L954 [L954] de sudeine R30 [f.100c]
                   [Cinquante treis] anz tint le regne,L955 [L955] regnie L30L955 [L955om  tint L30L955 [L955] Quarante cinc DLH30
           956  [Cristienté] e dreit [baptesme]L956 [L956] Cristiene fud L Crestienete R30L956 [L956] e d. baptize DL30L956 [L956] De crestiens30
                   [Li] enveiad li apostoire;L957 [L957] Il env. a L Lenv. H30L957 [L957] I30
                   Il le requist de saint Gregoire.L958 [L958] Il la r. L30
                   Danz Columbans le baptized,

Page 30


           960  Un sainz prestre que Deus amad,L960 [L960] un p. fu q. R31
                   Puis alad norht, la cunversad,
                   Od les [Pecteis] dunc abitad,L962 [L962] picteis R31L962 [L962] pecleis DL31
                   L'ille de Nun li fud donedL963 [L963] de luni li H31L963 [L963om  de R31L963 [L963Nun. All MSS. agree in this name, which Gross explains as due to a misreading of hii (= Iona). As this mistake may have been made by Gaimar, I have made no correction in the text.31
           964  E puis fud iloc abed.
                   Ninan aveit einz baptizedL965 [L965] Dinan R31
                   Les autres Pecteis del regned –L966 [L966] pictes R pectes H31L966 [L966] pecleis DL31
                   Ço sunt les Westmaringïens,L967 [L967Westmaringiens. As the source of this information is not known, the identity of the people concerned remains a problem, but the name is, perhaps, to be connected with the westmering which figures in the story of Rodric, king of the Picts.31
           968  Idunc esteient [Pectïens.L968 [L968] pictiens R31L968 [L968] Ki donc R31L968 [L968] pecliens DL31
                   A Wyternen gist saint Ninan,L969 [L969] dinan R31
                   Long tens vint devant Columban].L969 [L969] not in DLH31
                   Cinc cenz anz e [sessante] uitL971 [L971] e uit31L971 [L971] e quatre DL31L971 [L971] The agreement of RH shows that the correct number is 68; DL have the same type of meaningless numeral (quatre e uit) as at l. 951.31
           972  Furent alez en cele nuit,
                   Quant Cheulinz e Cuda li reis
                   Mistrent en fuie les Kenteis.
                   Reis Edelbrith fud desconfiz,
           976  Ses dous baruns furent osciz.L976 [L976] i furent DL31
                   Mort i furent si [dui barun],L977 [L977] f. andui li b. L31L977 [L977om  i LH31L977 [L977] barun dui31
                   Oslaf e [Cnebbe orent cil nun].L978 [L978] cubbe L cheuebe H31L978 [L978] C. tut pur ennui31L978 [L978] cuebe31
                   Cil Cude fud frere [Ceulin],L979 [L979] Cil cubbe f. L31L979 [L979] ceulinz DL31
           980  Bretuns venquid un jur [matin];L980 [L980] matinz DL31
                   A Bedefort la les venquid,L981 [L981Bedefort. All MSS. concur in this reading, and Gaimar most probably understood by it Bedford, though place-name scholars no longer accept this identification of the Biedcanford of A.S.C.(E) 571.31
                   Treis bons recez dunc lur tolid,L982 [L982] la lur t. L31L982 [L982om  dunc LH31
                   Ailesbiri e Besentune
           984  E la cited de Luietune.L984 [L984] luitune R luintune H31L984 [L984] E donc la c. R31L984 [L984] luntune DL31
                   Entre Cheulinz e cel sun frereL985 [L985om  cel H31L985 [L985] e cude s. f. R31
                   Firent as Bretuns male here.
                   A Sorham treis reis ocistrent,L987 [L987] forham L31
           988  Si cum li livre ancien distrent,L988 [L988om  livre H31
                   [Coimagil e Candidant,
                   Farinmagil un rei poant].

Page 31


                   Dunc si cunquistrent Glouecestre,L991 [L991] gloecestre L32L991 [L991] gloucestre DRH32L991 [L991] a G.32
           992  Si pristrent Bade e Cirecestre.L992 [L992] cycestre R32L992 [L992] p. bae en C. L32
                   Cheulinz e Cude avant alerent,
                   Bretuns quistrent tant ques troverent,L994 [L994] quels t. L ke t. R quil les t. H32 [f.100d]
                   A els vindrent en la cuntree
           996  Qui ot a nun Feadecanlee.L996 [L996] Whence did Gaimar derive his form of the place-name–Feadecanlee? It has every appearance of being the transcription of a genuine O.E. form. If so, the first component seems to be a personal-name of the same type as that in Bedcanford A.S.C.(A) 571 and in Badecanwielle A.S.C.(A) 924.32
                   Cudan ocistrent li BretunL997 [L997] C. i o. R32
                   Puis vont a grant perdicïun,L998 [L998] a destruccion H32L998 [L998] Vont puis R32
                   Destruiz furent e descunfiz.
         1000  Le reis Cheulinz ad tut saisiz
                   E lur herneis e lur aveirsL1001 [L1001] Lur h. H32L1001 [L1001] aveirs and maneirs interverted32
                   E lur tresors e lur maneirs.
                   Dunc fud mort li reis d'Everwic,
         1004  Si firent rei de Edelric.L1004 [L1004] edelfriz R32L1004 [L1004] cedefric DLH32
                   Edelfrid fud reis e vaillanz,
                   [Edelriz] ne fud fors cinc anz,L1006 [L1006] E E. ne fu reis f. R32L1006 [L1006] Cedefriz DLH32
                   [Edelfrid fu del linage Ida.
         1008  Mes danz Ceulin, Quintelm e CridanL1008 [L1008] ll. 1007-8 not in DLH32
                   Furent alé] de ceste vie.L1009 [L1009] Quant cez sunt alez DLH32
                   Uns reis d'Escoce fist estultie;
                   Egtan ot nun, od EdelfridL1011 [L1011om  od H32
         1012  Od tute s'ost se cumbatid.L1012 [L1012] Od tut sun ost LR32
                   A [Dexestane] se asemblerent,L1013 [L1013] A soreham H32L1013 [L1013] heroldesham DL32L1013 [L1013Dexestane R. This represents the Dægsanstane of A.S.C. 603, but was early misunderstood in the tradition of DLH. The latest MS. reads Sorham, but DL give Heroldesham, by which they appear to mean Hexham. I suggest that a misdivision ad exestane combined with a misreading of -stane as -ham gave rise to this mistake. Cf. l. 3248 where Fuleham becomes Fulchestan in L.32
                   Mult des Escoz i meserrerentL1014 [L1014] M. les E. m. R32
                   E li freres rei [Edelfriz],L1015 [L1015] f. reis E. RH32L1015 [L1015] edelfrid32
         1016  Tiedbald ot nun, cil fud ocis;L1016 [L1016] Teedbald L Thebaud H32L1016 [L1016] Tielbald DR32
                   [Herins] ot nun cil quis menad,L1017 [L1017] Kenriz H32L1017 [L1017] Henris DL32
                   La gent d'Escoce caelad.
                   Dunc ot le siecle bien duretL1019 [L1019] li secles RH32
         1020  De la Jesu Nativited
                   Sis cenz e cinc anz, ço lisum.L1021 [L1021] The arrival of the mission is given by A.S.C. in 596, but it is possible to surmise why Gaimar gives the later date. He had followed Northumbrian affairs through a number of annals as far as the battle of Dægsanstane and in so doing had read of Augustine's mission and of the sending of the pallium. At 596 he read: Her Gregorius papa sende to Brytene Augustinum mid wel manegum munucum, and at 601: Her sende Gregorius papa Augustine arcebiscope pallium on Brytene $$ wel manega godcunde larewas. He seems to have felt the need to give some content to these phrases, hence the mention of Paulinus from 601 and of Mellitus and Justus from 604. Thus he would have arrived at 605 and, when he began to compose this section of his Estoire, set down this date instead of the real one.32
                   Dunc enveiad Gregorïum

Page 32


                   Saint Aüstin en Engleterre.L1023 [L1023] en la terre R33L1023 [L1023] S. augustin LH33
         1024  Il i fist paiz, destruist la guerre.L1024 [L1024om  i R33L1024 [L1024] p. e d. DL33
                   Paulin i vint sun cumpainiun,
                   E dan Justin e [Meliton].L1026 [L1026] melicun DL33
                   Crestïented mult eshalcerent,L1027 [L1027om  mult H33
         1028  En plusurs lius genz bapticerent.
                   Dunc fud Chealwlf reis de Gincestre,
                   De Westsexe e de Glouecestre.L1030 [L1030] gloecestre L33L1030 [L1030] gloucestre DRH33L1030 [L1030] E de DLRH33L1030 [L1030Glouecestre. Though the MSS., with the exception of L, usually have no -e before -cestre in this name, the metre shows that it is required and Gloecestre, the uniform spelling in L, seems to confirm this. The adoption of the form with -e- makes the line hypermetric, unless, as I have done, we omit the copula at the beginning of the line; the construction is then parallel to that in l. 3163.33
                   Cist reis levad tençuns, estrifs,L1031 [L1031] t. e est. LRH33L1031 [L1031] r. ama t. R r. meut t. H33
         1032  Pur guerreier penad tut disL1032 [L1032] g. se p. LRH33L1032 [L1032] P. guerrer L33 [f.101a]
                   U as Engleis u as SeisunsL1033 [L1033] a […] a LR33
                   U [as] Escoz u [as] Bretuns.L1034 [L1034] a […] as L33L1034 [L1034] a […] a DR33
                   [Li reis Edwine esteit donc reis,L1035 [L1035] E. fut d. H33
         1036  Si prist les crestïenes leis],L1036 [L1036] cristienes H33L1036 [L1036] crestiene R33L1036 [L1036] ll. 1035-6 not in DL33
                   De Everwic ert; [i]ço savom:L1037 [L1037] co DLH33
                   Qu'il estorad religïum
                   E un mustier i estoradL1039 [L1039] m. restorat R33
         1040  E a saint Piere l'adonad.L1040 [L1040] le dunad LH33
                   Icist fud reis del lignage ElleL1041 [L1041] I. reis fu RH33
                   Qui a saint Piere fist sacelle.
                   Un evesque le baptizad,L1043 [L1043] Uns evesques R33
         1044  Paulins ot nun, Deu [mult] l'amad.L1044 [L1044] om  mult DLH33
                   Cist aportad le pallïunL1045 [L1045] Cil L Icist H33
                   De Rome Augustin le barun.L1046 [L1046] a A. LR33
                   A l'arcevesque AüstinsL1047 [L1047] augustins LH33
         1048  Fud enveied [i]cist [Paulins],L1048 [L1048] pallins DLH33L1048 [L1048] cist DR33
                   Od lui vindrent [mulz] cumpaignunsL1049 [L1049] m. de c. H33L1049 [L1049] mult DL33
                   Pur faire predicatïuns.
                   En plusurs lius par le regned
         1052  Pristrent bien tost crestïentedL1052 [L1052om  bien H33
                   Mais mult demurad lungement,

Page 33


                   Ainz qu'il fust [fait] comunalment,L1054 [L1054] Einz qen fut fet comandement H34L1054 [L1054] fud f. LR34L1054 [L1054] A. ke f. R34
                   E li alquant qui l'otreierent
         1056  Sovent [la] pristrent e relaisserent.L1056 [L1056] Le p. sovent DLH34L1056 [L1056] Whichever reading is adopted, we have an additional syllable, but as the final of sovent is tonic and the pronoun in R is more correct, I have accepted R, the line now conforming to a type quite familiar to Gaimar.34
                   Saint Aüstins le bon barunL1057 [L1057] augustin LH34
                   Ad faite sa beneïçun.L1058 [L1058] f. par sa b. H34
                   Dous evesques ad ordenez
         1060  E els tres bien de Deu sacrez.L1060 [L1060] E cels de D. tres ben s. L E ces dous trebien s. R Et ambesdeus a D. s. H34
                   Melites ot li uns a nun,L1061 [L1061] li uns out n. R34
                   Li autre Justin sun cumpaignun;
                   A Melite donad sun sied,
         1064  A Lundres oüst s'evesquied,L1064 [L1064] L. out sa e. L L. out son e. H34
                   E [a Justin], a RouecestreL1065 [L1065] E augustins H34L1065 [L1065first a not in L34L1065 [L1065] E austin34
                   De la crestïented fust mestre.L1066 [L1066] seit m. R34L1066 [L1066] fud DLH34L1066 [L1066fud DLH, seit R. The line is a continuation of Augustine's dispositions and parallel to l. 1064, so I have introduced the imp. subjunctive.34
                   Melites dunc tut [al] premierL1067 [L1067om  tut R34L1067 [L1067] om  al DLH34
         1068  En Estsexe alad prëeschier;
                   Le rei Seibert tant prëeschadL1069 [L1069] Li reis R34
                   Qu'il baptisterie demandad. [f.101b]
                   Cil ert nevod rei [Edelbert],L1071 [L1071] n. le rei E. L n. reis E. R34L1071 [L1071] edelbrit34
         1072  Fiz sa serur; a descovert
                   [Amad il] Deu e bien servid.L1073 [L1073] D. ama et servit H34L1073 [L1073] Il amad D. DL34
                   Ricolan ot nun quil nurid,
                   Serur le rei qui Chent teneit.
         1076  De Deu seium nus benëeit!L1076 [L1076] beneit DLRH34L1076 [L1076] nus tuz DL34
                   E par cest rei ki Kent dunc tintL1077 [L1077] ke dunc K. t. L34
                   Saint Aüstin el païs vint.L1078 [L1078] S. augustin H34
                   Edelfrit ert [nobles] poantL1079 [L1079] n. e p. R34L1079 [L1079] reis DLH34
         1080  [Si ert reis] de Norhumberland.L1080 [L1080] De trestut DLH34
                   A Leïrcestre ost amenadL1081 [L1081] L. sost mena H34L1081 [L1081] L. grant ost mena R34L1081 [L1081] leicestre RH34L1081 [L1081Leïrcestre. This appears to be the name used by Gaimar, but he seems not to have realized that Chester, not Leicester, is meant. He may have been misled by his copy of A.S.C., for it is not without interest that A.S.C.(E) 605 reads: Æðelfrið lædde his ferde to Legaceastre . . . Scrocmail wæs gehaten hyra ealdor; but the addition to A.S.C.(A) 607 has: Æðelfrið lædde his færde to Legercyestre . . . Scrocmail was gehaten heora ealdormann.34
                   E maint Bretun iloec trovad;L1082 [L1082] i. tua H34L1082 [L1082] om  E DLRH34
                   Od els [i]dunc se cumbatid,L1083 [L1083] dunc DLH34
         1084  Mult en ocist, tuz les venquid.L1084 [L1084om  les H34

Page 34


                   Dous cenz prestres vindrent orer,
                   Les morz [voleient] enterrer.L1086 [L1086] s. neschapa v. H35L1086 [L1086] un tut s. R35L1086 [L1086] vindrent DLH35
                   [Cil] refurent el champ ocis,L1087 [L1087] E il DL35
         1088  Neïs un sul n'en alad vifs.
                   Brocmaïl [i]cist reis ot nun,L1089 [L1089] Broemail L Broemal H35L1089 [L1089] cist DLH35L1089 [L1089] Brocinail DR35L1089 [L1089Brocmaïl. This is clearly the name used by Gaimar and shows that the copy of A.S.C. used by him was not identical with the extant E-version. He does not seem to have realized Brocmail's position, viz. defensor of the monks, otherwise he would scarcely have contradicted himself in almost the same breath by saying neïs un sul n'en alad vifs (l. 1088) and then passing immediately to the flight of Brocmail and his companions.35
                   Sei cinquantime cumpaignun
                   [Fuït] cum hom desbareted,L1091 [L1091] Fud35
         1092  S'il [remansist], si fust tued.L1092 [L1092] remeist DL35
                   [Saint] Aüstins par prophecie,L1093 [L1093] Sant35L1093 [L1093] space for name in H35
                   Si cum escrit est en sa vie,
                   Aveit ço [dit e] bien pramis:L1095 [L1095] en35L1095 [L1095] dist DR35
         1096  'Tuz les Bretuns d'icel païsL1096 [L1096] A tuz L35
                   Qui la triwe freindre voldruntL1097 [L1097] enfreindre H35
                   Es mains [as] Sednes perirunt'.L1098 [L1098] m. de S. R35L1098 [L1098] es35
                   Ici fud bien la prophecieL1099 [L1099] sa p. R35L1099 [L1099] Isci RH35L1099 [L1099] la p. and aemplie interverted in DLH35
         1100  E asumee [e] aemplie.L1100 [L1100] om  e DLH35
                   Idunc fud morz li reis de Kent;
                   Ço fud damage a mainte gent.L1102 [L1102] mute R multe H35
                   Sis fiz regnad danz Edelbald,L1103 [L1103om  danz R35L1103 [L1103] Son f. R35L1103 [L1103Edelbald. All MSS. concur in this form, but it is wrong; the real name is Eadbald, but the Edel- may have been induced by confusion with the name of the father, though it is impossible to say whether the mistake was made by Gaimar or was already in his source. The name is correctly rendered later (ll. 1247, 1271).35
         1104  Crestïenté [tut] s'en defalt.L1104 [L1104] C. tint sanz faut H35L1104 [L1104] En c. t. se d. R35L1104 [L1104] tute DL35
                   [Cinquante] treis anz ot regnedL1105 [L1105] Quarante DLH35L1105 [L1105] The number in R agrees with A.S.C. and also with l. 955, so I regard it as due to Gaimar.35
                   Cil Edelbrit li reis preised.L1106 [L1106] C. ethelbald H35L1106 [L1106om  Cil R35 [f.101c]
                   Une feme [ot], sun fiz [la] pristL1107 [L1107] le35L1107 [L1107] aod35
         1108  E l'arcevesque le cuntredist,
                   Laurent ot nun, guerpir voleit.
                   L'arcevesque cure n'aveitL1110 [L1110] c. nen a. LH35L1110 [L1110] car c. R35L1110 [L1110] Lercevesquie L35
                   De cunsentir si a errer,L1111 [L1111] c. le rei si R35
         1112  Tel advoltire a demener.L1112 [L1112om  a L35L1112 [L1112] Ne tel R35
                   Seint Piere vint, a lui parlad:
                   'Alez al rei', ço cumandat,L1114 [L1114om  co R35L1114 [L1114] Asez R35
                   Que laist ester ceste heresie,

Page 35


         1116  Si [maint] bunté, ament sa vie!!L1116 [L1116] en b. et arme sa v. H36L1116 [L1116] Si merrad en b. sa v. L36L1116 [L1116] aimt36
                   Cil s'en turnad liez e joiant.
                   Tant ad parlé en sermonant
                   Que li reis prist crestïentedL1119 [L1119] r. fut cristiene H36
         1120  E [amad sens] e honestedL1120 [L1120] a. seinte e L a. sen et H36L1120 [L1120] ame ad sainte h.36
                   [E] quant li reis fud adrescet,L1121 [L1121] Mais36
                   Li arcevesque se fist mult liet.L1122 [L1122] a. sen feit l. R a. en fut m.l. H36
                   Ne demurad giens lungementL1123 [L1123] gueres R36L1123 [L1123] mie DLH36L1123 [L1123giens. Neither the mie of DLH nor the gueres of R gives a metrically correct line; however, l. 2486 shows giens in DL, but divergence in reading between guers R and pas H. The particle was obsolescent by the end of the twelfth century, so is not likely to have been introduced by the scribes and the reading of R at both places suggests the presence of the same word each time in its copy.36
         1124  Que ne transid li bon Laurent.L1124 [L1124om  ne LH36
                   Pres del sarcu l'unt dunc posed,L1125 [L1125] lont puis p. H36
                   Saint Aüstin l'[out] cumanded;L1126 [L1126] S. augustin LH36L1126 [L1126] unt DL36L1126 [L1126] A s.36
                   Si cum il ainz l'amad en vie,
         1128  Ore li refaced cumpaignie.
                   Dunc fud Melites amened,L1129 [L1129om  il H36
                   A arcevesque l'unt sacred.
                   Quant cil de Lundres le perdirent,
         1132  Crestïented tut deguerpirent.L1132 [L1132om  en R36
                   Aprés l'arcevesque Mellit
                   Idunc si fud Justin eslit;L1134 [L1134om  si LH36L1133 [L1133] not in R36
                   Li [evesque] de RouecestreL1135 [L1135] Li eveskes R36L1135 [L1135] arcevesque DH36
         1136  A Cantuorbire en firent mestreL1136 [L1136] a londres R36
                   E a Rumain donent le siedL1137 [L1137] a ruinien H36
                   De Rouecestre e l'evesquied.
                   Reis Edelfrid en icel tens
         1140  Fud dunc ocis, si cum jo pens.
                   [Readwald] l'ocist li reis d'Estengle,L1141 [L1141om  li H36L1141 [L1141] Redwald L36L1141 [L1141] Rei edwald36
                   Norfolke, Sudfolke, Estsexe ensemble:L1142 [L1142] e E. out e. R36 [f.101d]
                   Ço ert le regne qu'il teneit.
         1144  Icist [Readwald] saisit l'aveitL1144 [L1144] Occist R. L36L1144 [L1144] rei edwalt36
                   [E] quant fud mort reis Edelfrid,L1145 [L1145] om  E DLH36
                   Edwine Elling ad tut saisid.L1146 [L1146see note36L1146 [L1146om  ad H36L1146 [L1146] Edwinelin L Edwine alline R Edwine adeling H36L1146 [L1146] E E. ad36L1146 [L1146E Edwine D, Edwin elin L, Edwine elline R, Edwine adeling H. It is clear that Gaimar used the double name corresponding to the Eadwine Ælling of A.S.C.(E) 617, hence my correction. The reading of H is interesting; it has arisen from a displacement of the verb ad from before tut and suggests that the meaning of O.E. æðeling was still known to the copyist, for he did not meet it in his text until l. 1726.36

Page 36


                   Tute Bretaine [i]dunc cunquist,
         1148  Asquanz chaçad, asquanz ocist
                   Des gentilz homes de la terreL1149 [L1149] not in H37
                   Cum home qui la volt cunquerre.L1150 [L1150] l. voleit c. LRH37L1150 [L1150om  la R37
                   Mais cil de Kent tindrent lur dreit
         1152  E funt la guerre a grant espleit.
                   Edelfrit fud del lignage Ide;
                   Se si enfant unt bon' aïde,
                   Nus hom n'ad tel dreit en la terre;
         1156  [Perdue] l'unt, sin [firent] guerre.L1156 [L1156] ferent L37L1156 [L1156] ferunt37L1156 [L1156] Perdu DL37
                   Ore vus dirai cum [ourent] nunL1157 [L1157] c. il unt n. L37L1157 [L1157] Mes o. L37L1157 [L1157] c. unt a n.37
                   Les fiz Edelfrit lu barun;
                   [Heanfrid] ot nun [tut] li ainznez,L1159 [L1159] Heunfred L Henfrei H37L1159 [L1159] om  tut DLH37L1159 [L1159] Elured37
         1160  Li autre Oswald [uns] hom amez,L1160 [L1160] h. ainez L37L1160 [L1160] O. lautre H37L1160 [L1160] om  uns DL37
                   [Le] tierz apelerent Oswi,L1161 [L1161] Li DR37
                   Le quart Os[wude], issi vus di,L1162 [L1162] issi le vus R37L1162 [L1162] q. oswide H37L1162 [L1162] Li q. R37L1162 [L1162] oswise DL37
                   Le quint Oslaf apelad hom,L1163 [L1163] Li q. R37L1163 [L1163Oslaf. According to A.S.C.(E) 617 Æthelfrith had seven sons, not six as in the Estoire; between Oswy and Oswudu should appear Oslac and consequently the ordinal before each of the last three names is one out. Similarity of Oslac and Oslaf in a sequence of names in Os- could account for the mistake, but there is no means of knowing whether Gaimar made it.37
         1164  Le sist Offa: ço fud sun nun.L1164 [L1164] Li siste R37L1163 [L1163] not in L37
                   Cist od les autres s'aliowent,L1165 [L1165] salient R37
                   Le rei Edwine guerrioent.L1166 [L1166] guerreient R37L1166 [L1166] Li reis R37
                   Quintelm li reis le guerriot,L1167 [L1167om  le L37L1167 [L1167] quincelin LH quintelin R37L1167 [L1167] quinzelin37L1167 [L1167Quintelm. The metre shows that Gaimar is using a two-syllable name and the variations in the MSS. lead back to the form adopted, but whether Gaimar is responsible for the deformation cannot be determined. Rathmann (Die lautliche Gestaltung englischer Personnamen . . ., Kiel diss., 1906) is probably correct (o.c., p. 17) in assuming confusion with a Latin name, e.g. Quintilianus.37
         1168  De lui traïr mult se penot;L1168 [L1168om  mult L37
                   Un traïtur i enveiad
                   Pur lui ocire: [ço pensad].L1170 [L1170] P. lui trahir L37L1170 [L1170] se penad DLH37L1170 [L1170] The reading of R makes better sense and is in closer agreement with the þohte of A.S.C. 626; also the reading of DLH is partially explicable as a dittography.37
                   Emor ot nun cel traïtur,
         1172  Oez cum fist grant desonur;
                   Tant fist cist hom de pute orine,L1173 [L1173] T. fud LH37
                   Par nuit vint en la chambre Edwine,L1174 [L1174] De n. H37L1174 [L1174] The MSS. diverge completely in their renderings of the name, so I have adopted the one in the source, which is clearly the one Gaimar intended. Cf. l. 1537, where in DL Ine appears as Ille.37
                   A [un] cutel cist mal felunsL1175 [L1175] om  un DL37
         1176  [I] ocist dous gentilz barunsL1176 [L1176] om  I DLH37
                   E rei Edwine mult navrad;L1177 [L1177] le r. E. n. H37L1177 [L1177] reis E. R37

Page 37


                   D'iloc tres bien [puis] eschapad.L1178 [L1178] De iloeques puis sen e. H38L1178 [L1178] b. en e. L38L1178 [L1178] om  puis DL38
                   Fordhere e Lillan sunt oscis,L1179 [L1179] elinant L linnan H liban R38L1179 [L1179] e elliman38 [f.102a]
         1180  Tres bien furent enseveliz.L1180 [L1180] b. sont e. H38
                   La fille Edwine la nuit fu nee.
                   Li reis pramet qu'ele ert levee;
                   Par tel covent Deu l'ad pramisL1183 [L1183] t. covenant R38L1183 [L1183] a Deu DRH38
         1184  Qu'il venjance ait [des] enemisL1184 [L1184] de ses e. DLH38
                   Qui cest felun lui enveierentL1185 [L1185] Q. cel enemi l. H38
                   E ses amis Deu [en] preierent.L1186 [L1186] om  en DLH38
                   E puis quant [ot] ço pramis,L1187 [L1187] q. out cest p. R q. out ceo p. H38L1187 [L1187] co ot L38L1187 [L1187] co aveit38L1187 [L1187] As LRH agree in using the preterite, I have rejected aveit given by D. The line is thus a syllable short, but I have not ventured to introduce iço, which suggests itself, into the text.38
         1188  Ost menat sur ses enemisL1188 [L1188] Sost H38
                   E en Westsexe les encuntrad,L1189 [L1189] as W. R38L1189 [L1189om  E LH38
                   Fiere betaille lur livrad;
                   Cinc reis iloec reçurent mort
         1192  De cels qui fait lui orent tort.L1192 [L1192] qui li eurent fet t. H38
                   Sa fille [ad dunc] a Deu donee,L1193 [L1193] f. ad puis R38L1193 [L1193] dunc ad38
                   [Heanfled] l'unt li parent nomee;L1194 [L1194] si p. H38L1194 [L1194] Ealfled38
                   Unze autre enfant i ot leved,L1195 [L1195] enfanz […] levez LRH38L1195 [L1195] U. altres e. RH38
         1196  Si cum li reis l'ot comanded:L1196 [L1196] cumandez LRH38
                   Ço fud en Pentecuste fait.
                   Paulin fud mestre d'icel pleit.L1198 [L1198] m. de cest p. R m. del fet H38
                   E aprés ço en Pascherez
         1200  Li funz furent bien benëeiz.L1200 [L1200] Les f. RH38L1200 [L1200] beneiz DLRH38
                   Li reis idunc fud baptiziedL1201 [L1201] r. i fut donc b. H38
                   E [prim]sinez e cunfermedL1202 [L1202] pisnsinez38L1202 [L1202] participles interverted in R38
                   E od lui tuz cels del païs:
         1204  Ço fud fait a Everwis,L1204 [L1204] Et ceo f. H38
                   La u il ainz aveit donedL1205 [L1205] ainz out d. R38
                   Le liu saint Piere en poësted.L1206 [L1206] liu a s. P. RH38
                   Saint Paulin tint cel evesquied,L1207 [L1207] P. out cel e. H38L1207 [L1207] A seinz P. fu cel e. R38

Page 38


         1208  Cum ercevesque tint le sied.
                   Li rei[s] Pentan dunc reçut regne,
                   Tut le rëalme de Marcenne.L1210 [L1210] de maresne H39
                   Il guerreiad cuntre dous reisL1211 [L1211] Cil LRH39L1211 [L1211] encuntre DLR39
         1212  E anz [e] dis e plusurs meis:L1212 [L1212] p. meins L39
                   Ço fud Quintelm e Kenegilz,L1213 [L1213] quinzheline R39L1213 [L1213] quincelin DLH39
                   Maint hom[e] mistrent en essilz. [f.102b]
                   Puis avint si qu'a CirecestreL1215 [L1215om  si RH39
         1216  Une bataille entr'els dut estreL1216 [L1216] e. doit e. H39
                   Mais dunc avint mult gentement
                   [Kar fait en] fud acordement.L1218 [L1218om  en R f. i f. H39L1218 [L1218] Quar L39L1218 [L1218] lac.39L1218 [L1218] Par faite39
                   Aprés iço ne demurerent
         1220  Que tuz lur homes asemblerentL1220 [L1220] h. sassamb. H39L1220 [L1220] h. nasemb.39
                   E lur humes e lur amis
                   E quanqu'il porent el païs.L1222 [L1222] del p. LH39L1222 [L1222] Tant qe p. H39L1219 [L1219] As Gross pointed out, the reference is still to Cwichelm and Cynegils; this seems to be an oversight on Gaimar's part, possibly due to springing from A.S.C. 628 to A.S.C. 633 in order to attach some content to the agreement in the earlier annal; the result is that the position of the real leaders of the attack on Northumbria, Cadwalla and Penda, is obscured.39
                   Encuntre Edwine en sunt alez,L1223 [L1223] Contre E. H39
         1224  En Hetfelde l'unt encuntrez,L1224 [L1224] En edelfelde H39
                   Mult [par] i ot maint home ocisL1225 [L1225] Meint h. i out o. H39L1225 [L1225] E m. L39L1225 [L1225] om  par DLH39
                   E detrenchied e fait chaitis;
                   Mal me serreit tut a redireL1227 [L1227] me seit L me ferreit R39
         1228  Cum li uns vait l'autre ocireL1228 [L1228] uns lautre volt o. R39
                   Mais le ferir entr'els ne fineL1229 [L1229] li ferirs R39
                   Tresque mort fud li reis Edwine.L1230 [L1230om  li RH39L1230 [L1230] fud mort LH39L1230 [L1230] Desqua ne L39
                   [Ceadwale] ot nun [cil] qui l'ocist,L1231 [L1231] C. cil loccist H39L1231 [L1231] om  cil DL39L1231 [L1231] Edwald DL39
         1232  Li reis Pentan le chief en prist,
                   Osfrid sun fiz i refud mort.L1233 [L1233] i fut m. H39
                   Fuiant s'en vont la gent de nort,L1234 [L1234] g. del n. RH39
                   Cil vont aprés od lur gent grant,
         1236  Tuit destruistrent Norhumberlant.L1236 [L1236] Et destruient H39
                   Paulin qui arcevesque esteit
                   Ot que le tort venquit le dreit,L1238 [L1238] li touz v. R39

Page 39


                   Mult l'em pesad que li paiensL1239 [L1239] li paen R40L1239 [L1239] li pes. LR40
         1240  Orent destruit les crestïens.L1240 [L1240] li crestien R40
                   Dunc li avint tuit a guerpir,L1241 [L1241] a deguerpir R40L1241 [L1241] D. covint t. H40
                   En mer entrad pur se[i] garir,L1242 [L1242] m. entrer p. H40L1242 [L1242] E en DL40
                   La reïne menad od sei
         1244  Que fud femme Edwine lu [rei],L1244 [L1244] reine40
                   Edelburc ot nun veirement,
                   Par mer alerent tresqu'en Kent;
                   [Ead]bald li reis bien les recuillid,L1247 [L1247om  bien H40L1247 [L1247] Abald DLH40
         1248  Mult honureement goïd;L1248 [L1248] h. paulin oid LH honura paulins e joi R40L1247 [L1247] Although the first line has nine syllables, I have not ventured to omit bien with H. In the second line honureement renders arwurðlice of A.S.C.(E) 633 and so must stand. As between goïd and oïd, the agreement of DR tips the scale in favour of the former. The introduction of the name Paulin, probably an interlinear gloss originally, spoils the metre and has led to rewriting of the line in R.40
                   Quant arcevesque ne pot estre,
                   Evesque [en] fist a Rouecestre,L1250 [L1250] E. fut a H40L1250 [L1250] om  en DLH40 [f.102c]
                   Tuit sun vivant i cunversad
         1252  E la reïne Deu amad.
                   Pois aprés ço cil de Ber[ni]cheL1253 [L1253] beriche L berewike H40L1253 [L1253] berïche40
                   Qui trop [esteient d'aveir] richeL1254 [L1254] daveir erent DLH40
                   Firent lur rei d'un gentil hom,L1255 [L1255om  lur H40
         1256  Fiz Edel[frid], [Heanfrid] ot num,L1256 [L1256] alfred L haufrid H40L1256 [L1256] haufred40L1256 [L1256] edelfred40
                   E en [celé cil] de EverwizL1257 [L1257] ci de H40L1257 [L1257] en celee R40L1257 [L1257] en cel tens ceus DL40L1257 [L1257] The real relation between the accessions of Eanfrith and Osric on the one hand and of Oswald on the other is obscure in A.S.C.(E) 634, which Gaimar is translating, and can only be understood by reference to its source, Bede, Historia, III, 1. Obviously Gaimar could form no clear picture of the events, but I wonder whether by any chance his phrase en celé, shown to be his by the agreement of RH, was occasioned by a confusion of dearne of the Deirans and dærne secretly.40
                   Refirent rei de Oseriz
                   E les baruns de Norhumbreis
         1260  Del bon Oswald refirent reis.L1260 [L1260] firent lur r. R40L1259 [L1259] not in H40
                   En icel tens, qui veir volt dire,L1261 [L1261] t. a voir d. H40L1261 [L1261] E en cel t. L40
                   Reçut Kinegilz baptistire,
                   Li reis qui Westsexe teneit.
         1264  Un autre reis dunc i aveit,L1264 [L1264] idunc a. R40L1264 [L1264] a. rei RH40
                   A Dorkecestre fud levez,
                   Un evesque l'ad cunfermez,L1266 [L1266] Uns evesques R40
                   Berin ot nun quil baptizad,L1267 [L1267] qui le conferma H40
         1268  Li reis Oswald dunc le levadL1268 [L1268] O. idunc leva H40
                   E ainz que li anz fust passez,L1269 [L1269] fud p. LH40L1269 [L1269om  E H40

Page 40


                   Refud Quintelm ici levez.L1270 [L1270] quincelin l. LH quinzeleine l. R41L1270 [L1270] Fud L41L1270 [L1270] quidelmicin l.41L1261 [L1261] This passage is best taken as a single section into which Gaimar has thrown pell-mell baptismal notices from three consecutive annals; possibly the scene of the baptisms was the unifying factor in Gaimar's mind and led him to think of these events taking place in the same year. According to A.S.C. the sequence of events is:
635 Cynegils baptized at Dorchester; Oswald stood sponsor.
636 Cwichelm baptized at Dorchester.
639 Cuthred baptized at Dorchester; Birinus stood sponsor; at the first and third dates Birinus performed the ceremony.41

                   [Ead]bald murut li reis de Kent,L1271 [L1271] Et abald H41L1271 [L1271] E abald DL41
         1272  Vint [e quatre anz tint] chasement.L1272 [L1272] V. anz ad tenud DLH41
                   Ercenbrit ot nun [un] sun fiz;L1273 [L1273] Herrebrich L Ercherbricht R Herkenbrit H41L1273 [L1273] om  un DLH41L1273 [L1273] Hercebrit41
                   Celui unt dunc a rei choisiz.L1274 [L1274] De lui ont lur r. c. H41
                   Celui [juna] primes Quaresme,L1275 [L1275] E c. R41L1275 [L1275] jeunad41
         1276  Nuls reis Engleis nel tint ensemble;L1276 [L1276] t. ainz e. R t. par esme L41L1276 [L1276] Nul rei LRH41L1276 [L1276ensemble. This word does duty on two other occasions in assonance (ll. 1142, 1968), but on neither occasion is it so totally devoid of meaning as it appears to be here. L gives a satisfactory rime, but this may be an individual variation, as it does not seem feasible to derive the ensemble of the other MSS. from an esme in the original. If it were, and if we could be reasonably sure that Gaimar intended to use pure rime and not assonance, then it might be suggested that he wrote . . . nel tint ainz, esme; this would be a parenthetic use of esme (< esmer) parallel to that of espeir (< esperer) in l. 2228: Unc puis, espeir, n'i ot si grant.41
                   Cestui tint Pasches tut premier,
                   Engleis nel volt ainz cumencier;L1278 [L1278] E. e nel volent a. L41
                   Il prist muillier, Sexburc ot nun,
         1280  Fille al rei Ane un nobles hum.L1280 [L1280] F. a un r. mult n. H41L1280 [L1280] uns n. R41
                   Ercenbert [en] ot une fille,L1281 [L1281] Enchelbert R Erkenbright H41L1281 [L1281] Herchenberz DL41
                   Cele fud belle a mirabille,
                   Eccengode l'apelot l'um,
         1284  Mult maintint bien religïun.L1283 [L1283] not in H41
                   En icel tens, quant cist esteientL1285 [L1285] En icest t. ke c. R41
                   E seinte lei bien mainteneient,L1286 [L1286om  E and bien H41 [f.102d]
                   Dunc fud ossis [un] rei vaillant,L1287 [L1287] o. un reis R o. le r. H41L1287 [L1287] um41
         1288  Oswald qui tint Norhumberlant;
                   A Maserfeld l'ocist Pentan.L1289 [L1289] meserfeld R masrefeld H41L1289 [L1289] malrefeld DL41
                   Puis qu'il fud morz al novime an,L1290 [L1290] au .ix. an H41L1290 [L1290] f. reis en n. R41
                   A Bardeneie fud ported;L1291 [L1291] en f. R41
         1292  La fud une nuit herberged.L1292 [L1292] Son cors i fu bien enterre R41
                   Sur saint [Cuth]bert la gist sun chief,L1293 [L1293] cudbert R41L1293 [L1293] cubert41
                   A Durelme est; ço dit le brief;L1294 [L1294] li b. R41
                   Le braz est a Bur[c tut] entier,L1295 [L1295] Sa main a B. tut e. R41L1295 [L1295] om  tut DLH41L1295 [L1295] bure41
         1296  Cil quil gardent mult l'unt chier.L1296 [L1296] lont mult c. H41L1296 [L1296] q. guarde lad mult c. R41L1287 [L1287] Gaimar has not been content with the information supplied by his main source, but has added an allusion (l. 1291-2) to the translation of the king's body to Bardney some years after his death and, very obscurely, to the body being left outside overnight. He also gives the whereabouts of the saint's head and arm; le brief (l. 1294) possibly refers to some more or less official list similar to the Resting Places of Saints (Liebermann, Die Heiligen Englands, Hanover, 1889). Cf. p. lvi.41
                   En [i]cel tens dunt ci vus diL1297 [L1297] E cel R41L1297 [L1297] cel DLR41
                   [Kenwald fud] dunc [a] rei choisi,L1298 [L1298] a reis R41L1298 [L1298] Chenewold R41L1298 [L1298] om  a DLH41L1298 [L1298] Kenewald41

Page 41


                   Cil de Westsexe en firent reisL1299 [L1299] W. len f. H42
         1300  [Trente] e un an sur les Engleis;L1300 [L1300om  e and les R42L1300 [L1300] Vint DLH42
                   Cil cumençad prodom a estre,L1301 [L1301] Il R42
                   Le mustier fist faire a Gincestre,
                   Kenegilsing fud sun surnun,
         1304  Il fud del lignage [a] barun.L1304 [L1304] al DL42
                   Aprés Oswald Oswi fud reis,
                   Il regnad sur les Norhumbreis;L1306 [L1306] l. 1306 and 1310 interverted in H42
                   [Vint e oit anz regnad, ne meis,L1307 [L1307] r. nient mains R42
         1308  Les leis assist, si ama pais.L1308 [L1308] a. e les pais L42
                   Cestui fud frere Oswald le reis,L1309 [L1309] Cesti L42
                   Bien le maintindrent Norhumbreis];L1310 [L1310] b. maintint les N. H42L1310 [L1310] les N. L42L1310 [L1310] Ben les L42L1310 [L1310] ll. 1307-10 not in D42
                   Par lui fud mort li reis Oswine,L1311 [L1311] f. occis le r. H42
         1312  Le fiz a l'uncle le rei Edwine;L1312 [L1312] u. al rei E. R42
                   Ço fud frere rei Oseriz,L1313 [L1313] f. reis O. R42L1313 [L1313] f. li f. H42
                   Lur [pere] ot nun reis Edelriz.L1314 [L1314] n. rei E. LH42L1314 [L1314] pere42L1311 [L1311] Gaimar has here completely misunderstood the relationship. The phraseology of his source, A.S.C.(E) 643, is involved and the apparent repetition of a word, suna sunu, may have had some share in the confusion, but other unknown causes also seem to have been at work. Gross suggests a copyist took suna sunu as a meaningless repetition, and substituted broðor for sunu, but I doubt whether this is likely. In any case it does not account for the introduction of Edelriz as progenitor.42
                   Oswine ne fud reis que set anz,
         1316  Idunc murut e Aïdanz,
                   Uns evesques pruz e vaillanzL1317 [L1317] e. mult v. R42
                   Crestïented bien maintenanz;L1318 [L1318] Fust apres lui translatanz R42
                   Entr'els [nen] ot que duze jurz,L1319 [L1319] not DHL42
         1320  Par cel saint cors oent les surz.L1320 [L1320] d. il ad lescrit R42
                   Saint Aïdan, il nus aït
                   E saint Oswald dunt ai escrit!
                   Oswi li reis [aprés un an]L1323 [L1323] xpistien LH42L1323 [L1323] cristian42L1323 [L1323] The reading of R does not correspond to reality, but is metrical and from it, by way of the abbreviation xp, could be reached the reading of the other MSS. LH actually have xpian.42
         1324  A Winguitfeld ocist Pentan;L1324 [L1324] wingingfeld L winwitfel R wingefeld H42
                   Od lui [ot occis] trente [treis]L1325 [L1325] reis DL42L1325 [L1325] ocist42
                   Gentilz humes, [tuz] fiz a reis,L1326 [L1326] om  tuz DLH42 [f.103a]
                   E reis i ot asquanz ocis –L1327 [L1327] E li r. H42
         1328  Un en i ot de mult grant pris,L1328 [L1328om  en R42
                   D'Estengle esteit frere al ma[r]chis –L1329 [L1329] as manis H42

Page 42


                   Qui dunc teneient cel païs.L1330 [L1330] t. le p. R43L1330 [L1330] d. teneit c. LH43L1327 [L1327] The construction is very awkward, involving a parenthesis coming between a main and a relative clause; both L and H seem to have found the passage obscure and there is no doubt it would gain in clarity if ll. 1328-9 were put after l. 1330. Were those two lines a marginal afterthought which has been inserted in the wrong place?43
                   En icel tens fud anumbrez
         1332  Cumbien del siecle esteit alez:
                   Cinc mil anz oit cenz [cinquante].L1333 [L1333] .viii. et quarante H43L1333 [L1333] anz e huit R43L1333 [L1333] e quatre DL43L1333 [L1333cinquante R, quarante H, quatre DL. The number in R agrees with that in A.S.C.(A) 655; DL are clearly wrong because of the change in the rime in D and the makeshift assonance (?) in L; this passage is one of those which suggest the frequent use of numerals in the original.43
                   Dunc reçut Peade honur [vaillante];L1334 [L1334om  vaillante L43L1334 [L1334] honur P. L43L1334 [L1334] en latre43
                   Cil de Merke le firent reis
         1336  Kar il esteit des Westingeis.L1336 [L1336] wentingeis R43L1336 [L1336Westingeis DLH, Wentingeis R. How did Gaimar end this line? The translator in the Rolls edition naturally follows the reading of R on which his text is based and, relying on the authority of his predecessors, Wright and Stevenson, treats it as an error, the P being mistaken for an A.S. W, but ventures no opinion as to where the mistake was made. Gross accepts this explanation and thinks the mistake more probably occurred in the transmission of A.S.C.(E). There are, however, difficulties in the way of accepting the explanation, quite apart from any claims which may be urged on behalf of the alternative reading. The confusion of p and w does occur in O.E. texts; it is found, for instance, sporadically in A.S.C.(D), but only in names, and once in A.S.C.(E), at 892, but here it is p which is misread as w. Now this is a mistake rather easily made when copying O.E. script in O.E. script, because there the two letters are much alike, but less likely to occur in transposing the O.E. script into Roman, because neither of the two O.E. letters looks like a Roman w. Yet we have no unambiguous example of p being taken for w by Gaimar. True, at l. 3430, we have a name, rather distorted by the copyists of the Estoire, which we must read as Awuldre; this stands for Appledore (K), but Gaimar may not be responsible for the mistake, because it was probably already in his source. A similarly dubious instance of the reverse confusion is found at l. 1374; there Gaimar gives the burial-place of Tuda as Paggle, whereas in A.S.C.(E) 664, the annal he is translating, the name appears as Wægle. Now this particular item of information is absent from the other versions of A.S.C. and derives from Bede, Historia, III, 27, where the burial-place appears as Pægnalæch; hence Gaimar may quite well have found a p-form in the actual MS. of the Chronicle used by him. The late 14th century A.N. Resting Places of Saints, printed from the Breviate of Domesday in the Rolls edition (I, xxxix-xlii) has the entry Saint Tude en Pagle; unfortunately it is not quite certain that this text is entirely independent of Gaimar. There remains one undoubted instance of confusion of p and w; at l. 1546 we read the name Bruthpat, only in R, corresponding to the Brihtwald of A.S.C.(E) 692, 693. Further, though Gaimar on occasion modifies the ending -ing of patronymics to secure a rime, there is no other instance in the Estoire of such a treatment as we must accept, if we read Wentingeis in this line. But can anything be urged in support of the alternative? Very little, I am afraid, and that very speculative. At l. 1347, in a passage where Gaimar is following his source very closely, we read in DLH: Ço fud puis qu'il d'Estengle vint, which agrees well with syððan he of East-Engla com in his source, but R gives a different place-name, Wastenge. This is a mistake, but if R, at some stage in its transmission, has Westingeis in l. 1336, then there would appear to be a contradiction in the later line, which was corrected, and at a later stage Westingeis would be altered to harmonize with the mistaken Wenting of l. 1341. In view of the impossibility of determining what Gaimar did write I have adhered to the text of the MS base.43
                   Cinquante e sis anz, ço cuntum,L1337 [L1337] C. cinc a. LH43
                   E sis cenz anz avoec metum
                   Des l'Encarnacïun Jesu
         1340  Tres [qu'al jur] que Peade oscis fu.L1340 [L1340] Tresque P. DLH43
                   Vulfere Penting firent reisL1341 [L1341] wenting R43
                   E il regnad sur les Merkeis.
                   Idunc si fud la grant bataille
         1344  A Peonum par grant cuntraille;
                   Wlfere dunc Bretuns maneçad,L1345 [L1345] B. chasca R43L1345 [L1345om  dunc H43L1345 [L1345] bretuns dunc43L1345 [L1345] All MSS. concur in ascribing the victory at Peonum to Wulfhere instead of Cenwalh. This passage otherwise follows A.S.C. 658 so closely that it is difficult to account for the mistake; if it were in his source, then Gaimar would hardly have assumed two battles by the same king; if it were due to dittography from l. 1341, then the substitution of the correct name would clear up the later confusion (ll. 1353-6), but this is not so. Thus we are bound to follow our MSS. and to ascribe the mistake to Gaimar himself.43
                   Tresque Pedredan les encaçad.L1346 [L1346] P. contrels chevalcha R43
                   Ço fud puis qu'il d'Estengle vintL1347 [L1347] de wastenge v. R43L1347 [L1347] p. que d. RH43
         1348  E par eissil treis anz se tint;L1348 [L1348] a. le t. H43
                   Li reis Pendan l'ot decacied,L1349 [L1349] Le r. L43
                   Desherited, toleit sun fied;L1350 [L1350] son siee H43L1350 [L1350] e tol. R43
                   Pur ço qu'il sa serur guerpid,
         1352  Ses heritez treis anz perdid.L1347 [L1347] This passage renders quite accurately A.S.C. 658 except that, as a result of the earlier mistake in the name of the victor at Peonum, it is now made to apply to Wulfhere and so makes him marry his own aunt!43
                   Puis refist cist autre bataille
                   Prof de Cestre [al reis Cenwaille].L1354 [L1354] r. de cornewaille LH43L1354 [L1354] r. de cornuaille43L1354 [L1354] C. reis DLH43
                   Ço fud [a Bosentesbiri],L1355 [L1355] a bosentesbirid L a bosentebiri R43L1355 [L1355] al bois entesberid43
         1356  [U] a Vulfere mult toli;L1356 [L1356] E a DLH43
                   [Tut Esendune ad donc purpris,
                   A Wlfhere tolt cel païs].L1358 [L1358] tost c. R43
                   Li reis Gudred ert del lignage
         1360  Al rei Quintelm qui fud sage.L1360 [L1360] Q. si fu s. R43L1360 [L1360] quinzeline RH43L1360 [L1360] quincelin DL43
                   Entre lui e le rei [Ken]britL1361 [L1361] hebrit L43L1361 [L1361] e le reis R43L1361 [L1361] kenebrit43

Page 43


                   Tut preierent l'isle [de] Wit.L1362 [L1362] de with R de wight H44L1362 [L1362] T. purpernent R44L1362 [L1362] del wic DL44
                   Puis que l'idle fud si preied,
         1364  Li reis Wlfere l'ad doned [f.103b]
                   A Edelwold un sun fillol –L1365 [L1365om  un H44L1365 [L1365] E. u a son f. R44
                   Cil ert reis de Sudsexeiol –L1366 [L1366] suthsexol RH44
                   E les Wités fist baptizerL1367 [L1367] les witteis RH44
         1368  Par lui en cumençail premier.L1368 [L1368] Par lui comence p. H44L1359 [L1359] According to A.S.C. 661 Cuthred and Coenberht both died in the same year that Wulfhere harried the Isle of Wight and gave it to his godson, and Eoppa first brought baptism to its inhabitants. Gaimar's account is completely at variance with this and has actually become absurd, though whether, as Gross suggests, as a result of textual corruption in his source or as a result of his own careless reading cannot be decided. It is not clear why Gaimar should have substituted Guth- in the first syllable of Cuthred here and elsewhere.44
                   Idunc avint a nuit le jur,L1369 [L1369] I. revint a n. R I. devint la n. a j. H44L1369 [L1369] Dunc DLRH44
                   Si fud mortalited majur,
                   [Tel] ne fud ainz ne puis cel tens.L1371 [L1371] Tele DL44
         1372  [Tuda] l'evesque al mien purpens,L1372 [L1372] Cuda H44L1372 [L1372] Tuit DL44
                   Il fud dunc mort, ço sai de fid,L1373 [L1373om  Il H44
                   E a [Paggle] fud enfuïdL1374 [L1374] pangle DLH44
                   E Ercembert le rei de KentL1375 [L1375] li reis LR44L1375 [L1375] erchenbert R erkenbright H44L1375 [L1375] recembert DL44
         1376  Refud dunc mort tuit ensement.L1376 [L1376om  tuit RH44
                   Ecbrit [son fiz saisit le regne].L1377 [L1377om  son fiz R44L1377 [L1377] Heebrict L Hecburth R Hedbright H44L1377 [L1377] E ebrit44L1377 [L1377] rest of l. 1377 not in DL44
                   Donc tint l'arcevesque son seneL1378 [L1378] lar. ensemble H44L1378 [L1378] senee R44
                   [E Colman] e ses cumpaignunsL1379 [L1379] coleman R44L1379 [L1379] first two words not in DL44
         1380  En vont a lur [possessions]L1380 [L1380] processiuns DL44
                   E [Ceadda] fud dunc benëeizL1381 [L1381] E C. fu donc leveiz a levesque Il e wlfriz larcevesque R44L1381 [L1381] beneit DLH44L1381 [L1381] Cade DLH44
                   A evesque, il e Wilfreiz.L1382 [L1382] wilfrit L44L1382 [L1382] E a ev. L44L1382 [L1382] wlfrit DH44
                   L'arcevesque cel an transit,L1383 [L1383] Cel an un a. t. R44L1383 [L1383] quen cel L qui cel H44L1383 [L1383] que cel44
         1384  Cil ot a nun Deusdedit.L1384 [L1384] Cil out dieus dedie H44L1383 [L1383] follow 1385 in H44
                   Vitalianus l'apostoireL1385 [L1385] Vitali ad non li apostoli H44L1385 [L1385] E V. R44
                   Fist arcevesque de Theodoire.L1386 [L1386] E fut a. H44
                   Li reis Ecbrit a [Bas] le prestreL1387 [L1387] E. al us le p. H44L1387 [L1387] heebrict L ecbricth R em' it H44L1387 [L1387] bos DL44L1387 [L1387] eebrit44
         1388  Donat Raculve u il volt estre.L1388 [L1388] D. la cure mes il nel v. R44

Page 44


                   Dunc [murrut] Oswi li bon reis,L1389 [L1389om  Oswi and bon H45L1389 [L1389] murit45
                   Grant dol en firent Norhumbreis;L1390 [L1390] d. firent li N. H45
                   Ecfert sun fiz [rendent] l'onur,L1391 [L1391] remaint DL45
         1392  Rei en firent e dreit seignurL1392 [L1392] Reis R45
                   E Theodor fist dunc evesque
                   Del clerc [Lohier partut] Westsexe.L1394 [L1394] De la clergie de W. H45L1394 [L1394] De un c. rorer de W. L45L1394 [L1394] lorer de45
                   [Sis cenz] anz e seisante [e] unL1395 [L1395] .vii. c. a. .lxiii. et un H45L1395 [L1395] e s. un R45L1395 [L1395] Seisante a. DL45
         1396  Ot dunc des l'Encarnatïun.L1396 [L1396] Donc out H45L1396 [L1396] ll. 1395-6 interverted in H45
                   Dunc cumbatirent les oiselsL1397 [L1397] les oiselleuls R45
                   Par valees e par muncels,L1398 [L1398] p. muscels L45
                   Tant en i ot mort e ocisL1399 [L1399] morz e o. R45L1399 [L1399om  i H45
         1400  Que ço fud dit que nul [n'est] vis.L1400 [L1400] que nuls R45L1400 [L1400] ne fud DLH45
                   Li reis [Cenwalh] un [an] aprésL1401 [L1401] r. cheolwlf L r. kenwald H45L1401 [L1401] chewalhun en a.45
                   Fud mort, sun tens ne fud mes; [f.103c]
                   E puis de rechief en l'autre an
         1404  Sexburc transid la fille Anan;
                   E el tierz an [Ecbrith] mort fud;L1405 [L1405] heebrict L etright H45L1405 [L1405om  E R45L1405 [L1405] heebrit45
                   E dunc [sue ante] saint' EdeldrudL1406 [L1406] edeltrud L adeldru R etheltrut H45L1406 [L1406] E une s. a. R45L1406 [L1406] edeldredud45L1406 [L1406] om  sue ante DLH45
                   Esteit [nonain], si amot Deu;L1407 [L1407] si ama H45L1407 [L1407] Nonaine esteit R Estre nunait H45L1407 [L1407] nenan45
         1408  En Eli pert, la est lur [leu].L1408 [L1408] eleperz R heliper H45L1408 [L1408] deu45L1408 [L1408] lingpert DL45L1401 [L1401] A difficult passage, for uncertainties of text are added to confusions of matter. Gaimar first describes the celebrated fugla wæl, the murrain of birds, under the date 671, though like others he turns it into a regular battle. Then, agreeing with A.S.C., he gives the death of Cenwalh as occurring one year later, but, reading of Seaxburh's one year reign as widow, deduces that she died at the end of that period, hence his en l'altre an, but as Egbert's death is not recorded until the next year, this must now be el tierz an from Gaimar's reckoning-point. Moreover, he has confused the West-Saxon Seaxburh with her Kentish namesake, the daughter of the East-Anglian king, Anna, whom he had previously mentioned (l. 1279) and who was connected with Ely. In the next line (l. 1406) we have a divergence of reading; where DLH have merely e dunc in the first hemistich, thus giving a six-syllable line, R reads e une sue ante, making the line too long. Gross accepts without discussion this reading and assumes an addition in Gaimar's source (A.S.C. 673), but, as we have already seen, Gaimar is thinking of the Ely associations of the family and could quite well have known of the relationship from some other source. Linked with this divergence of reading is that in the following line; R reads nonaine estait, whereas DLH give esteit nonain. This divergence seems to correspond to a difference of construction and thus of interpretation: in R the line is rather a parenthesis and l. 1406 a continuation of the preceding line; in DLH it supplies the predicate to the preceding line. As in A.S.C. 673 the mention of St. Æthelthryth's foundation of Ely is separated from that of the king's death, I think the interpretation of DLH is more likely to correspond to Gaimar's intention, though he cannot be exonerated from confusion of thought, but the reading of R nearer to what Gaimar wrote in l. 1406; hence the readings adopted into my text. In l. 1408 the reference is undoubtedly to Ely, where both Æthelthryth and Seaxburh were buried; the reading of DLLingpert–is shown to be wrong by the partial agreement of R and H; the element -pert, which is treated as part of the name in the MSS., does not correspond to any known form of the name and the context seems to require a verb, so I have taken it as ind. pr. 3 of pareir and understand: In Ely it is to be seen, there is their place.45
                   En icel tens [lurent] WestsexienL1409 [L1409] un W. H45L1409 [L1409] om  lurent DLH45
                   [Esewine], ot nun Kenfusien;L1410 [L1410] chenfusien R45L1410 [L1410] Ewine H45L1410 [L1410] kent fud suen DLH45L1410 [L1410] Lefwine DL45
                   Cil esteit eirs, sin firent [reis].L1411 [L1411] eirs45L1409 [L1409] Unless we accept with R a verb in l. 1409, we are faced with an almost meaningless passage, but if we do accept it, we get a metrically faulty line. The rime-word in l. 1410 is a distortion of the patronymic Cenfusing which Gaimar found in his source; this probably agreed with A.S.C.(E) 674, 675, for he appears to have run the two annals together and, in doing so, to have omitted all reference to Wulfhere's opponent in the battle he describes; this would be less likely if his source were similar to A.S.C.(A), where the phrase se wes Cenfusing and a genealogy conclude the bare notice of Æscwine's accession. At an early stage in the transmission of DLH someone apparently did not recognize any kind of personal-name in Kenfusien, but took it as an obscure phrase to which he imparted a meaning by writing Kent fud suen; did he by any chance object to sien as a possessive? It is also probable that the second e in Esewine is a scribal error for c, as Rathmann (o.c., p. 45) suggests.45
         1412  Wlfere od [tut] ses MerkeneisL1412 [L1412] W. out les M. H45L1412 [L1412] om  tut DLH45
                   Se cumbatid, il e sa gent,L1413 [L1413] Si c. LH45
                   Al Chief de Bede veirement;L1414 [L1414] de radhe R45
                   Asez i ot [homes] ocis,L1415 [L1415] gent45
         1416  Al rei Wlfere estut le pis;L1416 [L1416] W. en estut p. R W. esteit le p. LH45

Page 45


                   Plus i perdeit qu'il n'i cunquist,L1417 [L1417] i perdi q. LRH46L1417 [L1417om  i H46
                   Fol cunseil ot, quant ço enprist;L1418 [L1418] q. il lenp. R46
                   Puis ne vesquid que un [sul] anL1419 [L1419] v. fors un H46L1419 [L1419] om  sul DLH46
         1420  Ne nul[s] ne sot rien de sun ban.L1420 [L1420] s. nient de sun LH46L1420 [L1420] ne siwit r. R46L1420 [L1420] l. 1419 and l 1420 interverted46
                   Dunc firent Edelred seignurL1421 [L1421] lur s. L46
                   Li Mercïen par grant enur.
                   Cil fud prodom, se lui leüstL1423 [L1423om  lui R46L1423 [L1423] si hom li l. L46L1423 [L1423] Et cil H46
         1424  E s'encumbrier si grant [n]'eüst,L1424 [L1424] Si e. g. H46L1424 [L1424] g. ne fust R46L1424 [L1424] U senc. L E si encombres R46L1424 [L1424] nen DH46
                   Mais en cel an qu'il rei fud fait,L1425 [L1425] M. a cel tens qe li rois f. H46L1425 [L1425] en icel an R46
                   Od sun grant ost en Kent s'en vait,L1426 [L1426om  s'en R46L1426 [L1426om  sun H sa g. LR46
                   Par le païs homes ocist,
         1428  Arst, destruist, granz preies prist;L1428 [L1428] A. e d. L A. e guasta R46
                   E en cel an mort fud Eswine,L1429 [L1429] fu mort RH46L1429 [L1429] egwine LH oswine R46L1429 [L1429om  E LH46L1429 [L1429] edwine46
                   Tute Westsexe saisit Kentwine.
                   Dunc s'aparut une comete,
         1432  Un' esteille que [li] propheteL1432 [L1432] la46
                   E li clerc astronomïen,
                   Quant se [demustre], seivent bienL1434 [L1434] demustrent46
                   Que Deus cel signe fait [vëeir]L1435 [L1435] f. veir R46L1435 [L1435] venir DL46
         1436  Pur ço que pueple deit saveirL1436 [L1436] Que p. se deive repentir L Que le p. en d. H46L1436 [L1436] li p. R46
                   Que li asquanz ne funt nïent
                   De tut [le] sun cumandementL1438 [L1438] om  le DL46 [f.103d]
                   Ne ses fedeilz [n']unt entr'els pais,L1439 [L1439] Ne si ses L Et ses H46L1439 [L1439] nen DR46
         1440  Encuntre dreit se sunt irais,L1440 [L1440] se funt il reis R46
                   [Par irasce ses serfs travailent,
                   De tut dreit fere se defaillent];L1442 [L1442] ll. 1441-2 not in DLH46
                   Pur ço se [demustra] cel signe,L1443 [L1443om  se LH46L1443 [L1443] demustre DL46
         1444  Treis meis la virent cler[e] e digne;L1444 [L1444] Un m. R46L1444 [L1444] cler46
                   Par tute Bretaine fud [veüe],L1445 [L1445] veud DL46
                   Cum rai de soleil fud [estendue];L1446 [L1446om  fud L46L1446 [L1446] estendud DL46

Page 46


                   Le plus del rai, quant s'estendeit,
         1448  Sur saint Wilfrei veneit tut dreit,L1448 [L1448] Sus H47
                   [Quel] part que l'arcevesque alad,L1449 [L1449] la. alast LR47L1449 [L1449] Quele47
                   Od lui la comete turnad.L1450 [L1450] c. turnast LR47L1450 [L1450] sen t.47
                   Ecfert li reis l'ad dechacied,
         1452  Dous evesques mist en sun sied;
                   Bosa sistrent sur DeïronL1453 [L1453] desur D. H47L1453 [L1453] Bois assistrent L47L1453 [L1453] B. sist R47L1453 [L1453] Deiron and Bernicon interverted in DL47
                   E [Ethan] desur Bernicon;L1454 [L1454] sur B. H47L1454 [L1454] beuerlicun R beruicon H47L1454 [L1454] E heorti de R47L1454 [L1454] bericon DL47L1454 [L1454] echan DL47L1453 [L1453] The agreement of R and H shows that the names in the rime have been interverted in DL; none of the MSS. give an acceptable form for Bernicia, but those in DLH point back to the one adopted, whereas that in R seems to show confusion with Beverley. The name Eata elsewhere figures in the Estoire with Eat-, so the name in DLH, followed in the text, is probably corrupt, as that in R certainly is.47
                   E saint Wilfreit alad a Rome,
         1456  Si se cuntint cume [seint home].L1456 [L1456] cun uns sainz h. R47L1456 [L1456] prodome DL47
                   Le tierz evesque unt ordenez
                   E Linde[s]ware li unt donez;L1458 [L1458] lindesie H47L1458 [L1458om  E RH47
                   Hecces ot nun, unques enceisL1459 [L1459] All MSS. agree in the form with germinated c, which can hardly represent O.E. Heca, as Rathmann (o.c., p. 49) assumes, for this name does not appear in the annal under translation; there the name is Eadhed, but in the previous annal occurs Hedde and this may have influenced Gaimar.47
         1460  N'orent evesque iloec Engleis.L1460 [L1460] Nor. eves i. L47
                   Dunc fud ocis un gentilz hom
                   Sur Trente – Elfwine ot [a] nom –L1462 [L1462] E. aveit a n. R47L1462 [L1462] om  a DH47
                   A la bataille de dous reis;
         1464  L'un fud Ecfert li Norhumbreis,L1464 [L1464] E. de N. LH47L1464 [L1464] Li uns R47
                   Li autre Edelred ot a nun,L1465 [L1465] Elred H47
                   Merceneland ert sun regïun.L1466 [L1466] sa r. LH47
                   Saint' Edeltrud idunc transit,
         1468  Coledesburc idunc bruïd,L1468 [L1468] i. bruillit H47L1468 [L1468] Colesburc L47
                   [Li feus] celestre le alumad,L1469 [L1469] celestres RH47L1469 [L1469] Le feu47
                   Si cum Deu plot, issi alad.
                   Dous anz aprés Hilde murud,L1471 [L1471] seint H. R47
         1472  De Streneshale abaësse fud;L1472 [L1472] S. abedesse f. L S. abbesse RH47
                   E en cel an fud la batailleL1473 [L1473om  E LH47
                   Del barnage de [Cornewaille]L1474 [L1474] Del lignage H47L1474 [L1474] cornuaille47
                   E des Bretuns a qui Ken[t]wineL1475 [L1475] kenwine DLH47
         1476  Fist fuïr tresqu'a la marine. [f.104a]
                   Dous anz aprés Ecfert li reis

Page 47


                   [Enveiat ost] sur Escoteis;L1478 [L1478] E. sost H48L1478 [L1478] Ost env.48
                   Cil destruistrent par crüelted,L1479 [L1479] par ruiste H48L1479 [L1479] tut par c. R48
         1480  Devant els n'ot mustier tensed,L1480 [L1480] nert m. R48
                   Arstrent mustiers e chapeles,
                   [Muilliers] hunirent e puceles.L1482 [L1482] Femmes DL48
                   Cinc anz aprés li reis EcfertL1483 [L1483cinc anz. Actually it was only one year later, but all the MSS. concur. Gross suggests that an abbreviation ū may have been misread; if, as in D, the first letter in the line were separated by a space, such a mistake could the more easily occur, but Gaimar may just have followed the last letter of the date, so I have made no correction.48
         1484  Fist evesque de saint [Cuth]bert;L1484 [L1484] cubert48
                   L'arcevesque Theodur
                   Benesquid icel seignur;L1486 [L1486] Reuesti L48
                   En Everwic la le sacrad,
         1488  A Hectoldesham [la] l'enveiadL1488 [L1488] A hectilham R48L1488 [L1488] om  la DL48
                   Kar iloc ert le mestre siedL1489 [L1489] li m. R48
                   Idunc de tut l'arcevesquied
                   E Trumbert en fud deposedL1491 [L1491] ert d. R48L1491 [L1491om  en RH48L1491 [L1491] teumbert L chembert H wilfri R48L1491 [L1491] teunibert48
         1492  Qui arcevesque i ot ested.L1492 [L1492om  i R48
                   Ecfert li reis en icel anL1493 [L1493] le roi H48
                   Ocistrent li ArchemanL1494 [L1494] li orkenan R48
                   [E mult grant gent la furent mort
         1496  Ultre la mer devers le nort].L1496 [L1496] ll. 1495-6 not in DLH48
                   Ecfert [regna quinze] anz de fid,L1497 [L1497] de ad R48L1497 [L1497] regna after anz in H48L1497 [L1497] cinc DLH48L1497 [L1497] om  regna DL48
                   Aprés fud rei sun frere [Eald]frid.L1498 [L1498] f. reis R f. mort s. L48L1498 [L1498first word not clear in R48L1498 [L1498] elfrid DLH48L1493 [L1493] The whole passage is due to Gaimar who is translating A.S.C. 685; the phrase be norðan sæ of that annal refers to the Forth, but when Plummer says in his note Gaimar is quite correct, this can only refer to the translation of the phrase, for it is open to doubt whether Gaimar understood the allusion. Whence he derived the name of the slayers is unknown nor is the actual name certain; I have therefore not adopted the form in R which may represent a late attempt to make the name intelligible.48
                   En icel tens Heate transit,L1499 [L1499] i. an Eade t. H48
         1500  A Hectoldesham dunc unt choisit;L1500 [L1500] A hecfildesham R48
                   Johans tint dunc l'arcevesquied,
                   Tant que W[i]lfrit fud repeirié;
                   Il fud receü cume mestreL1503 [L1503] f. refud r.48
         1504  E seint Johan alad a Cestre.
                   Bos li evesque esteit transid,L1505 [L1505] e. que e. R48L1505 [L1505] Boefs H48
                   Saint Johan unt quis e cuillid,L1506 [L1506om  quis e H48L1506 [L1506] unt pris L48L1506 [L1506] recuillid DLH48
                   Grant piece i fud, puis s'en [turnat],L1507 [L1507] transit DL48

Page 48


         1508  Wilfrei sun prestre iloc [lessat];L1508 [L1508] p. le sie saisid L p. i l. H49L1508 [L1508] Wilfri RH49L1508 [L1508] laissit49
                   Cil fud a evesque sacrezL1509 [L1509] f. ercevesque s. LH49
                   E saint Johan s'en est alez
                   A Beverle[i] a sun mustier;
         1512  Tant servid Deu que mult l'ad chier.L1512 [L1512] out R49L1499 [L1499] Certain contradictions and obscurities in this passage are taken over by Gaimar from his source, which possibly included a reference to the death of Eata, as Gross argues. There was a loose, but popular, usage by which St. Cuthbert, St. John and St. Wilfrid were on occasion referred to as archbishops, and Gaimar simply conforms to this. On the other hand it is possible that Gaimar, with his interest in Chester, did not recognize York in the Ceastre of his source, hence Cestre (l. 1504).49
                   [E] en sun tens [si] fist CeadwaleL1513 [L1513] cadwal L cedwale R chaelwale H49L1513 [L1513] E el s. R49L1513 [L1513] ceawale49L1513 [L1513] om  si DLH49L1513 [L1513] om  E DH49
                   [Par] sun regne guerre mult maleL1514 [L1514] g. e m. mal L49L1514 [L1514] Pur DL49 [f.104b]
                   [E] en cel [an] qu'il [guerreiad],L1515 [L1515] regnad DLH49L1515 [L1515] tens DL49
         1516  Li reis [Lodhere] deviad;L1516 [L1516] rodere DLH49
                   Cil fud prodom e noble[s] reis,
                   [Si] tint [tuz jorz sur les] Kenteis.L1518 [L1518] t. tut sul les K. L tint soul les K. H49L1518 [L1518] tut sul as49L1518 [L1518] Se49
                   [Aprés sa mort Mol e CeadwaleL1519 [L1519] The context requires a reference to the activities of Cædwalla and Mul; the similarity of rime (Ceadwale : male) at ll. 1513-14 and ll. 1519-20 and the lesser similarity of the beginning (Aprés) of l. 1519 and l. 1523 suggest the cause of the omission by DLH.49
         1520  Firent en Kent guere mult male,
                   Arstrent, tolirent e roberent,
                   L'isle de With trestut preierent].L1522 [L1522] ll. 1519-22 not in DLH49
                   Aprés iço en icel an
         1524  Firent Kenteis a Mol [ahan];L1524 [L1524] M. haan R49L1524 [L1524] acan DL49
                   Sei duz[i]me cumpaignunL1525 [L1525] compaignons R49L1525 [L1525] duzeme L49L1525 [L1525] The phrase in A.S.C. is: Mul . . . oðre .xii. men mid him; there is thus a slight discrepancy in Gaimar's statement.49
                   Arstrent en feu cume felun.L1526 [L1526] cum felons R49
                   [Ceadwale] mult s'e[n] curesçad,L1527 [L1527] Eadwale L49L1527 [L1527] Edwine49
         1528  Cel an me[ï]sme Kent robad,L1528 [L1528] mesme DR49
                   Puis aprés ço alad a RomeL1529 [L1529om  ço H49L1529 [L1529om  Puis R49
                   E l'apostoire le fist prodome,L1530 [L1530] a. en f. H49L1530 [L1530prodome. It may be true, as Gross suggests, that the word provides a convenient rime for Rome, but he is wrong to describe it as dieser ungeschickte und sinnlose Ausdruck. The word occurs a number of times in the Estoire in its usual sense of man of worth and valour, but when Gaimar, speaking of Cenwalh says:
                   Cil cumençad prodom a estre,
                   Le mustier fist faire a Gincestre
(ll. 1301-2), he is giving to it a slightly religious tinge. Further on in the Estoire, when, after describing the revolt of Robert of Mowbray, Gaimar says:
                   […] en prisun fud mis vint anz,
                   En la prisun finat muranz,
                   Prodom devint einz qu'il murust(ll. 6169-71)he adds to it an idea of moral regeneration, and this, I submit, is not absent here. Thus to some extent he approaches the thirteenth-century meaning of the word discussed by Mrs. Crossland in her article Prou, preux, preux hom, preud'ome (French Studies I (1947), 149-56) and the reading of DL in l. 1456, cume prodome instead of cume seint home, shows something of this same meaning. Cf. p. xl.49

                   Es funz tres bien le baptizad,L1531 [L1531om  tres H49
         1532  Petres idunc si l'apelad;L1532 [L1532] Terres idonques lap. H49L1532 [L1532Petres. The form of the name is unexpected; we cannot suppose Gaimar unable to render Petrum, but perhaps his eye was caught by the following Petres in the name of the church, unnamed in the Estoire.49
                   Ne mes uit jurz [aprés] vesquid,L1533 [L1533] j. ne v. DLH49
                   Al mustier fud ensevelid:
                   Ço fud unze jurz devant Mai.
         1536  D'un autre rei ore parlerai,L1536 [L1536om  ore R49
                   [Ine] out nun, ço oï dire,L1537 [L1537] ceo ai oi H49L1537 [L1537] Hinne R49L1537 [L1537] Ille DL49
                   Westsexïen en firent sire;

Page 49


                   Trente set anz cel rei regnadL1539 [L1539] cil rois H50L1539 [L1539] Trente oit H50
         1540  E puis a Rome s'en alad;
                   Iloec fud lunc tens remanantL1541 [L1541] f. tuz jors r. R50
                   Tresqu'al jur de sun muriant.
                   [L'arcevesque Theodorus
         1544  Transit cel an, ne vesqui plus,
                   E de Raculve li abbé
                   Bruthpat fu en cel liu posé].L1546 [L1546] ll. 1543-46 not in DLH50
                   Dous reis en Kent idunc aveit;
         1548  Li uns [Wihtret] numed esteit,L1548 [L1548] wilfrid H50L1548 [L1548] wicfered DL50
                   Seuphart li autre ot [a] nun.L1549 [L1549om  li autre R50L1549 [L1549] Seufart LH Sunheart R50L1549 [L1549] om  a DRH50
                   Dunc transit [l'evesque] GefmunL1550 [L1550] gesinon H gefron R50L1550 [L1550] livesque50
                   E [Tobian] reçut sun sied.L1551 [L1551] thobinan DL50
         1552  Drithelm [morut], Deu gracïed,L1552 [L1552] D. ot D. mercie L50L1552 [L1552] morust R50L1552 [L1552] Drithelem R50L1552 [L1552] mout50L1552 [L1552] Brithelin DLH50L1552 [L1552Drithelem R, Brithelin DLH. As Gross points out, it is curious that the only two MSS. of A.S.C. to contain this annal should also show the same confusion in the initial; he ascribes the mistake, as does Plummer, to the presence of Brihtwald in the same annal (A.S.C. 693). In the form Bruthpat this name also occurs in the Estoire (l. 1546), but only in R which has the correct initial for the name under discussion. The agreement of R and H shows that Gaimar wrote morut; this is a possible translation of wæs of lyfe gelæd, the phrase in A.S.C.(E) 693, and was in fact adopted by Plummer in his glossary, but in his note to the annal he pointed out that the reference was to Dryhthelm's vision of a journey to the other world, described in greater detail by Bede (Historia, V, 12). I take the second half of the line to be a parenthetic remark by the author, and translate God be thanked.50
                   E cil de Kent si unt donedL1553 [L1553om  si RH50
                   Trente mil unces d'or pesed;
                   Pur l'arsun que de Mol firent
         1556  Al rei Yne tuit ço rendirent;L1556 [L1556] Et tut ceo au r. Y. r. H50L1556 [L1556] hinne R50
                   E de Withred firent lur reiL1557 [L1557om  de R50
                   La gent de Kent sulunc lur lei.L1558 [L1558] s. la. l. R50 [f.104c]
                   Trente anz regnad e tint la terre,L1559 [L1559om  la R50
         1560  Tres bien se [con]tint en sa guerre.L1560 [L1560] b. abati sa g. R50L1560 [L1560] tint DL50
                   Dunc ot de l'Encarnatïun
                   Set cenz e quatre anz, ço lisun.L1562 [L1562] e quarante a. L50
                   Li reis de Merke Edelred
         1564  Prist dras de moine mais Kenred
                   Puis aprés lui regnad e tint.L1565 [L1565om  lui L50
                   Del rei [Eal]frid dunc mesavint;L1566 [L1566] edfrid H50L1566 [L1566] elfrid50
                   Il ert sire des Norhumbreis,
         1568  A Drifeld[e] fud mort li reis.L1568 [L1568] drifeld DLH50
                   Osred sun fiz aprés regnad,
                   Si cum sun pere devisat.

Page 50


                   Un an aprés cil de Westsexe
         1572  Del [bon Ealdelm] unt fait evesque;L1572 [L1572] aldeline LH51L1572 [L1572] aldeling51L1572 [L1572] om  bon DLH51
                   Dous evesquez [firent donc] d'uneL1573 [L1573om  firent donc H51L1573 [L1573] unt fait51
                   Tut par l'esgard de la cumune;L1574 [L1574om  Tut H51
                   L'un evesquet tint Danïel,
         1576  L'autre Ealdelm qui mult fud bel;L1576 [L1576] q. fut mult H51L1576 [L1576] ealdelf R aldelin H51L1576 [L1576] Laltre out E. R51L1576 [L1576] aldolf DL51
                   Aprés Ealdelm Fordhere vint,L1577 [L1577] eadelf R51L1577 [L1577] aldelin DLH51
                   Par grant honur l'evesqued tint;
                   [Fordhere tint en l'occidentL1579 [L1579] Forhere R51
         1580  E Danïel en l'orïent;
                   Bois out entr'els e forez granz
                   Mes ambedous furent mananz];L1582 [L1582] ambdous R51L1582 [L1582] ll. 1579-82 not in DLH51
                   L'un est l'evesqued de Wincestre,
         1584  A Salesbire deit l'autre estre.L1573 [L1573] The division of the diocese took place in 705, after the death of Hedde, bishop of Winchester, and was effected in regular council (cf. Plummer's note to Bede, Historia, V, 18); though this fact is not recorded by Bede or by A.S.C., l. 1574 seems to indicate that it was known to Gaimar. The new see was at Sherborne, but was transferred to Salisbury in 1075, so that Gaimar in his amplification (ll. 1579-84) of the entry in A.S.C. is reflecting contemporary conditions.51
                   Devant iço ert avenud:L1585 [L1585] D. co R51
                   Ultre Humbre devers le sudL1586 [L1586] Del H. H51L1586 [L1586] U. le H. R51
                   Vindrent icels ki la reïneL1587 [L1587] v. cil ki H51
         1588  [Ostrut] ocistrent e sa cusine;L1588 [L1588] Estrild H51L1588 [L1588] Eltret DL51L1585 [L1585] Gaimar has mistakenly divided Her Suðanhumbre of A.S.C. 697 as Her suðan Humbre; just as earlier he had rendered be norðan sæ by devers le nort (l. 1496), so here he renders suðan by devers le sud; hence probably his ignorance of the perpetrators of the outrage. The cusine seems to be a relation by rime only!51
                   Reis Edelred ert sun seignur,
                   Ecfert sun frere, ele sa serur.
                   Beard fud ocis par les Pecteis.L1591 [L1591] Reard L Hebard H51
         1592  Kenred regnet sur [Suthumbreis]:L1592 [L1592] Henred L51L1592 [L1592] norhumbreis DL51L1592 [L1592] Having with the division of the West-Saxon diocese reached A.S.C. 709, Gaimar expressly retraces his steps–Devant iço ert avenud (l. 1585)–to A.S.C.(E) 697 and proceeds to translate the following annals. This brings him to A.S.C.(E) 702: Her Kenred feng to Suðhumbra rice; he had already recorded the succession of Coenred (ll. 1564-5) from A.S.C. 704, but it is not quite certain that the event is duplicated. Plummer inclines to that view, assuming a double source in A.S.C.(D,E,F), but continues though it is possible that Ethelred may have associated Cenred with himself in the kingship prior to his resignation. Gaimar seems unaware of any repetition and launches out into his description of the kingdom of the Suthumbreis, which for him corresponds very much to the great medieval diocese of Lincoln.51
                   [ço est Lyndeseye e Holmedene,
                   Kestevene e Hoyland e Hestdene].
                   Des Humbre desqu'en RotelantL1595 [L1595] Des R. d. en humberland H51L1595 [L1595] rocaland L51
         1596  Durot cel regne e plus avant;L1596 [L1596] En cel liu i ot H51
                   Par plusurs feiz fud la devise,
                   Tels lius i ot dreit a Tamise;
                   Le chief del regne soleit estreL1599 [L1599] r. i devoit e. H51L1599 [L1599] Le clef R51
         1600  A la cité de DorchecestreL1600 [L1600] horkecestre H51 [f.104d]
                   E Huntedone e [le] cuntedL1601 [L1601] e la contree H51L1601 [L1601] la51
                   Soleit estre de cel regned,L1602 [L1602] de cest r. R51L1602 [L1602] Soleient H51

Page 51


                   Neis la [meité] de GrantecestreL1603 [L1603] cited DLH52L1603 [L1603meité R, cited DLH. I have preferred the reading of R, because it is the lectio difficilior and because Grantecestre is apparently Cambridgeshire. Cf. Zachrisson, A.N. Influence . . . (Lund, 1909), p. 79.52
         1604  I fud jadis e deveit estre;L1604 [L1604] e soleit e. L e devereit e. R52
                   [Bel] s'en poeit un rei guarir,L1605 [L1605] uns reis RH52L1605 [L1605] B. se pout H52L1605 [L1605] Bien DL52
                   Se il ço peüst en pais tenir.L1606 [L1606] Sil le pout H52
                   En icel tens les Merkeneis
         1608  Firent Cheolred [seignur e] reis.L1608 [L1608] f. de Chenred r. L52L1608 [L1608] om  seignur e DL52
                   Li reis Kenred alad a RumeL1609 [L1609om  Li reis R52
                   E Offe od lui un gentil hume;
                   Chenred remist tresqu'a [sa] fin,L1611 [L1611] C.i r. R52L1611 [L1611] la DLR52
         1612  Iloc transid par Deu destin.L1612 [L1612] t. a la D. H52
                   En icel an sai bien e vei,L1613 [L1613] an saisit beuerley H52
                   A Undele fud mort saint Wilfrei,L1614 [L1614] U. morut s. W. H52
                   Sun cors fud condut a Ripun,
         1616  La tint l'um bien religïun;L1616 [L1616om  l'um H52L1616 [L1616] La teneit lom R52
                   Quarante cinc anz, [ço] est escrit,L1617 [L1617] a. come est H52L1617 [L1617] om  ço DL52
                   Evesque fud a Deu eslitL1618 [L1618] f. jadis e. R52
                   Icil prohom icil WilfreiL1619 [L1619] p. seint W. H52
         1620  Que dechaçad Ecfert [le] reiL1620 [L1620om  Que R Qui LH52L1620 [L1620] li52
                   E aprés lui [Acce] sun prestreL1621 [L1621] ace L hacke R52L1621 [L1621] acee52
                   Remist [el liu] pur evesque estre.L1622 [L1622] od lui DL52
                   En icel an dan Berefrid
         1624  Od les Pecteis se cumbatid;L1624 [L1624] pectiens H52
                   Entre dous ewes Hese e [Ciere]L1625 [L1625] e. eie et eriere H52L1625 [L1625] criere DL52L1625 [L1625] As Hese instead of an expected hefe is supported by DLR, it may be due to Gaimar. I have retained it, but have preferred Ciere (R) to Criere (DL) as nearer to O.E. Cære.52
                   Fud la bataille [fort] e fiereL1626 [L1626] En la b. R52L1626 [L1626] forte DLH52L1626 [L1626] e f.52
                   E Yne [e Nun] un sun cusinL1627 [L1627om  un R52L1627 [L1627] Y. et un H52L1627 [L1627] om  e Nun DLH52L1627 [L1627Yne un sun c. DL, Ine et un son c. H, Hine e Nun son c. R. As A.S.C. 710 has both names and as the line is metrically faulty unless it incorporates both the name and the article, I have emended accordingly; nun un could easily be taken as a repetition or mechanically overlooked.52
         1628  Tindrent bataille a Gerentin;
                   Un rei de Wales cil ert fort,
                   De [tut] sun dreit [li firent] tort;L1630 [L1630] firent il DL52L1630 [L1630] om  tut DLH52
                   E Sibald fud cel an ocis,
         1632  Un[s] riches hom fud del païs.L1632 [L1632] de cel p. LH52L1632 [L1632om  fud H52L1632 [L1632] ert R52
                   En icel [tens Guthlac] esteit,L1633 [L1633] gudlac R52L1633 [L1633] cutlac52L1633 [L1633] an52

Page 52


                   Uns hom qui Dampnedeu serveit;L1634 [L1634] Uns seinz home qui dieu s. H53
                   Qui la vie de lui vereit,L1635 [L1635] Mainte m. H53
         1636  Maint miracle i trovereit;L1636 [L1636] ll. 1635-6 interverted in L53 [f.105a]
                   Tucher m'estuet, ne puis [tut] dire.L1637 [L1637] plus53
                   Yne, Cheolred firent martireL1638 [L1638] Yne doret f. H53
                   A Wodnesberge en la bataille.
         1640  Un an aprés, ço [di] senz faille,L1640 [L1640] a. ke di R53L1640 [L1640] dit DH53
                   Dunc fud ocis Osred li reis
                   Qui regnot sur les NorhumbreisL1642 [L1642] Ceo fut damage as englois H53L1642 [L1642] regnat R53
                   En la marce devers midi;
         1644  Reis fud set anz, si cum jo [qui].L1644 [L1644] Qui regna. vii. anz H53L1644 [L1644] di DL53
                   Dunc firent cil de Kenred reis,
                   Dous anz tint regne e [demi] meis.L1646 [L1646] d. meins L53L1646 [L1646] un DL53
                   Dunc la retint [Osric] unze anz.L1647 [L1647] .ix. anz R53L1647 [L1647] D. le receut H53L1647 [L1647] oseric DL53
         1648  [Chelred] de [Merce] li reis vaillanzL1648 [L1648] meroc DL53L1648 [L1648] Chereld53
                   Transit cel an: ço est acuntez;L1649 [L1649] a. si est H53
                   A Lichesfeld fud [enterrez]L1650 [L1650] Et a L. H53L1650 [L1650] posez DLH53
                   [E] Edelred Pending li reisL1651 [L1651] om  E DLH53
         1652  En porterent [li] Merkeneis,L1652 [L1652] les M. R53L1652 [L1652] om  li DL53
                   A Bardeneie l'enterrerent.
                   A Edelbald Mercene dunerent.L1654 [L1654] merce RH53
                   Cil regnat quarante e un an,L1655 [L1655] om  e DLR .xli. H53
         1656  Asez ot guerre e grant ahan.L1656 [L1656om  grant H53L1656 [L1656] A. i ot L53
                   [Uns riches hom, Ecbert out nun,
                   En icel tens par bel sarmon
                   Se prist a Deu e a seint Pere;
         1660  En oreisons e en praiere
                   Remist tuz jors tresk'a sa fin,
                   Enterrez fu a Mirmartin].
                   Un autre gentil frere [a rei],L1663 [L1663] aveit DLH53
         1664  Ingild ot nun, [murut, ço crei];L1664 [L1664] morust R53L1664 [L1664] e mureit DLH53

Page 53


                   Cil esteit frere al bon rei Yne;L1665 [L1665] f. la reyne H54
                   Cutburc lur suer esteit reïne,L1666 [L1666] ert H54L1666 [L1666] ll. 1665-6 interverted in H54
                   Winburne estorat en sa vieL1667 [L1667] Winelire (?) L Winburgne R Wynburgh H54L1667 [L1667] Winborc54
         1668  E mult i fist [bel'] abeïe.L1668 [L1668] grant54
                   Ealfred li reis l'ot espusee,
                   En lur vivant fud [deseveree];L1670 [L1670] donee DL54
                   Del rei qui tint Norhumberlant
         1672  Se departid en lur vivant;L1672 [L1672] en son v. H54
                   Tant par amad sa [chasteté],L1673 [L1673] chastetee L54L1673 [L1673] chasteed54
                   Tuit en laissad sa [richeté].L1674 [L1674] richetee L54L1674 [L1674] la r. LH54L1674 [L1674] richeteed54
                   Chenburc ot nun l'autre sorur,L1675 [L1675] a nun DL54
         1676  Tant se penad de fere onur,
                   Unc en cel tens en la cuntree,L1677 [L1677] Ke unc R54
                   Cum ele fud, n'ot si amee.L1678 [L1678] tant a. R54L1678 [L1678] U ele RH54 [f.105b]
                   Dunc ot set cenz e vint e un an,L1679 [L1679] vint un R .xxxi. H54
         1680  Si cum dïent li ancïan,L1680 [L1680] c. la content a. R54
                   De la Jesu Nativited;
                   Tant ert del siecle dunc aled,L1682 [L1682] des le s. a H54L1682 [L1682] idonc ert tant a. R54L1682 [L1682] Del s54
                   Quant Danïel a Rume alad
         1684  [Li] evesque que Deu amad.L1684 [L1684] ke deus a. RH54L1684 [L1684] Lev. DL54
                   Kenewlf fud cel an ocis,
                   Un fiz de rei de mult grant pris.L1686 [L1686om  mult H54L1686 [L1686] r. ki out g. R54
                   Li bon[s] Johan[s] idunc [transi],L1687 [L1687] transist L54L1687 [L1687] transit54
         1688  Celui qui [gist en Beverli]L1688 [L1688] beverlei DL54L1688 [L1688] qui en B. gist DL54
                   [E] Edelburc l'ovre abatidL1689 [L1689] om  E DLH54
                   Que li reis [Inne] aveit bastid;L1690 [L1690] a. abasti H54L1690 [L1690] om  Inne DLH54
                   A Tantune aveit fait ovrer,
         1692  Ele fist l'ovre degeter.
                   En [i]cel an qui vint aprésL1693 [L1693] E en cel a. DL54
                   Furent plusurs de guere engrés.
                   Li reis Withred qui Kent teneitL1695 [L1695] wildret H54L1695 [L1695om  Li reis R54

Page 54


         1696  Fud mort, [si] cum Deu voleit;L1696 [L1696] D. le v.55L1696 [L1696] om  si DH55
                   Trente quatre anz cel rei regnat,L1697 [L1697] .xxxiii. a. cil rois r. H55
                   Bien tint sun regne, [sa] gent amat;L1698 [L1698] om  sa DL55
                   E Yne li reis de Westsexe
         1700  Guerreiad Surrie e Sudsexe,
                   [Ealbrit ocist, un] fiz de reiL1701 [L1701] E habalt huni (hun [L]) DL55
                   Qu'il dechaçad ainz de sur sei,L1702 [L1702] ainz chascat R55L1702 [L1702] chacad DLRH55L1702 [L1702] All the MSS. concur in reading chaçad, but the line is then a syllable short; it renders the phrase from A.S.C.(E) 725: þe he ær ut flymde; in view of Gaimar's frequent use of dechacier in similar contexts I have added the prefix to the verb.55
                   Ainz l'aveit tut desherited,L1703 [L1703] t. desbarette H55
         1704  Or l'ad ocis e mort rüed;L1704 [L1704] a mort H55
                   E de Sudsexïens mult prist,L1705 [L1705om  mult H55
                   Asquanz raïnst, asquanz ocist;L1706 [L1706] A. rauist L raint R55
                   Puis aprés ço poi sujurnad,L1707 [L1707] a. ke poi R55L1707 [L1707om  Puis H55
         1708  A Rume [li reis] Yne aladL1708 [L1708] le rei55
                   E Edelbert un sun cusinL1709 [L1709om  E H55L1709 [L1709Edelbert. The true name of Ine's successor is Æthelheard. There is no knowing who is responsible for the confusion, but Gaimar gives the correct name when recording the death of this king (l. 1759).55
                   Reçut le regne Westsexin;L1710 [L1710] Tint le H55
                   Quatorze anz tint mult sagement,L1711 [L1711] a. le tint s. H55L1711 [L1711] a. la tint R55L1711 [L1711] Quarante R55
         1712  Amed esteit entre sa gent.L1712 [L1712] e. mult e. L55L1712 [L1712] ll. 1711-2 interverted in H55
                   Aprés dous anz dunc trespasserent,L1713 [L1713om  dunc H55
                   Dous cometes se demustrerent, [f.105c]
                   [L]es esteilles geterent rais;
         1716  Asquanz distrent encuntre pais,L1716 [L1716] d. kencontre p R55
                   Asquanz distrent encuntre guerre:L1717 [L1717] d. contre g. R55
                   Ço signefïed eissil de terre.
                   [M]ais ki k'en dïet tort u dreit,L1719 [L1719] ou t. ou d. H55L1719 [L1719] en deit L55
         1720  Pur quei ço ert, nuls ne saveit.
                   [Osric] li reis idunc fud morz,L1721 [L1721] Oseric DL55
                   Unze anz regnad, asez fud forz
                   E saint [Ecbricht] dunc deviadL1723 [L1723] edbright H55L1723 [L1723] idunc DR55L1723 [L1723] ebric DL55
         1724  Qui bone vie demenad.
                   Cheolwlf aprés [uit] anz retint,L1725 [L1725] set DLH55
                   Dunc fud mort Oswald l'edeling.L1726 [L1726] Idunc55

Page 55


                   Le jur a nuit dunc s'oscurad.L1727 [L1727] j. apres d. H56
         1728  Edelbald Westsexe preiad,L1728 [L1728] Edelwald H56
                   Sumertune prist e saisit,
                   Asez cunquist tant cum vesquid.L1730 [L1730om  tant H cum il v. R56
                   [Acce] l'evesque fud decaciedL1731 [L1731] f. donc chasce R fud chaced LH56L1731 [L1731] Acke R56L1731 [L1731] E cel e. DL56
         1732  De [Hextildesham], de s'evesqued.L1732 [L1732] de son sie R56L1732 [L1732om  de H56L1732 [L1732] En edenesham H56L1732 [L1732] hecteuesham DL56
                   La lune dunc se [de]mustrad,L1733 [L1733] mustrad DL56
                   En ruge sanc ert: ço semblad
                   A tuz icels qui la vëeient;L1735 [L1735] A tuz cels LRH56
         1736  En sanc esteit, [tuz le] diseient.L1736 [L1736] co DLH56
                   Li arcevesque idunc transit,
                   Tathwine Deu mult bien servid.L1738 [L1738] T. qui dieu s. H56L1738 [L1738] Cathwine R56L1738 [L1738] Teinthwine DLH56L1738 [L1738Cathwine R, Teinthwine DLH. As the reading of R is closer to the O.E. name, Tatwine, I have adopted it, subject to the correction in the initial.56
                   Ecbrict eslistrent en sun sied,L1739 [L1739] Edbright esleustrent H56L1739 [L1739] E ebrict L Ecbruth R56L1739 [L1739] E ebriet56
         1740  Cil tint mult bien l'arcevesquied.L1740 [L1740om  mult LH56
                   Bede le prestre dunc deviad,
                   A Weremue iloc [posa].L1742 [L1742] i. lum le p. R56L1742 [L1742] gernemue H56L1742 [L1742] reposad DL56L1742 [L1742posad. The agreement of R and H in the verb supports its retention in the text. The verb in this sense occurs again at l. 2535 and DLH again seem to object. Here both DL on the one hand and R on the other seem to have objected to the use of poser as a neuter verb and to have altered the line to avoid it, but in so doing have made the line unmetrical.56
                   [Cheolwlf] li reis moine devint.L1743 [L1743] Cheelwld56
         1744  Un sun cusin le regne tint,
                   Eadbrith [out nun], vint e un anL1745 [L1745] Et cheosulf H56L1745 [L1745] om  out nun DLH56
                   Tint le regne en grant ahanL1746 [L1746] r. par g. R56L1746 [L1746] Le r. tint a g. H56
                   Kar Edelbald le guerreiad,
         1748  Norhumberland cel an preiad.
                   [Eadbrict] EatingL1749 [L1749] eatinc R56L1749 [L1749] Ecbrith R Eadring H56L1749 [L1749] eanting DLH56L1749 [L1749] Eadhirng56
                   Eate Luedwalding,L1750 [L1750] luedwadinc R leadwalding H56L1750 [L1750] Eaze H56L1750 [L1750] luedwanding DL56L1749 [L1749] Gaimar has been misled by his source, A.S.C. 738, into taking the genealogy as the name of the king; he has copied the names and patronymics, but his copyists have found them difficult to cope with; I have therefore followed his source and corrected accordingly, and likewise in l. 1753.56
                   Eissi ot nun li riche reisL1751 [L1751] li riches r. RH56 [f.105d]
         1752  Qui regnat sur les Norhumbreis.
                   Ecbrict Eating ot nun sun frere,L1753 [L1753] Ecberith eatinc R56L1753 [L1753] Eadbrit eanting DLH56
                   Arcevesque ert de gentil [ere].L1754 [L1754] ert e g. R56L1754 [L1754] here DL56
                   [Ambedous gisent pres a pres
         1756  A Everwic as porticés].L1756 [L1756] a p. R es p. H56

Page 56


                   Dunc aprés ço un poi [de tens]L1757 [L1757om  co R57L1757 [L1757] apres DL57
                   Murut li reis Westsexïe[n]sL1758 [L1758] r. de W. H57L1758 [L1758] M. un rei R57L1758 [L1758] westsexies DL57
                   Reis Edelard. Un sun cusinL1759 [L1759] un un s.57
         1760  Gudred regnat aprés sa fin;
                   [Sesze] anz dïent qu'il tint la terre.L1761 [L1761om  quil H57L1761 [L1761] Trente L57L1761 [L1761] Treze DH57
                   Reis Edelbald li fist grant guerre.
                   Edelbald ert de Merce reis,L1763 [L1763] E E.57
         1764  Gudret [maintint] ses Westsexeis.L1764 [L1764] westsexies L westsexiens R suthsexois H57L1764 [L1764] G. meut noise as W. L57L1764 [L1764] westsexis57L1764 [L1764] maint moy57
                   Saint [Cuth]bert tint l'arcevesquiedL1765 [L1765] ert R57L1765 [L1765] cubert57
                   [Kar l'arcevesque] fud eissillied.L1766 [L1766] Ace levesque DLH57
                   Gudred e Edelbald li reis
         1768  Se cumbatirent as Waleis,
                   Triwes pristrent pur la bataille,L1769 [L1769] sa b. H57
                   Bien descunfistrent l'assemblaile
                   Que li Gualeis aveient fait.
         1772  Qui pot anceis, [s'il pot], s'en vait.L1772 [L1772] p. al ainz kil p. R57L1772 [L1772] fuir57
                   Un an aprés cil de Wincestre,
                   Quant Danïel n'i pot plus estre,L1774 [L1774om  plus H57
                   Dunc [firent] Hunfert lur evesque.L1775 [L1775] winfert H57L1775 [L1775] ercevesque DL57L1775 [L1775] funt DLH57L1775 [L1775] After 1775 DLH add: De clergie fud mult bon mestre mult not in LH57
         1776  [Li esteiles del ciel se hautesce
                   E remüerent par semblant,
                   La gent dïent k'il vont dechaant].
                   Idunc transit l'autre Wilfre[i]zL1779 [L1779] wilfriz H57L1779 [L1779] li a. wlfriz R57
         1780  Tierz jur dedenz Avril [le] meis;L1780 [L1780om  le meis H57L1780 [L1780] Le tierz jour d. averilz H57L1780 [L1780] de57
                   Il fud evesque par trente anz,
                   Si cum nus [dit li ancïans].L1782 [L1782] d. lestorie a. L d. li estoires a. H57L1782 [L1782om  Si and nus H57L1782 [L1782] anciens LR57L1782 [L1782] trovum en lisanz57L1782 [L1782] The general agreement of LHR shows that we have an individual variation by D; the reading without estoire (as in R) is supported by l. 1680.57
                   Dunc fud li rei[s] Chelred ocis.L1783 [L1783] elred H57
         1784  Li reis [Eadbrith donc fu transis]L1784 [L1784] r. edbright est d.t. H57L1784 [L1784] ecbrit idunc transid57
                   E de Westsexe dan ChenrisL1785 [L1785] dan Chenris and refud ocis interverted in DH57L1784 [L1784] not in L57

Page 57


                   Un fiz de rei refud ocis.L1786 [L1786] r. dan chenris L58
                   En icel tens une saisunL1787 [L1787] t. e en cele s. R t. ont seisson H58L1787 [L1787] E en58
         1788  [Entre] Gudred e [Edelhun]L1788 [L1788] E. gueret H58L1788 [L1788] Regna L58L1788 [L1788] edeldun DLH58L1788 [L1788] Estre58
                   [Tindrent bataille e firent guere;
                   Cil ert un baron de la tere,L1790 [L1790] de sa t. H58L1790 [L1790] Cil et un H58
                   Li uns ert reis, l'altre baron,L1791 [L1791] li autres H58
         1792  Bien tint le son cist Edelhon].L1792 [L1792] Mes b. t. cil de huir le son H58L1792 [L1792] ll. 1789-92 not in DL58
                   Quant Gudred ot duze anz regned,L1793 [L1793om  ot R58
                   Cuntre Edelbald [se cumbatied]L1794 [L1794] sest cumbated DRH58 [f.106a]
                   Le rei de Merke en fuie mist,L1795 [L1795] en sui m. L58L1795 [L1795] Li reis R58
         1796  De ses humes mult [en] ocist;L1796 [L1796] om  en DL58
                   A Berceford fud la bataille,L1797 [L1797] berford R hereforde H58
                   Li [Merceis] orent grant cuntraille.L1798 [L1798] Les M. o. la c. R58L1798 [L1798] merceneis DL58
                   [Dous anz aprés Gudred li reis]L1799 [L1799] G. dous anz apres fud reis58
         1800  Se cumbatid cuntre Gualeis,
                   Descunfit fud mais bien guarid,
                   Ne gueres del suen [n'i] perdit.L1802 [L1802] ne58
                   Dous anz aprés vait a sa fin.
         1804  Dunc firent rei de sun cusinL1804 [L1804] de un s. RH58
                   Ki [Sïebrand] aveit a nun,L1805 [L1805] siebart DL58
                   Ne tint que un an cel regïun.L1806 [L1806] cele r. RH58
                   Set cenz [sessante] e cinc anz meinsL1807 [L1807om  anz R58L1807 [L1807] et .lx. H58L1807 [L1807] om  e DLRH58L1807 [L1807] e quarante DL58
         1808  Ot en cel jur e en cel tensL1808 [L1808] En cel jur fut et H58L1808 [L1808] ll. 1807-8 interverted in H58
                   Des la Jesu Nativited
                   Tresqu'a cel jur – ço fud cunted –L1810 [L1810] j. qe fut nome H58
                   Que Kenewlf desheritadL1811 [L1811] chewolf R58
         1812  Sibrit. Sun cusin decaçadL1812 [L1812] Siebrant son c. en chascat R58
                   E les baruns [de la contree]L1813 [L1813] del cunted DLH58
                   Par traïsun que orent menee,L1814 [L1814] mened DLRH58
                   Si tint le cunté de HamtuneL1815 [L1815] de huntedone R58

Page 58


         1816  E de Westsexe e de Wiltune.L1816 [L1816] E tote W. e W. R Et W. et W. H59
                   Kenewlf tint lung tens la terre
                   Tresque un barun l'acoilt de guerre.L1818 [L1818] b. la tuilt de g. R59
                   Mult guerreiad e bien se tintL1819 [L1819] M. le guereiout e mult se t. R59
         1820  Desci que tut mal l'en avint.
                   Cuntre Kenewlf tint bataille,
                   Tute fud morte sa rascailleL1822 [L1822] f. mort LR59L1822 [L1822] Tut f. LRH59
                   E il nafred s'en eschapad,
         1824  En [Andredeswalt] se musçadL1824 [L1824] adreswald DLH59
                   Tant que un porchier l'ad mort rüed
                   En un buissun, u fud [trové].L1826 [L1826] musce L59L1826 [L1826] muscred59
                   Kenewlf fud [i]dunc regnanzL1827 [L1827] i. tenanz R59L1827 [L1827] dunc DLH59
         1828  Tant que ot regné [plus de] vint anz.L1828 [L1828] om  plus de DLH59 [f.106b]
                   Cel Sïebrit k'il ot caciedL1829 [L1829] kout c. R59L1829 [L1829] sibrict LH siebrant R59L1829 [L1829] ciebrit59
                   Ert sun cusin mais par pechiedL1830 [L1830] par purchez R59
                   E par cunseil de ses barunsL1831 [L1831] c. dun sun barun L59
         1832  Qui furent fols e mult felunsL1832 [L1832om  mult H59L1832 [L1832] Q. fu f. L59
                   [Estait li reis vers li marriz.L1833 [L1833] v. eus m. H59
                   Un frere aveit cil SïebrizL1834 [L1834] ll. 1833-4 not in DL59
                   Qui Kenehard aveit a nun.L1835 [L1835] kenard L chenehart R cheard H59L1835 [L1835] keneward59
         1836  Cil fist mult fol[e] vengeisun;L1836 [L1836] avengison H59L1836 [L1836] fol DL59
                   Par espies tant espiad
                   Que en la chambre le rei trovad,L1838 [L1838] r. entrad R59
                   U ert venud priveement
         1840  A une dame senz sa gent.
                   A cele chambre l'asaillit
                   Tant que li reis fors s'en issid;L1842 [L1842om  sen H59
                   A une hache qu'il teneit
         1844  Sur lui curut tresqu'il le [veit].L1844 [L1844] le vit L59L1844 [L1844] veeit59
                   De la hache tel li donad
                   Ensun le chief, u l'asenad,L1846 [L1846] u il la. DLH59

Page 59


                   Tresqu'as espalles le fendit.
         1848  Celui ocist qui l'asaillitL1848 [L1848] o. si en saillit H60
                   Mais [cels altres] li curent sure,L1849 [L1849] M. les a. R M. homes li H60L1849 [L1849] ceus60
                   Oscis i fud en [mult] poi d'ureL1850 [L1850om  i R60L1850 [L1850] om  mult DLH60
                   E Sïebrit, quant il l'oïd,L1851 [L1851] Quant esebright lad oi H60L1851 [L1851] siebrant R60
         1852  Il e sa gent vindrent al crid.L1852 [L1852] Li et sa g. H60
                   Tuit ocistrent, quanqu'il troverent,L1853 [L1853] o. kil t. R60
                   E pristrent robe, aver preierent;L1854 [L1854] a. porterent H60L1854 [L1854] p. e roberent e p. R60
                   Mais [ainz] qu'il [fust] d'iloc partid,L1855 [L1855] fud DH60
         1856  La mesnee vindrent al cridL1856 [L1856] criz RH60L1856 [L1856] m. vint a grant c. H60L1856 [L1856] ci60L1853 [L1853] not in L60
                   Qui od le rei orent ested,
                   Qui l'aveit cherid e amed.
                   Quant cil virent mort lur se[ignur],
         1860  Al cuer orent grant dolur.L1860 [L1860] o. ire et d. H60L1860 [L1860] c. en o. R60
                   Dunc nel voldrent pur rien lai[sser]L1861 [L1861] voudrent H60L1861 [L1861] voldreient DLR60
                   Que lur seignur [n']algent vengier.
                   Sure [lur] curent, [sis] ferirent,L1863 [L1863] sil f. R et f. H60L1863 [L1863] si60
         1864  Cil vassalment les atendirent,L1864 [L1864] Cist vassal ml't L60L1856 [L1856] written round hole; some final letters trimmed60
                   Cil mult pramist e bel parladL1865 [L1865] Cil vassaument et b. p. H60L1865 [L1865] b. preia R60
                   E les baruns araisunad. [f.106c]
                   '[S]eignurs,' fait il, 'ne m'asaillez
         1868  Kar jo m'en sui par dreit vengiez.L1868 [L1868] jo me sui RH60
                   [Vus] savez bien, si cum jo crei,
                   Que sui fiz Sï[e]brant le rei,L1870 [L1870] jo sui f. L jeo fui f. H60L1870 [L1870] sibrant DLH60
                   Si deüsse par jugementL1871 [L1871] p. dreit j. DLH60
         1872  Tenir le regne, aveir la gent.
                   [Q]uant cest mien uncle me fist guere,L1873 [L1873] Q. mon u. H60
                   Ne poi remaneir en la terre.L1874 [L1874] Ne poai R Ne poeie H60
                   [S]i jo me sui de lui vengiez,L1875 [L1875] jo ne me R60
         1876  A tort vus en esmerveilliez.L1876 [L1876] emerveillez R esmerveillerez H60L1876 [L1876om  en H60L1876 [L1876] merveilliez DL60

Page 60


                   [B]aruns, kar faites grant baldur,L1877 [L1877om  grant H61
                   Si me faites rendre m'onur.
                   [Par] tel covent cum jo l'avrai,
         1880  Chascun [de vus] s'onur rendraiL1880 [L1880] A ch. LH61L1880 [L1880] om  de vus DL61
                   [E] creissement vus durai grant,L1881 [L1881] d. tant H61L1881 [L1881] Et acressement H61
                   Le plus povre f[e]rai manant.'
                   [Cil] respunent: '[Pas nel] ferum.L1883 [L1883] Cil respondirent R61L1883 [L1883] Et cil H61L1883 [L1883] pais ne f.61L1883 [L1883] E il (?) 61
         1884  Cum[e] felun vus defium.L1884 [L1884] Cum DL61
                   Nostre seignur nus avez mort.
                   Alum ferir, nul nel deport.'L1886 [L1886] nuls nes d. H61
                   A tant ferirent vassalment.
         1888  Cil les refierent ensement.L1888 [L1888] referirent R61
                   Qu'e[n] direie? Grant fud l'estur,
                   Sïebrit fud ocis le jur,
                   Il e trestuz ses cumpaignuns
         1892  Fors sulement un vadletuns;
                   Icil esteit fillol le rei,L1893 [L1893] Icist L Cist H61L1891 [L1891] written round hole61
                   Pur ço guarid, si cum jo crei.L1894 [L1894] g. co cr. R61
                   Eissi finad iceste guere.
         1896  Or [n'out] nul d'els [gueres] la terre,L1896 [L1896] g. de t. H61L1896 [L1896] nuls dels g. de la t. R61L1896 [L1896] n'out and nul d'els interverted in L61L1896 [L1896] nul and d'els interverted61L1896 [L1896] nunt61
                   L'uncle ne les nevoz ne l'unt
                   Ne les baruns qui morz en sunt
                   Ne Cumbran qui se cumbatidL1899 [L1899] cumbrant L combran R enconbrand H61L1899 [L1899] cumbart61
         1900  Qui en Andredeswald fuïdL1900 [L1900] andreswald sen f. LRH61 [f.106d]
                   Que li porchiers el bois ocist.
                   Mult mal eire home qui traïst.L1902 [L1902] Malement e. cil q. H61
                   Li lignages [a ces] dous reisL1903 [L1903] dicels d. D deces d. LH61L1903 [L1903] a ces dous reis and dunt dis ainceis interverted in DLH61
         1904  E as nevoz dunt dis ainceis,
                   De lur peres lur parentezL1905 [L1905] p. li p. R p. les p. H61
                   Furent a Certiz [acontez];L1906 [L1906] acointiez L61L1906 [L1906] F. acerteiz e a. L F. acertiz et a. H61L1906 [L1906] acuintiez61
                   D'uncle a nevo, de pere a fiz,

Page 61


         1908  Del lignage furent Certiz.L1908 [L1908] f. a C. R62
                   [Cheol]wlf regnat vint e un an,L1909 [L1909] Edel62
                   Asez suffri peine e ahan;
                   A Wincestre la l'unt ported,L1911 [L1911] W. len u. p. R W. lont p. H62
         1912  Par grant honur l'unt enterred,L1912 [L1912] lunt iloc e. R62
                   E ses nevoz qui sunt ocis;
                   A [Axemustre] fud l'un mis,L1914 [L1914] exsemustre H62L1914 [L1914] axeministre DL62
                   L'autre enterrerent a [Defurel],L1915 [L1915] definel DL62
         1916  [Kenehard] ot nun li dancel.L1916 [L1916] Kenard DLH62L1804 [L1804] This long passage is based on the celebrated annal, A.S.C. 755, though Gaimar has failed to find his way successfully through the varying references of the O.E. pronouns, with the result that he has changed the story very considerably. A detailed analysis of that annal, with translation, is given by F. P. Magoun, Jr., Cynewulf, Cyneheard, and Osric, Anglia XLV (1933), 361-76. In his dissertation Gross discussed Gaimar's mistakes and alterations; subsequently I proposed modifications of some of his interpretations in Cynewulf and Cyneheard in Gaimar, M.L.R. X (1915), 42-6. Discussion of the passage will, however, be facilitated by a short summary of the relevant annals. In A.S.C. we read that Cuthred died in 754, that Sigeberht, his mæg, succeeded and reigned one year, that Cynewulf in 755 took the kingdom from Sigeberht, his mæg, leaving him only Hampshire, that Sigeberht killed Cumbra, an ealdorman who had long supported him, and was eventually slain in the forest of Andred by a swain. Later his brother, Cyneheard, reacting against Cynewulf's attempt to expel him, found the king, with only a small retinue, at a lady's house, made a surprise attack on him, killed him and his retinue, but was in his turn attacked and slain by the main body of the king's supporters. In ll. 1804-6 Gaimar translates correctly the entry about Cuthred's death, but names his successor Siebrand; then, in ll. 1811-3, he deals with the expulsion of Sigeberht, whom he calls Siebrit. These two are quite distinct, for in l. 1870 the latter calls himself fiz Siebrant le rei; he is also, for Gaimar, nephew of Cynewulf and thought of as young. Two problems arise: whence did Gaimar derive the name Siebrand and why did he introduce him? To the former I have no solution to offer beyond possible faulty memories of the East Anglian royal genealogy, but with respect to the latter I would suggest that the phrasing of A.S.C. may have contributed to Gaimar's imagining the existence of two Sigeberht's. From the statement, in A.S.C. 754, that Sigeberht heold .1. gear, he drew the faulty conclusion that Sigeberht died at the end of that year and by the failure to make explicit the relationship between Cuthred and Cynewulf A.S.C. obscured the identity of Sigeberht in 754 with Sigeberht in 755. Now that Gaimar had two Sigeberht's in his mind, it was an easy step to regard them as father and son, and this he has done. On top of this comes a misunderstanding. A.S.C. tells us that Cynewulf and the Witan expelled Sigeberht for unrihtum dædum, but Gaimar has applied this phrase to Cynewulf and so arrives at the conception that Siebrit was treacherously deprived of the succession by Cynewulf and the Witan, a conception expressed somewhat ambiguously in ll. 1812-14, but quite clearly in ll. 1829-33. Now comes another misunderstanding by Gaimar and this has serious consequences. In his source he read: he hafde þa oð he ofsloh þone ealdorman þe him lengst wunode $$ hine þa Cynewulf on Andred adrefede $$ he þær wunode oþ þæt an swan hine ofstang. In the O.E. text the italicized pronouns all refer to Sigeberht, but for some unknown reason (perhaps merely hurried reading) Gaimar referred the first he to Cynewulf. Consequently the second he must also refer to him, but now hine, at its first occurrence, can no longer refer to Cynewulf nor, for Gaimar, to Sigeberht; the author therefore had no choice but to apply it to the ealdorman. Thus Gaimar arrived at the conception of a revolt against the king by the ealdorman who is defeated and takes refuge in the forest of Andred, though I am doubtful whether, as Gross suggests, Gaimar confused the O.E. verbs wunnian and winnan. That the murdered nobleman whose death was avenged by the swain should thus become a defeated rebel who is miserably slain by a porchier is of minor importance beside the fact that Siebrit has now survived and can still take part in the later proceedings. As a result of this survival Gaimar has to modify the struggle at Merantum. His Cyneheard is killed by the king, who is then slain by Cyneheard's men; Siebrit now turns up, kills some rather mysterious survivors and sacks the house, but is attacked, before he can get away, by some royal supporters–evidently the party led by Osric and Wigfrith in A.S.C.; Siebrit parleys with them, but in vain, and in the final struggle he and his followers are killed with the exception of the godson, not of the ealdorman, but of the king, though I am unable to say whether this is due to Gaimar misunderstanding his source or merely to him translating ealdorman by rei, as he does elsewhere. Thus, whether by accident or design, Gaimar has omitted the parallel in the fates of the two retinues so noticeable in A.S.C. What led him to bury Siebrit at Axminster and Cyneheard elsewhere is still a mystery, unless by chance there was the tomb of some Cyneheard at one of the Deverills.62
                   [E] en cel an [si] fud ocisL1917 [L1917] om  si DLH62
                   Reis [Edelbalt] li [Mercenis],L1918 [L1918] edelbard li merceneis L62L1918 [L1918] Li r. R62L1918 [L1918] marchis62L1918 [L1918] edelwald62
                   A Rependune l'enfuïrent,
         1920  Pur lui le liu [maint an] cherirent;L1920 [L1920] l. mult en c. H62L1920 [L1920] l. en c. DL62
                   Quarante [e] un an fud [cil] reis.L1921 [L1921] .xli. H62L1921 [L1921] cel62L1921 [L1921] om  e DL62
                   Aprés lui firent Merkeneis
                   Brithred rei par tel tenur;L1923 [L1923] B. reis R62L1923 [L1923] Budret H62L1923 [L1923] All MSS. support Brithred as the name, but again Gaimar has made a mistake, for in A.S.C. 755 it is Beornred who succeeded. The second half of the line does not connect with what follows, as it leads us to expect a que-clause.62
         1924  Cel an fud chacied [de l]'onur.L1924 [L1924] donur62
                   Offe li reis l'en dechaçad,
                   Trente nef anz [tint e] regnadL1926 [L1926] t. la terre e r. R62L1926 [L1926] a. puis r. DLH62L1926 [L1926] The line is metrically faulty in DLH, but the omission of la terre from R as proposed by Gross, gives a correct line and this absolute use of tenir is well attested in the Estoire.62
                   E aprés lui les MerkeneisL1927 [L1927] li M. H62
         1928  Ecfert firent del regne reis.
                   Il fud fiz Offe qui ainz tint,
                   Asez regnad, bien lui avint,
                   Cenz jurs quarante anz e un plusL1931 [L1931] j. e q. a. R62L1931 [L1931] All MSS. agree in anz, so this must be what Gaimar wrote; perhaps he thought the heold .xli. daga $$ .c. daga of his source involved a mistaken repetition.62
         1932  Tint cum hume [bien] vertuus.L1932 [L1932] Le t. H62L1932 [L1932] om  bien DLH62
                   Ecfert esteit en Merce sire,L1933 [L1933] Et Offerd H62
                   Dunc prist un jur suvent a dire,
                   Aler voleit pur Deu servir,L1935 [L1935] a D. R om  pur LH62L1935 [L1935] Que a. LRH62
         1936  Moine u chanoine devenir. [f.107a]
                   Puis s'en turnad, trestut guerpit,L1937 [L1937] t. tut g. H62
                   Osulf sun fiz dunc [ad] saisit;L1938 [L1938] om  ad DH62

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                   Norhumberland, Merce e Dairon
         1940  E [Berniche li] rendit l'om.L1940 [L1940] birinke L bernicke R63L1940 [L1940] berewic len63L1933 [L1933] There is here confusion between Eadberht of Northumbria and Ecgfrith of Mercia. The two names are elsewhere interchanged in the MSS. of the Estoire and the same confusion occurs in William of Malmesbury, but the agreement of our four MSS. at this point suggests that the mistake is most probably due to Gaimar himself. As a result Oswulf of Northumbria becomes for him son of the Mercian king and so lord of both Mercia and Northumbria! Gross calls attention to a discrepancy in the reading of l. 1933 between Monumenta Historica Britannica and the Rolls edition; the former attributes to our D the reading Edbert esteit en Northumbre sire, but it is not to be found in that MS. Whence this particular reading derives, I do not know, but it is curious that the translator in the Rolls edition deserts his text, which agrees with mine, and follows M.H.B., possibly because that agrees with A.S.C.(E) 757: Eadberht Norðhymbra cining.63
                   Un an vesquid, puis fud ocis;
                   [Ço] firent ses serganz chaitisL1942 [L1942] Cum63
                   Qui puis [en] furent tuz destruiz,L1943 [L1943om  tuz R63L1943 [L1943] om  en DLH63
         1944  Penduz, defaiz, malement duiz.L1944 [L1944] m. tuz R63L1944 [L1944] Maumenez et penduz H63
                   A [i]cel jur – [ço] dist l'estoire –L1945 [L1945] ce63L1945 [L1945] cel DL63
                   Set cenz cinquante e nef memoireL1946 [L1946] c. e c. nof R c. et c. H63
                   Aveient fait li anceisurL1947 [L1947] Des anz ourent f. H63
         1948  Des l'oent Deu tresqu'a cel jur.L1948 [L1948] D. lavenue D. L Del advent D. R Des la nativite D. H63
                   [I]tant anz ot, quant deviadL1949 [L1949om  anz H63L1949 [L1949] E t.63
                   Li [ber Cuthbert] que Deus amadL1950 [L1950] que dampnedeus a. L63L1950 [L1950] Le bon C. H63L1950 [L1950] Li ber que L63L1950 [L1950] Li bert que D. mult a.63
                   E Mol [Edelwald] fud fait reis;L1951 [L1951] edewald R63L1951 [L1951] edelwlf DL63
         1952  [Iço] firent les Norhumbreis.L1952 [L1952] li N. LH63L1952 [L1952] Ice DL63
                   Dous anz fud reis [e] bien tint terre,L1953 [L1953] om  e DL63
                   Mult amad pais mielz que guere.L1954 [L1954] Meis m. a. mains p. que g. R Il a. pees et hait g. H63
                   Al secund an qu'il [regnot],L1955 [L1955] regnoit H63L1955 [L1955] regnad63
         1956  Fud fort iver; pluveit, [negot]L1956 [L1956] p. e n. R i. et mult plovoit H63L1956 [L1956] negad63
                   E si gelot e feseit freit,L1957 [L1957] Negoit geloit et f. fesoit H63
                   Avisunkes [rien] garisseit,L1958 [L1958] om  rien DLH63
                   [Hume ne femme], aver ne beste,L1959 [L1959] f. nautre b. H63L1959 [L1959] H. ne gent a R63L1959 [L1959] Humes ne femmes63
         1960  Del fort iver, de la tempeste.L1960 [L1960] i. e de DLH63
                   Ço fud dit que signifiad
                   La mort re[i] Mol qui dunc regnadL1962 [L1962om  Mol H63L1962 [L1962] m. le r. R m. du r. H63L1962 [L1962] re DL63
                   Qui fud ocis aprés un munt,
         1964  Edwinesclive apelé l'unt,L1964 [L1964] E. nome l. R63L1964 [L1964] Eadwinesdine L63
                   Iloc l'ocist Anche e Oswine.L1965 [L1965] ake et O. H63L1965 [L1965] In A.S.C.(E) 761 it is the king who slays Oswine. Gaimar seems to have misinterpreted owing to confusing subject and object, and so to have reversed the situation and this may, as Gross suggests, account for the shortening of the reign from six to two years in l. 1953. 63
                   A Alchered fud la terre encline,
                   Nof ans vesquid e tint cel regne

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         1968  Mais les baruns trestuz ensembleL1968 [L1968] b. touz e. H64
                   L'unt deguerpid pur lur dreit eir,L1969 [L1969] p. le d. H64
                   Si li firent sun regne aveir;
                   A Everwic l'unt receüd,
         1972  Alchered li reis dechacied fud.L1972 [L1972om  li reis H64 [f.107b]
                   Edelred fud fiz Mol lu rei,L1973 [L1973] f. fid e M. L64
                   Li Norhumbreis li tindrent fei.
                   Il [ne] regnad ne mais quatre anz.L1975 [L1975] r. fors q. H64
         1976  Dunc fud un signes aparisanz;L1976 [L1976] uns signes LH un signe R64
                   Del ciel a terre s'[estendeit],L1977 [L1977] estendirent DLH64
                   En semblance de cruiz [esteit];L1978 [L1978] le virent L les virent H64L1978 [L1978] lavirent64L1976 [L1976DLH apparently took signes at its first occurrence as a plural, but landed in difficulties in l. 1978. R is consistent and agrees with l. 1980, so I have preferred its readings.64
                   Ço fud puis soleil rescunsantL1979 [L1979] s. cuchant RH64L1979 [L1979] le s. DLH64L1979 [L1979rescunsant DL, couchant RH. As it is possible that R and H have altered independently and as Gaimar elsewhere uses rescunser of the sun, but nowhere else employs culchier in this sense, I have kept the reading of the MS base.64
         1980  Que cel signes fud demustrant.L1980 [L1980] Q. cest s. LR64
                   Idunc transit [Eadbert] li reis,L1981 [L1981] ealbrid L64L1981 [L1981] E dunc LRH64L1981 [L1981] elbrith64
                   Eating le clamerent Engleis,L1982 [L1982] eatinc R eanting H64L1982 [L1982] anting DL64
                   [E] en cel an firent dous reis,L1983 [L1983] om  E DL64
         1984  Li reis de Merce e de Kenteis,L1984 [L1984] e li K. R64L1984 [L1984] Le rei RH64
                   A [Otteford] bataille grant,L1985 [L1985] O. ot baille L64L1985 [L1985] unt b.64L1985 [L1985] otesford DL64
                   U fud ocis maint hom vaillant.L1986 [L1986] m. home v. LRH64
                   Dunc furent veüz uns serpenz,L1987 [L1987] D. i f. venu .ii. s. H64
         1988  Unc ainz en terre nes virent genz.L1988 [L1988] a. ne v. en t. g. H64L1988 [L1988] a. itels ne v. R64
                   En Sudsexe se demustrerent.
                   Ço distrent cels quis esgarderentL1990 [L1990] d. cil q. RH64
                   Que blanches e neires esteient,
         1992  Ruges e vertes deveneient,
                   Puis muoent mainte colur,L1993 [L1993] mueient L muait R64L1993 [L1993] muent DH64
                   En set, en uit, par un sul jurL1994 [L1994] U seit feiz u huit le j. R Ben set feiz en un sul j. L Ou .v. ou .vi. en un soul j. H64L1994 [L1994] uiz64
                   E quant veneit encuntre nuit,
         1996  Si cantoent par tel deduit
                   Que suz ciel n'ot tel estrument,L1997 [L1997] not cel e. L nout nul e. R nout e. H64

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                   Si volentiers oïssent gent,L1998 [L1998] la g. DL65
                   [E] quant alcun[s] les enchasçot,L1999 [L1999] enchacot LH enchascout R65L1999 [L1999] enchalcot65L1999 [L1999] om  E DL65
         2000  [Bricun] qui prendre les quidotL2000 [L2000] p. les volt R65L2000 [L2000] Fol65
                   Tost par les jambes [ert lïez]L2001 [L2001] e. alez L e. lacez H65L2001 [L2001] erent aliez65
                   Qu'il ne poeit moveir ses piez.L2002 [L2002] ne pout m. H65
                   Idunc fud plait e cuntençunL2003 [L2003] e grant tencon R65
         2004  Entre dous reis pur [Besington];L2004 [L2004] besrancun L65L2004 [L2004] besratun65
                   Offe li reis l'ad dunc saisidL2005 [L2005] r. d. lasist R65L2005 [L2005] dunc lad H65
                   E [Kenewlf] mult s'esmarid.L2006 [L2006] K. en est mult mari H65L2006 [L2006] kenewolf mult se marist R65L2006 [L2006] kenulf DL65
                   Un an aprés furent ocis [f.107c]
         2008  Treis vescuntes de cel païs –
                   Ço fist [Eadbrith] e Edelbalt,L2009 [L2009] edelbrit DL65L2009 [L2009Eadbrith R, Edelbrit DL, Edbright H. The reading of DL gives a metrically incorrect line and has been influenced by the second name; that of RH evidently goes back to a dissyllabic name, but the name in A.S.C.(E) 778 is Heardberht.65
                   Par els fud cumencié l'asalt –L2010 [L2010] comence fut H65
                   Eadwulf, Kenewlf e [Ecgan]L2011 [L2011] hegan DLH65L2011 [L2011] E. e K. DL65
         2012  [A Chimingesclive] e Eliburnan.L2012 [L2012] e a E. R et liburnan H65L2012 [L2012] A kenningesclive H65L2012 [L2012] E remigesclive DL65
                   [E Elfwolt] saisid le regned,L2013 [L2013] E elwold L Edelwlf H65L2013 [L2013] Edelwold65
                   Rei [Edelred] en ad chaced;L2014 [L2014] edelbert65
                   Dis anz regnad dunc icel rei.
         2016  En icel tens tel ert la lei:
                   Ki force aveit. [si] faiseit guerre,L2017 [L2017] om  si DLH65
                   A sun veisin tolit [sa] terre.L2018 [L2018] toleit R65L2018 [L2018] la65
                   Idunc si fud une batailleL2019 [L2019om  si R65
         2020  Entre Franceis e l'[asemblaille]L2020 [L2020] e la flambaille L65L2020 [L2020] E. saxiens R65L2020 [L2020] afembaille65
                   Qui de Saisune esteit venue.
                   Ço fud al havene de Portesmue;
                   A l'ariver que cil quiderentL2023 [L2023] quil q. LRH65
         2024  Saxiens [i] encuntrerentL2024 [L2024] As S. i e. R Saxseneis i e. H65L2024 [L2024] S. les e. DL65
                   Qui la terre lur defendirent;
                   Uthlages erent, pur ço le firent.L2026 [L2026] ceo la f. H65L2019 [L2019] This passage is an expansion of the entry in A.S.C. 779: Her Ealdseaxne and Francan gefuhton. Gaimar's source undoubtedly refers to an affair on the Continent, but Gaimar has transformed this into a cross-Channel raid on the English coast. Before we can interpret the passage, we have to decide on the reading of l. 2020: DLH have Franceis, but R gives Saxiens, Gross accepted the latter, but, as the former renders correctly Francan, which it does again later in the Estoire, and as it is metrically more correct, I have accepted Franceis into my text. This fixes firmly one party to the battle to the Continent, but what made Gaimar put the other party in this island? A misunderstanding, I think, of Ealdseaxe. This name is only found in two annals in A.S.C.(E), here and at 449. Now the latter is the annal which describes the Settlement of Britain and memories of that, I submit, influenced Gaimar's translation of the later annal. Quite early in the Estoire he used the phrase cil de Seisune (l. 23); the reference is undoubtedly to Saxony, but as he also had in mind the followers of Cerdic, the phrase could be associated with Wessex, as it seems to be when next he uses it (l. 919); a later reference–
                   Ainz que unches Engleis i entrast
                   Ne hume de Seisune i abitast
(ll. 2077-8)–shows the same ambivalency, whereas a still later one–
                   Un mais aprés a Meredune
                   Furent vencu cels de Seisune
(ll. 3005-6)–quite clearly refers to Wessex. Once Gaimar, as a result of such associations, has equated Ealdseaxe with West Saxons, the rest follows: an attempted raid which, since the aggressors came from France, must have been on the South Coast. On this interpretation cil (l. 2023) must refer to the Franceis and Saxiens (l. 2024) to the defenders. The latter line is a syllable short in DL and grammatically incorrect in R; the reading of H has the appearance of an individual correction, so, although it seems probable that Gaimar had a syllable in front of Saxiens, I have refrained from conjecture.65

                   En [i]cel an a [Seletun]L2027 [L2027] eletum L elentoun H65L2027 [L2027] Et en i. a. H65L2027 [L2027] elecin65L2027 [L2027] cel DLR65

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         2028  Fud ars dan Buern un riches hum;L2028 [L2028] un r. barun R66L2028 [L2028] a. de burn L66L2028 [L2028] F. aisdan bruilli un r. H66
                   Li Norhumbreis tant le haïrent
                   Que en un grant feu arde[i]r le firent.L2030 [L2030om  grant H66
                   En icel tens, ço sevent gent,
         2032  Des le Jesu avenementL2032 [L2032] Del J. a. R66
                   Aveit set [cenz quatre vinz] anzL2033 [L2033] c. e q. RH66L2033 [L2033] cent L66L2033 [L2033] quarante vint DL66L2033 [L2033] om  cenz D66
                   E dous avoc; jo en ai garanz
                   Kar Guereburc idunc transid,
         2036  Une reïne qui santid;L2036 [L2036] r. que dieu servit H66
                   [Kelred] li reis l'ot a muillier;L2037 [L2037] Kelsed66
                   A Cestre gist en un liu chier,
                   A chascun an i est veüzL2039 [L2039] E c. i est R66
         2040  [Ke] Deus fait pur lui granz vertuz.L2040 [L2040] D. i f. R66L2040 [L2040] om  Ke DH66L2035 [L2035] There is a difference of opinion about the identity of the Wærburh Ceolredes cwen whose death is recorded in A.S.C.(E) 782. Gaimar has no doubts on the subject: for him she is the saint who lay buried at Chester, in the abbey refounded by Hugh, Earl of Chester, for whom Gaimar later expresses such admiration (ll. 5854-68).66
                   Dous anz aprés sun muriant
                   Dui rei alerent guerreiant.
                   Li uns aveit nun Keneherd,
         2044  Kenewlf ocist en apert [f.107d]
                   E quatre [vinz] humes e quatreL2045 [L2045] vint DL66
                   Fist Keneher[d] iloc abatre.
                   En icel tens tint reis BurchtrizL2047 [L2047] burectriz DLRH66L2047 [L2047] li r. DL66
         2048  Sexze anz Westsexe, ço est escriz,
                   A Werlame fud enfuïz,L2049 [L2049] werlaine LH66L2049 [L2049Werlame. The actual place of burial was Wareham, but the MSS. concur in the reading, so we must ascribe the mistake to Gaimar.66
                   Des parenz fud al rei Certiz.
                   Dunc fud [Ecfert] a rei levezL2051 [L2051] hecfert66
         2052  E a Hibert croce donez.L2052 [L2052] hibald R66L2052 [L2052] haiebert DLH66L2052 [L2052] None of the MSS. give the name correctly, but DLH point the way to the correction. The reading of RHibald–is curious as, although he had been mentioned earlier in A.S.C., the annal concerned is not translated by Gaimar and consequently the name occurs for the first time in the Estoire at l. 2196.66
                   Li messagier vindrent [de] RumeL2053 [L2053] adrian un s. R66L2053 [L2053] a DLH66
                   Par Adrianum un saint hume
                   Pur renuveler seinte lei;L2055 [L2055] la s.l. DLRH66
         2056  Si cum la fist enceis, ço crei,L2056 [L2056] c. le f. L c. lom f. H66
                   Saint Aüstin e saint Gregoire,
                   Eissi la fist [cist] apostoire.L2058 [L2058] f. cest a. RH66L2058 [L2058] E. le f. R om  la H66L2058 [L2058] icist66
                   E li reis Offe dunc donat
         2060  Sa fille qu'il bien empleiad;

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                   Al rei Brectric donad sa fille
                   Edburc qui bele ert e gentille.L2062 [L2062] fu R67
                   E en cel tens vindrent DaneisL2063 [L2063om  E H67
         2064  Pur guerrïer [sur] les Engleis.L2064 [L2064] om  sur DLH67
                   Un seneschal lu rei ocistrent,L2065 [L2065] s. al r. R67
                   La terre saisirent e pristrent,
                   Mult firent mal par les cuntrees,
         2068  Si nen ot que treis navees.L2068 [L2068] n. unt q. RH67
                   Pois ralerent en lur païs,
                   Si asemblerent lur amis;
                   En Bretaine voldrent venir,L2071 [L2071] v. aler H67
         2072  As Engleis la [voldrent] tolirL2072 [L2072] v. toler H67L2072 [L2072] voldrunt67
                   Kar entr'els orent esgardez
                   E dit que ert lur heritezL2074 [L2074] q. co est l.h. R q. ceo e. H67
                   E [mulz] humes de lur lignageL2075 [L2075] mult de h. L multz des h. H67L2075 [L2075] mult67
         2076  Orent lu regne en heritage,
                   Ainz que unches Engleis i entrastL2077 [L2077] Ainceis q. E. R67
                   Ne hum de Seisuine i abitast.L2078 [L2078] hume DLRH67
                   Li reis [Danes] tint lu regnedL2079 [L2079] daneis DLH67L2079 [L2079Danes R, Daneis DLH. The reference here is to the mythical king Dan, so I have preferred the spelling of R.67
         2080  Ki de Danemarche fud ned, [f.108a]
                   Si fist [Ailbrith]e AvelocL2081 [L2081] edbright H67L2081 [L2081] ecbrict DL67L2081 [L2081Ailbrith R, Ecbrict DL, Edbright H. As it is probable that the first of the two kings is to be equated with the Adelbricht of Gaimar's Haveloc episode, I have adopted the reading of R. The form Edbright is twice previously used by H, where DL have variants of Ecbricht (ll. 1723, 1739); for some reason this name appears to have caused great trouble to the scribes and we find forms beginning with El- at ll. 2291 (R), 3160 (DL). Ail- would normally represent O.E. Ægel-, but in A.N. this same spelling could also represent O.E. Æðel-; does the form here derive by any chance from a source different from that used by Gaimar for his Haveloc episode?67
                   E plus en [nomerent ovoc];L2082 [L2082] pur oc DL67L2082 [L2082] mururent DLH67
                   Pur quei il distrent par verited,
         2084  Bretaine ert lur dreit erited.
                   Qui chalt de ço? Mult [demorerent],L2085 [L2085] Qen chaut m. en d. H67L2085 [L2085] Quimhald R67L2085 [L2085] demurad DL67
                   A cele feiz pas n'i [alerent].L2086 [L2086] alad DL67
                   De Guenelinge, d'un païs,L2087 [L2087] wellinge H67L2087 [L2087Guenelinge. Though Gaimar seems to be alluding vaguely to Danish campaigns in the Baltic, the actual place to which he is referring has not been satisfactorily identified. The name would appear to be Germanic, and is reminiscent of the Wenilings cited by Ekwall, s.n. Wendling, in his Place-Names in Ing (Lund, 1923).67
         2088  Vindrent sur els lur enemis;L2088 [L2088] Si v. R67
                   Par l'achaisun de [cele guere
                   Si lur estuet garder la terre.L2090 [L2090] l. arstrent la t. H67
                   En icel tens, en icel dis,L2091 [L2091] cels R ices H67L2091 [L2091] t. e en LRH67L2091 [L2091] icel DL67
         2092  [Donc] fud li reis Oswald oscis;L2092 [L2092] om  Donc DLH67

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                   Icil reis tint Norhumberlant,L2093 [L2093] Icist retint R Cist r. H68
                   Mult [fu] saint hume, seive e vaillant.L2094 [L2094] h. saine e R om  seive H68L2094 [L2094] om  fu DLH68L2091 [L2091ll. 2091-2 and 2093-4 interverted in DL68
                   Pentan li reis le guerreiad,
         2096  Sigge un sun rei le decolad,L2096 [L2096] S. son frere le H68
                   [En Maserfelde fu oscis.L2097 [L2097] merserfelde H68L2097 [L2097] mescesfeld R68
                   Le liu serra cheri tut dis]L2098 [L2098] chers t. R68L2098 [L2098] ll. 2097-8 not in DL68
                   Kar clarted e [grant] feu celestreL2099 [L2099om  grant H68L2099 [L2099] gent68
         2100  Sovent [i] virent clerc e prestre.L2100 [L2100] et c. et p. H68L2100 [L2100] om  i DL68
                   Mais sun [seint] cors fud iloec pris,L2101 [L2101] f. diloec H68L2101 [L2101] om  seint DL68
                   Si fud ported luinz el païs;
                   [Par pïeté] e [par] manaieL2103 [L2103] pur m. DH68L2103 [L2103] Pur pitied DLH68L2103 [L2103] Second par not in L68
         2104  [En] fud ported a Bardenaie;L2104 [L2104] om  En DL68
                   Iloc le [voldrent] ensevelir,L2105 [L2105] v. sepelir R68L2105 [L2105] vindrent DL68
                   Le liu amer, le cors servir;L2106 [L2106] Le deu ami le c. L68
                   E es croniches est escrizL2107 [L2107om  E H68
         2108  Qu'i[l] fud iloc enseveliz.
                   A Nostle – ço dient asquanz –L2109 [L2109] N. redient L68L2109 [L2109om  ço LRH68
                   La l'en porterent [ses] amanz;L2110 [L2110] p. si mananz H68L2110 [L2110] les68
                   A Hectoldesham dïent plusurL2111 [L2111] hectevesham R68L2111 [L2111] li p. DL68
         2112  K'il unt reliques del seignur;
                   E a Coledesburc [el] sud,L2113 [L2113] en DL68
                   La est sun braz par Deu vertud,L2114 [L2114] p. la D. v. H pur ki D. feit v. R68
                   Entier i est, Deu seit loed!L2115 [L2115] D. en s. H68L2115 [L2115om  i R68L2115 [L2115] A duralme D. L68
         2116  Sun chief entier [est] bien posedL2116 [L2116] b. pese L68L2116 [L2116] c. est enter p. R68
                   Sur la peitrine saint Cutbert;
                   Gueredun rent al hom quil sert.L2118 [L2118] r. al home LRH68L2091 [L2091] This whole passage originates in a confusion between Ælfwald and Oswald, a confusion which would be all the more understandable if Gaimar's source read Alwold, as does A.S.C.(F). Once Gaimar was committed to the second name, whether he was responsible for the mistake or not, it was, in view of his obvious interest in the saint and his relics, not unnatural for him to expand the brief entry in A.S.C.(E) 789. It is uncertain whether Gaimar actually referred back to his earlier account (ll. 1287-96), though one of his copyists may have done so (l. 2115). To Oswald belong the references to Penda and Maserfeld (ll. 2095, 2097) and the decollation (l. 2096), but the name Sigge comes from the Ælfwald annal and contradicts to some extent Gaimar's earlier statement–A Maserfeld l'ocist Pentan (l. 1289). This decollation, which is not found in A.S.C. nor in Geoffrey of Monmouth, must have formed part of the current legend, for it reappears, attributed to Penda, in Wace's Brut (ll. 14489-90). A heavenly light is connected with the translation of Oswald's body to Bardney in Bede, but as one is specifically mentioned in connection with Ælfwald in A.S.C.(E) 789, Gaimar probably took it thence. The burial at Bardney goes back to A.S.C.(E) 641, but for the disposal of the relics Gaimar evidently had some other source of information, the nature of which is uncertain. Gross thought of it as a compilation similar to the Resting Places of Saints, and in view of le brief (l. 1294) this is not unlikely, though the problem is not without complications. The O.E. account (Liebermann, o.c.) puts his head at Durham with the body of St. Cuthbert, the right arm at Bamburgh, and the rest of the body at Gloucester. The A.N. version is quite different, stating that the body is said to be at Nostell and the hands in Peterborough, but it is not certain that this list is independent of Gaimar. Common to both accounts in the Estoire are the burial at Bardney (ll. 1291, 2104) and the association of the head with the body of St. Cuthbert (ll. 1293, 2116); in the first account possession of his uncorrupted arm is ascribed to Peterborough (l. 1295), but in the second we are told the arm is a Coledesburc, el sud (l. 2113). Now this place-name occurs earlier in the Estoire (l. 1468), where it undoubtedly refers to Coldingham (Berwick), but, as Gross pointed out, this can hardly be described as in the south and there does not seem to be any connexion between St. Oswald, alive or dead, and Coldingham. After rejecting, and rightly so in my opinion, the possibility that we have here a corruption of early forms of either Colchester or Gloucester, for although the two names are not infrequently confused in O.Fr., I know of no form ending in -burc attached to either of them, he is inclined to accept the proposal made in the Rolls edition that the reference is to Peterborough and that Coledesburc represents a corruption of eglise de Burc. Palæographically a corruption could more feasibly have occurred if the line had read: *A l'escole de Burc el sud; unfortunately I have not come across such an expression elsewhere to support that emendation; it is, perhaps, not without interest that Marie in her Ste. Audree twice uses a form Goldeborch (ll. 1332, 1334), reminiscent of the name gyldeneburh occasionally given to Peterborough, where Bede, on whose account her source is based, speaks of Coludi urbem and the O.E. version of coludesbyrig. Admittedly there is difficulty in the interpretation of l. 2113 as it stands, but it is found in all four MSS. and so presumably represents what Gaimar wrote. We must remember that for some reason or other he was interested in the saint and had gone to the trouble of seeking further information about him. Thus he reports the claim of Hexham to the possession of relics of St. Oswald, which is probable in itself, though not attested elsewhere, because the church erected on the scene of Ælfwald's death was dedicated to St. Oswald. He reports, too, the claim of Nostell, that the saint's body had been carried thither, which is not attested elsewhere, but has its interest for us. At Nostell was a priory, dedicated to St. Oswald, founded in the early twelfth century, which already in 1121 owned property in Stixwould (Li), where was a nunnery of which Ralf FitzGilbert was a benefactor; moreover an uncle of Walter Espec, from whom Ralf obtained Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia for Gaimar, was connected with Nostell and according to legend he it was who advised Walter Espec to found abbeys in commemoration of his only son, said to have been thrown and dragged to his death by his horse while returning from the chase, a fate reminiscent of that of St. Edward of Shaftesbury according to William of Malmesbury and Gaimar.68 [f.108b]
                   E aprés ço li NorhumbreisL2119 [L2119om  E H68
         2120  De sun nevod firent [lur] reis,L2120 [L2120] om  lur DLH68L2120 [L2120] en f. DL68
                   Osred ot nun, fiz fud Alkered.L2121 [L2121om  fud H68

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                   Mult poi durad le suen [balded],L2122 [L2122] baudet R69L2122 [L2122om  le LRH69L2122 [L2122om  Mult H69L2122 [L2122] regned DL69L2122 [L2122] durad poi69
                   Il fud chacied de sun regned.
         2124  A Edelred fud dunc doned;L2124 [L2124] donc fu R69
                   [Celui fu fiz rei Edelwald,L2125 [L2125] edelbaud H69L2125 [L2125] edelwold R69L2125 [L2125] om  rei RH69
                   De guereier fu ferm e bald].L2126 [L2126] g. estoit mult baud H69L2126 [L2126] ll. 2125-6 not in DL69
                   Il aveit ainz la terre eüe
         2128  Mais par ses humes l'ot perdue;L2128 [L2128] aveit R69
                   Offe li reis mult le haïd
                   Pur sun nevod que ot desaisid.L2130 [L2130om  ot H69L2130 [L2130] n. quil o. LRH69L2129 [L2129] There is serious confusion here. Osred was the nevod of Ælfwald (l. 2120), but here Gaimar seems to regard him as the nevod of Offa. Because Æthelred had driven out Osred, Offa hates him and yet shortly afterwards gives him his daughter Ælfled in marriage. Gaimar most probably did not know of this relationship, as it is not given in A.S.C., but the hatred is possibly due to some confusion between Æthelred and Æthelbert, the East Anglian king beheaded at Offa's behest. Gross assumes a mistaken reading, due to error in the copying, in A.S.C., but there was also a deeper-seated confusion at work; both names seem to have been used of the same person, viz. of Alhred's successor. Cf. Plummer, II, 53.69
                   Puis revint Osred de l'[eissil]L2131 [L2131] O. de e. L69L2131 [L2131] isle69
         2132  Qui einz fud reis e mult [gentil],L2132 [L2132om  e H69L2132 [L2132] gentile69
                   Mais oscis [l'unt] par crueltedL2133 [L2133] fud DLH69
                   Cil ki l'orent desherited;L2134 [L2134] Par ceus q. H69
                   A Tinemue en gist le cors,L2135 [L2135] li c. H69
         2136  [E] Edelred prist femme lors,L2136 [L2136] Edred L69L2136 [L2136] om  E DLH69
                   Elfled ot nun ceste reïne,L2137 [L2137] cele r. H69L2137 [L2137] Estled H69
                   A sun seignur fud mult encline,
                   De lui servir mult se penadL2139 [L2139om  mult H69L2139 [L2139] s. bien s. p. R69
         2140  E il pur ço forment l'amad.
                   En icel tens [dunt] jo [vus] disL2141 [L2141] t. come j.d. H69L2141 [L2141] t. si cum j.d.69
                   Vindrent uns signes el païs,
                   Vermeilles se vont demustrant,L2143 [L2143] sen v. R69L2143 [L2143] Vermeilz L69
         2144  Tels ne vit ainz [nul] hom vivant,L2144 [L2144] v. onques h. devant H69L2144 [L2144] hom ainz v. DL69
                   Cum escarlates s'[estendeient],L2145 [L2145] estenderent L69L2145 [L2145] C. eschaleites H69L2145 [L2145] estendirent DH69
                   Prof de la terre [s'apareient];L2146 [L2146] se demustrerent DLH69
                   Dunc veneient turmenz granz,L2147 [L2147] v. turmentes g. H69
         2148  Puis [volouent] draguns [ardanz]L2148 [L2148] volanz DL69L2148 [L2148] veneient DLH69
                   E les [esclistres ke hom] vëeit.L2149 [L2149] Eles urent e e. ke hom v. R E les legistres qe lom v. H69L2149 [L2149] crestes cum DL69L2141 [L2141] Gaimar has expanded very considerably the brief entry in A.S.C.(E) 793, which refers to lightning and dragons. Gross, rightly I think, suggests that Gaimar misread reðe (= terrible) as rede (= red), hence vermeilles (l. 2143). Was his description aided by a reminiscence of the aurora borealis? It is probably merely a coincidence that the display in October 1138, recorded in Annales Plymptonenses and in Florence of Worcester, is linked by the latter with troubles in Northumbria. In l. 2149 no MS. has a really satisfactory reading; DL have: Eles crestes cum v.; R has: Eles urent e esclistres ke hom v.; H has: E les legistres qe lom v. It is difficult to decide on the correct reading; from R and H is derived that adopted in the text, assuming that DL had mistakenly conceived the line as a continuation of the description of the dragons, but we cannot absolutely exclude the possibility that eles crestes conceals Gaimar's adaptation of ligreascas which he could not translate.69
                   Que ço espalt, nuls ne saveit.L2150 [L2150] n. nel s. R69

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                   Asquanz distrent en lur purpens
         2152  Que ço ert encuntre chier tens.
                   Ne distrent pas trop grant [mençonge],L2153 [L2153om  trop RH70L2153 [L2153] merveille DL70
                   Cest signe ne [sembla] pas [songe].L2154 [L2154] p. gui with de veille interlined above in L70L2154 [L2154] veille70L2154 [L2154] semblet DL70
                   Ço fud desuz Norhumberlant
         2156  Que cist signes fud demustrant.L2156 [L2156] q. ces s. R70 [f.108c]
                   [A]prés ces signes veirementL2157 [L2157] A. cel signe H70
                   Dunc vindrent [la] paiene gent.L2158 [L2158om  Dunc H70L2158 [L2158] om  la DL70
                   [E]l havene del Humbre ariverent,L2159 [L2159] de H. LRH70
         2160  En Lindesie [deserterent];L2160 [L2160] desheriterent DLH70L2157 [L2157] It was Lindisfarne that the Danes destroyed. Gaimar has confused lindisfarena and lindiswarum. This latter name he transcribes as Lindesware (l. 1458), but H reads Lindeseie instead. As a result of his mistake Gaimar invents a battle between Offa and the Danes.70
                   [U]nc n'i remist mustier a freindreL2161 [L2161om  Unc H70
                   En liu, u peüssent ateindre.L2162 [L2162] pussent LR puissent H70
                   [I]dunc murut Sigge li reis,
         2164  Cil ot oscis Oswald [ainceis],L2164 [L2164] li reis DL70
                   [E] li reis Offe dunc mandat
                   As paiens qu'il se cumbatrat
                   E les paiens se cumbatirent;L2167 [L2167om  paiens R70
         2168  [T]rop orent gent, pur ço venquirent.L2168 [L2168] l. 2167 and l.2168 interverted70
                   [E] li felun, li Norhumbreis,L2169 [L2169] second li not in H70
                   Ocistrent Edelred li reis.
                   [E] aprés Offe Ecfert [regnat],L2171 [L2171om  E H70L2171 [L2171] fud reis70
         2172  Mercenelant tint [e guardat];L2172 [L2172] t. e guerria L M. tut g. H70L2172 [L2172] Mercelande R70L2172 [L2172] maint dis70L2172 [L2172] E M.70
                   [C]um [il] mielz la quidot garder,L2173 [L2173] om  il DLH70
                   Murut, ne pot par el passer;L2174 [L2174] M. nen p. R70
                   L'an [meïsme] que l'ot saisie,L2175 [L2175] saisine R70L2175 [L2175] quil ot LR quil lout H70L2175 [L2175] messne70
         2176  Si lui avint qu'il perdit vie.L2176 [L2176] p. sa v. L p. la v. R70
                   [Ecbrith] fud dunc fait rei de Kent,L2177 [L2177] r. en K. R70L2177 [L2177om  dunc H70L2177 [L2177] ecferd LH70L2177 [L2177] .cfert70
                   Il ot un autre nun Pren prent.L2178 [L2178] n. priveement R70L2177 [L2177] Gaimar is here translating the entry in A.S.C. 794 which reads: $$ Eadbriht onfeng rice on Cent þam wæs oðer nama nemned Præn. The name used by Gaimar for the king is uncertain; DLH agree in Ecfert, but this is demonstrably wrong, since we are told (ll. 2171, 2176) that he was king of Mercia and was dead; R gives Ecbrith, which cannot represent the O.E. name, but may represent what Gaimar wrote, as there is much confusion in our MSS. between the two names, Eadberht and Ecgbriht. Thus at l. 1745, where the reference is to Eadberht (of Northumbria), the name is adequately represented, but when, at ll. 1749-50, Gaimar gives his genealogy, DLH give, less rather than more, successfully, Eadbrict and R quite clearly Ecbrith; three lines later, where the reference is to the king's brother, the archbishop of York, R has Ecberith, but DLH, having apparently gone back to l. 1749 and read it more correctly, give Eadbrit. Earlier at l. 1739, where the reference is to the same archbishop, DLR represent it successfully, but H gives Edbright. Later, at l. 2211, where the reference is to the well-known Egbert of Wessex, DLR are correct, but H again gives Edbright. I have, therefore, decided not to make any correction in l. 2177, because of the possibility that Gaimar may have made a slip. In the second line there is even greater difficulty in determining what Gaimar wrote. R reads: Il out un altre nun priveement; this gives a satisfactory sense, but is metrically faulty. DLH give: Il out un autre nun Pren prent; this is metrically satisfactory, but the last word seems meaningless. The first part of the line, common to all the MSS., renders the oðer nama of A.S.C. 794, so it must stand. Pren in DLH also agrees with the source, so we must accept it, the more so as priveement may very well be an attempt to give meaning to what looked like a senseless repetition. This leaves us with prent, which Gross accepted, but regarded as ein reines sinnloses Flickwort. But is it? Did Gaimar by any chance fail to recognize nemned as a past participle and confuse it with the present of niman and thus take nemned Præn as a separate clause, which he rendered by his Pren prent? On this view we should have to put a comma after nun and regard Pren as a place(?)-name.70
                   [L]i paien ne se targent mie;L2179 [L2179] targerent RH70L2179 [L2179] Les paens R70
         2180  Quant orent gasted Lindesie,

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                   Amunt Humbre alerent siglantL2181 [L2181] H. vont s. H71
                   Desci qu'en Use e puis avant;L2182 [L2182] U. puis en vont R71
                   En la buche de Don est dit
         2184  E es croniches est escritL2184 [L2184] c. fu e. R71
                   Que illoc ot grant gent asemblee,L2185 [L2185] i. ont gent a. H71
                   [Defendre volent] lur cuntree,L2186 [L2186] E defendirent L Pur defendre la c. H71L2186 [L2186] Defendirent71
                   Homes ocistrent plus de trente;L2187 [L2187] p. ke t. R71
         2188  En l'eve aveit [mult] grant turmente,L2188 [L2188] om  mult DLH71
                   Un de lur dux [i] fud ocis,L2189 [L2189] om  i DL71
                   Cil [mar] entrad [en cel] païs,L2190 [L2190] el DL71L2190 [L2190] mal71
                   [E] de lur nefs i perillerent,L2191 [L2191] n. asquanz i p. L71L2191 [L2191] om  E DL71
         2192  De lur humes asquanz neierent.L2192 [L2192] E de DL71 [f.108d]
                   E nepurquant [non] s'en ralerent,L2193 [L2193] om  non DLH71
                   Mais [del] païs grant part guasterent.L2194 [L2194] p. mult g. L71L2194 [L2194] E cele contree mult g. H71L2194 [L2194] de cel DL71L2179 [L2179] Though Gaimar is here translating his source, A.S.C.(E) 794, with reasonable accuracy, he has completely misapprehended the scene of the incident. As a result of his earlier confusion (l. 2160), the Danes are in Lincolnshire, not in Durham. Therefore, although his phrase en la buche de Don (l. 2181) could legitimately be adduced by Plummer (II, 64) in support of the reading of A.S.C.(E) as against a proposed correction to æt þone muðe, Gross is equally justified in asserting that Gaimar has misunderstood his source after all. There is no doubt of this: in this passage Gaimar uses the same kind of geographical expressions as he does in his description of the route to York taken by the Danes (ll. 2578, 2586), when he is combining A.S.C. 867 and the Buern Bucecarle story, and as he does when describing the route followed by Tostig and Harald Hardrada (ll. 5202-4) on their way to York for the campaign which ended with the battle of Stamford Bridge.71
                   Idunc l'arcevesque [Heanbald]L2195 [L2195] haenbald DLH71
         2196  E un evesque, saint Hybald,
                   Mistrent Earwlf en sun siedL2197 [L2197] M. cearwolf en R M. arnulf en H71
                   A Everwic a l'evesquied;L2198 [L2198] E. en larcevesche H71
                   Norhumberlant i apendeit.
         2200  Cist dui l'unt [a rei] benëeit.L2200 [L2200] lunt tresben b. L71L2200 [L2200] beneit DLRH71L2200 [L2200] bien DH71
                   Li reis Offe dunc transitL2201 [L2201] E li r. R71
                   Qui [quarante] anz regnat, ço quid.L2202 [L2202] quatre DL71
                   Cheolwlf reçut Mercenelant,L2203 [L2203] Keeulf H71L2203 [L2203Cheolwlf. Historically the king was Cœnwulf, but the name is wrongly given as Ceolwulf in most versions of A.S.C., so the mistake is most probably not by Gaimar.71
         2204  Un rei guerrer fort e tirant.L2204 [L2204om  e R71L2204 [L2204] guerreer L guereier R om  guerrer H71
                   En Kent alad, si la preiad,L2205 [L2205] si prescha H71
                   [Edelbrich] Pren en amenad.L2206 [L2206] E ecfert prent en a. L E. prist e en a. R E adelbright en a. H71L2206 [L2206] Egelbrit71L2206 [L2206] The name of the king concerned has again caused trouble. A.S.C. has only Præn, but Gaimar has evidently connected this correctly with the full name Eadbriht Præn which had occurred earlier and had given his copyists trouble (l. 2177). Only L gives a two-syllable name, Ecfert, but it has simply carried over its earlier mistake; LH introduce the line by the copula which is metrically necessary, if we are to have a two-syllable name. D gives the second name, Pren; this is not in H, but appears as prent in L, where it must go back to the mysterious prent of l. 2178; the same form was before R, which took it as a verb, changed it to prist to harmonize with the other verbs of his sentence and inserted the copula before his last clause. In DRH the name goes back to one beginning with Edel-, so I have used it here and not made any correction.71
                   Icil ert sire de[s] Kenteis,L2207 [L2207] de DH71
         2208  En Merke l'en menad cil reis.L2208 [L2208] M. le m. li r. H71L2208 [L2208] En merceneland m. R71
                   De Westsexe Brithrit li reis
                   Transit del siecle en [i]cel meisL2210 [L2210om  en H71L2210 [L2210] cel DLR71

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                   E Ecbrith regnad apré[s] lui,L2211 [L2211] E ecbrichtid L Edbright H72
         2212  Tute Westsexe tint, ço qui.
                   Dunc en cel tens vindrent GualeisL2213 [L2213om  Dunc H72
                   Guaster la terre a icel reis
                   Tuit dreit a Kenemeresford;L2215 [L2215] chelmeresford LH chelmesford R72
         2216  Iloec furent li Galeis mort
                   Kar Edelmunt de WiltesireL2217 [L2217] E. od W. R72
                   Fist des Gualeis [mult] grant martyre.L2218 [L2218] om  mult DLH72L2213 [L2213] A complete perversion of history. According to A.S.C. 800 Æthelmund rode from the Hwicce (in Mercia) across the Thames with hostile intent and was there met by the men of Wiltshire under Weohstan, who defeated him, both leaders being killed in the battle. Gross in his discussion of the passage offers two explanations, of which the second is to be preferred. He assumes that Gaimar took the phrase þa gemette hine W. of his source in the friendly sense and so had two leaders on the same side, but no opponents; the Welsh were conveniently to hand, so this difficulty was easily disposed of. On the other hand I have discovered no explanation for Gaimar's total omission of Weohstan and for his failure to mention the deaths of the ealdormen.72
                   [Isci] transit li reis Gudred,L2219 [L2219] eldret H72L2219 [L2219] Ore H72L2219 [L2219] Cil DL72
         2220  En Kent regnad e en Taned,
                   E de Norhumberland lu reisL2221 [L2221] li r. LH lur r. R72
                   [Eardwolf] cacerent Norhumbreis.L2222 [L2222] Arulf H72L2222 [L2222] Cheolwlf DL72
                   [Huit] anz aprés Karle murutL2223 [L2223] Set DLH72
         2224  Qui Cumberlant aveit eüd;L2224 [L2224] C. tint et eut H72
                   Il vesquid quarante cinc anz,
                   Aclin lui ert Norhumberlanz;
                   Tele paiz tint en sun vivant,L2227 [L2227] Cel pais t. tut son regnant R72
         2228  Unc puis, espeir, n'[i] ot si grant.L2228 [L2228] p. co crei not L72L2228 [L2228] Unques p. LH72L2228 [L2228] om  i DLH72L2228 [L2228] co e.72 [f.109a] L2229 [L2229] cel DH72
                   La dreite [estorie] a Gincestre,L2230 [L2230] e. de G. R72L2230 [L2230] estoire DH72
                   Li reis Ecbrith Gales preiad,
         2232  Tuit le païs de[l] west [guastat]L2232 [L2232] p. degasta H72L2232 [L2232] passad DL72
                   E puis de l'est al returner;L2233 [L2233] del ost H72
                   Tuit l'aver prist que pot trover.L2234 [L2234] p. kil p. R72L2234 [L2234om  prist H72
                   En [i]cel an, ço dit la geste,
                   Set anz aprés Kenulf de Merce
         2236  Transit el liu de Basewer[c]e.L2236 [L2236] basewece L hasewerche H72
                   [E Ceawolf regnat aprés lui,
                   Dous anz tint terre a grant ennui,
                   Al chef de dous anz la perdi;
         2240  N'ert pas amé: pur ço fuï;
                   Tant aveit feit, tuz le haeient,L2241 [L2241] haerent R72
                   Plusurs oscire le voleient].L2242 [L2242] ll. 2237-2242 not in DLH72

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                   De lui larrum, parlerum de el,L2243 [L2243] l. e p. RH73
         2244  D'un vassal [rei] d'autre regnel;L2244 [L2244] dun a. r. H a. regned L73L2244 [L2244om  vassal H73
                   De Westsexe [Ecbricht] ot num.L2245 [L2245] edbright H73L2245 [L2245] eclbrith73
                   Burnulfs li mut grant cuntençun,L2246 [L2246] g. tencun LH73L2246 [L2246] Boefs H73
                   Reis ert de Merke. [A Elendune]L2247 [L2247] et de dalendone H73L2247 [L2247] M. e de L73L2247 [L2247] de aledone DL73
         2248  Parut quels ert mieldre persone;L2248 [L2248] Lors H73
                   D'ambesdous parz fud grant l'ociseL2249 [L2249] ert R73L2249 [L2249om  dous H73
                   A la bataille que orent prise;
                   En la parfin, ço dit l'estoire,L2251 [L2251] A la fin H73
         2252  Li reis Ecbrith ot la victoire.L2252 [L2252] edbricht LH73L2251 [L2251] follow 2256 in DL73
                   Li reis Ecbrit un fiz aveitL2253 [L2253] Edbricht L73
                   Qui Edelwlf apeled esteit;L2253 [L2253] not in H73
                   [Lui e l']evesque [Adelstan]L2255 [L2255] Il et le e. H73L2255 [L2255] Li e. ad (aveit [L]) a nun elstan DL73L2255 [L2255Adelstan RH, Elstan DL. The latter is closer to the Ealhstan of A.S.C. 823, but the agreement is fortuitous, resulting from faulty transcription in DL; they left out the initial pronoun and inserted a nun between ad and elstan. Thus the mistake must be attributed to Gaimar, though it is curious that the bishop is designated Æthelstan in certain charters.73
         2256  E Wlfard cumandat par ban
                   Que preïssent mult de sa gent,L2257 [L2257] E prist m. L73
                   Si [alassent conquere] en Kent;L2258 [L2258] Sis laisserent (cun?) venir en K. L73L2258 [L2258] Sis laissent en K.73
                   E cil [ki vont] od mult grant ostL2259 [L2259] c. sont ale od g. H73L2259 [L2259] c. wnt L73L2259 [L2259] vint73L2259 [L2259] om  ki DLH73
         2260  Baldred en [chascerent] mult tost.L2260 [L2260om  mult H73L2260 [L2260] chacent DL73
                   Cil orent la terre cunquise,
                   Li reis fuïd ultre Tamise,L2262 [L2262] fui RH73L2262 [L2262] fud DL73
                   E cil de Kent unt otrïezL2263 [L2263] cels de K. R73
         2264  Ke Ecbrith ait lu regnez,L2264 [L2264] a. tuit le r. R73L2264 [L2264] edbricht LH73
                   E en Sudsexe e en Surrie
                   Partut alad [sa] seignurieL2266 [L2266] lur73
                   E cil d'[Estsexe] de lur fiedL2267 [L2267] de westsexe de lur see H73L2267 [L2267] esexe73
         2268  Lui unt ostages enveied.L2268 [L2268] cele g. LR73L2268 [L2268] co le LR73L2268 [L2268] co DH73
                   Pur çol reçurent celes genzL2269 [L2269pur çol. Both here and at l. 4319 the enclisis is required by the metre; at ll. 2026, 3871 we probably have the same form, but there the reading ço le is possible, if we accept an extra-metrical syllable at the end of the first hemistich (cf. p. li).73
                   Que de ses ancïens parenz [f.109b]
                   [Aveient] ainz la terre eüeL2271 [L2271] Eurent H73L2271 [L2271] Aveit73

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         2272  E par [guere l'ourent] perdueL2272 [L2272] la terre aveient L74L2272 [L2272om  par L74L2272 [L2272] p. la terre aveit74
                   E pur crieme [des Merceneis]L2273 [L2273] des northumbrois H74L2273 [L2273] dicele gent marked for correction74
                   Reçurent cil Ecbrit li reisL2274 [L2274] edbrich LH74L2274 [L2274] receustrent H74
                   [E] cil d'Estengle ensementL2275 [L2275] estsexe H74
         2276  Pur la crieme d'icele gent.
                   En icel tens aveit dous reis
                   El rëalme de Merceneis;
                   L'un ert Burnulf, menot boban,L2279 [L2279] burnel nome b. H74L2279 [L2279] B. ki m. L B. mult m. R74L2279 [L2279] Li uns R74
         2280  Li autre ot a nun Lutecan.L2280 [L2280] luteran R74L2280 [L2280om  a LRH74L2280 [L2280] Li altres o. R74L2280 [L2280] leutean DLH74
                   Entr'els aveit set reietels,L2281 [L2281] reitels DLRH74L2281 [L2281] un DL74
                   Cil dui erent sur tuz [chevels];L2282 [L2282] cheveteaus H74L2282 [L2282] ceals DL74
                   [E] ensement el regne aillursL2283 [L2283] om  E DLH74
         2284  Partuit aveit itels seignurs;L2284 [L2284] avoient H74
                   Tresque poeit un poi munter,L2285 [L2285] T. alcuns p. R74
                   Si se faiseit rei apeller.L2286 [L2286] reis a. R74L2286 [L2286] Chescuns se f. H74L2277 [L2277] For some reason Gaimar has taken Beornwulf and Ludeca to be contemporaneous, not successive, kings of Mercia. Gross is inclined to assume that Gaimar wrote cinc in l. 2281 corresponding to the .v. ealdormen of A.S.C. 825, but in so doing he has not given full value to entr'els which here means among the Mercians. Now Gaimar has here, as elsewhere, rendered ealdorman by reis, so with their addition to Beornwulf and Ludeca we arrive at the number, seven, given by RH and indirectly supported by un of DL. Finding himself with a large number of kings on hand, Gaimar's thoughts have turned vaguely to the early days of the Settlement. Cf. ll. 877-80; 2291-311; 2337-8. In his version of the list of Bretwaldas supplied by A.S.C. 827 Gaimar is guilty of a serious mistake which lands him in difficulties: he manages to make Ceawlin, the sixth-century West Saxon king a contemporary of Egbert, king of Wessex in the ninth century. The annal relates that Egbert conquered Mercia and all to the south of the Humber and continues: he wæs se eahtoða cining se þe Brytenwealda wæs. In the Estoire ll. 2291-4 tell us directly of his conquests and indirectly of his Bretwaldaship, but the MSS. diverge in the line (2294) which does this; all agree in the repetition of the preposition, so we must retain par cunte e par numbre; R begins with Tint l'om de lui which gives the line a syllable too many, whereas D has simply Tint which makes the line two syllables short; LH agree with D in having nothing between Tint and par cunte, but after the noun L has a meaningless de la and H, thus in partial agreement with R, de lui. It looks as if de lui were somehow misplaced in the common ancestor of DLH, but in such a way that D could overlook it, so I have kept the phrase in the text. The next three lines develop the Bretwalda theme, but give the number who held the title rather differently. The MSS. diverge in l. 2295; DL read Ainz aveit esté, a quite general statement whereas H reads Einz avoit .viii., a specific statement and one which receives indirect support from the ainz aveit uni of R, the latter, meaningless, word being clearly a misreading of the numeral by the scribe. The number is correct, for Gaimar with his ainz aveit is thinking of his own times, not of the period about which he is writing. In l. 2297, while not making Egbert the first Bretwalda, he does list him first, in contradiction of A.S.C., which rightly makes Ælla of Sussex head the list; Gaimar seems to have confused the ordinal ærest with the adverb, hence his devant lui en l'antif tens. As it happens, Gaimar had not mentioned this Ælla earlier in the Estoire, but he had very briefly noted the reign of his namesake of Deira, and here identifies the two. He has now arrived at the third name in his list, which should of course be that of the second Bretwalda in A.S.C., but Gaimar leaves him out altogether, and continues with Æthelbert of Kent, thus coming into agreement with his source. In l. 2303 the MSS. diverge in an interesting way; R gives as the second half of the line reis fu e bald, H merely fier et bald, but DL read frere Edelbald: this looks like confusion with two later English kings, but must have arisen from a reading fier e bald in their common ancestor. In ll. 2307-10 Gaimar expands the brief statement in the annal: fifta Ædwine Norþanhymbra cining; le regné ultre Tine is Bernicia, d'Everwic l'autre regned is Deira, and l. 2310 echoes the earlier statement (l. 1147) that Tute Bretaine dunc cunquist. Having arrived at the seventh Bretwalda, Oswy, Gaimar realizes that he had announced eight holders of the title, brings in Ceawlin as the eighth and so has to add ll. 2339-41 to explain the co-existence of Ceawlin and Egbert as kings of Wessex. But what led him to make the mistake? A combination of circumstances. As we have seen, the third name in Gaimar's list coincides with the third in his source, but the postponement of Ceawlin is, I think, the result of a misunderstanding. In A.S.C.(E) 827 we read: oþær wæs Ceawlin; this should have caused no trouble, for elsewhere Gaimar shows his familiarity with this use of oþær, which indeed coincides with his use of altre. In A.S.C.(A) 827, however, the reading is: se æftera wæs Ceawlin; I would suggest the possibility that Gaimar found this, or something similar, in his source, that he understood se æftera as the last, and so deliberately made Ceawlin the eighth Bretwalda.74
                   Cil [Lutecan] dunt dis anceisL2287 [L2287] d. des ainz dis R74L2287 [L2287] leuchen L leutean H74L2287 [L2287] leuten74
         2288  [Il] fud ocis par les GualeisL2288 [L2288] par les waleis ocis R74L2288 [L2288] Si f. H74L2288 [L2288] Ocis fud74
                   E [Wilaf] reçut le regnedL2289 [L2289] wilas DL74
                   U Lutecan aveit ested.L2290 [L2290] Uthlage L Ou leutean H74L2290 [L2290] Ulteham74L2289 [L2289] not in R74
                   En [i]cel tens Ecbrit li reiL2291 [L2291] le r. LH74L2291 [L2291] elbrith R edebricht LH74L2291 [L2291] cel DLH74
         2292  [Conquist cel regne e prist vers sei]L2292 [L2292] Recut le regne envers sei DLH74
                   E quanque ot [del] sud [de] HumbreL2293 [L2293] del74L2293 [L2293] el s. DL74
                   Tint [de lui] par cunte e par numbre.L2294 [L2294] T. p. c. de la L T. lom de lui p. c. R T. p. c. de lui H74
                   Ainz aveit [uit] reis [el] regned,L2295 [L2295] uni R74L2295 [L2295] del r.74L2295 [L2295] este DL .viii. H74
         2296  Des quels autres teneient fied;L2296 [L2296] fie RH74L2296 [L2296] t. le f. L t. lur f. R74L2296 [L2296] q. les altres t. LR Desqes li autre H74L2296 [L2296] sied DL74
                   Il en ert un, si cum jo pens,L2297 [L2297om  si H74L2297 [L2297] e. li uns R74
                   Mais devant lui en l'antif tensL2298 [L2298om  lui H74
                   Ot en Sudsexe un reis vaillantL2299 [L2299] un rei R uns r. H74

Page 74


         2300  Qui puis cunquist Norhumberlant;
                   [Elle] ot nun tut sun eded.L2301 [L2301] Il DL75
                   Li tiercz fud Edelbrith clamed,L2302 [L2302] edbright H75
                   Reis fud de Kent, [reis fier e bald],L2303 [L2303] r. fu e b. R K. f. et b. H75L2303 [L2303] freres edelbald DL75
         2304  E li quart rei[s] ot nun [Redwald],L2304 [L2304] redwold R75L2304 [L2304om  reis RH75L2304 [L2304] li quatre LR75L2304 [L2304] redald DL75
                   En Estengle cist rei regnad,L2305 [L2305] cis rois H75
                   Mult fud prodom e [bel] finad.L2306 [L2306] Prodome fut et bien f. H75L2306 [L2306] bes75 [f.109c]
                   [L]e quint rei ot [a] nun Edwine,L2307 [L2307] om  a DLH75
         2308  Si tint le regné ultre Tine
                   [E] d'Everwic l'autre regned
                   E tut Westsexe esteit sun fied.
                   [L]e sist Oswald, le setme OswiL2311 [L2311] setime LRH75
         2312  Mais n'alot pas la terre issi,L2312 [L2312] M. nalot mie L M. nala mie H75
                   [Que] nuls hom né pur la guerreL2313 [L2313om  né RH75
                   Seüst cument alot la terreL2314 [L2314] alast LH75L2314 [L2314] Sout L75
                   [Ne en cel tens sul ne saveitL2315 [L2315] om  en R75
         2316  Nuls hom, ki chescon rei estait].L2316 [L2316] ll. 2315-6 not in DLH75
                   [M]oines, chanoines des abeïesL2317 [L2317] Mes m. e c. de a. R75
                   Escristrent de dis reis les vies,L2318 [L2318] Ki des r. e. les v. R E. des r. les v. H75L2318 [L2318] The MSS. diverge here; R reads: Ki des reis escristrent les vies; but this does not connect with what follows; DL read: Escristrent de dis reis les vies; and H reads: Escristrent des rois les vies; this is clearly derived from a reading similar to that of DL, but the meaning of dis in their line is doubtful.75
                   [S]i [adresça] chascun sun perL2319 [L2319] drescast75
         2320  Pur la veire raisun mustrerL2320 [L2320] la veraie r. R75L2320 [L2320] follows 2318 in H with a blank line after75
                   [D]es reis: cumbien chascun regnad,
                   Cument ot nun, cum deviad,L2322 [L2322] coment d. R coment fina H75
                   [Q]uel fud ocis e quel transist,L2323 [L2323] transi RH75L2323 [L2323] Qui H75
         2324  Quels est entiers e quels puristL2324 [L2324] purri R perit H75L2324 [L2324] est entres R75
                   [E] des evesques ensement
                   Firent li clerc adrescement.
                   [Cronike ad] nun, un livre grant,L2327 [L2327] Croniz R75L2327 [L2327] aveit DL75L2327 [L2327] .orinke75
         2328  Engleis l'alerent asemblant.
                   [Ore] est issi auctorizedL2329 [L2329] Que(?) D Ke L75

Page 75


                   Que a Vincestre [a] l'evesquiedL2330 [L2330] V. en lev. RH76L2330 [L2330] ait76
                   [L]a est des reis la dreite [estoire]L2331 [L2331] estorie LR76L2331 [L2331] estoires76
         2332  E les vies e [la memoire].L2332 [L2332] memorie LR76L2332 [L2332] les memoires76
                   [L]i reis Elvred l'ot en demeine,
                   Fermer i fist une [chaeine];L2334 [L2334] chaine DLR76
                   [Qui] lire [i] volt, bien i gardastL2335 [L2335] om  i DL76
         2336  Mais de sun liu nel remuast.L2336 [L2336] l. pas nel r. H76
                   Cheaulinz ot nun le oitme rei,L2337 [L2337] li utimes r. R loitisme r. H76L2337 [L2337] E C. L76L2337 [L2337oitme D, oitime LRH. Which is Gaimar's form? This is, unfortunately, the only occurrence of eighth in the Estoire and the other ordinals of the group, not being well represented, do not help towards a solution. On the one hand seventh is found twice: at l. 2311, where D has setme, but the other MSS. spoil the metre by giving setime, and at l. 5557, where all MSS. concur in setme. On the other hand all give the longer form novime at l. 1290. If in the line under discussion we follow D then the definite article must have syllabic value to give a correct line, but is eighth preceded by li or by le? The noun is in the nominative singular, but the rime with the reflexive proves that Gaimar is using rei in that function, as he does elsewhere and as the reading of D on two of these occasions emphasizes; at l. 2015 it has icel reis (: la lei) and at l. 2291 Ecbrit li reis (: sei). In l. 2337 both D and L have le, but the latter has the longer former of the ordinal and so must elide, as H actually does in writing; R has li, again with the longer ordinal, and so elision is once more necessary. In view of these uncertainties I have followed D, but am not prepared to aver that Gaimar admitted hiatus after le.76
                   Westsexïens menad od sei,L2338 [L2338] W. aveit od s. R76
                   Il esteit rei d'une partie,L2339 [L2339] e. reis RH76L2339 [L2339] ert H76
         2340  En cel regne ert sa seignurie.L2340 [L2340] Iloec ert H76
                   De l'autre part Ecbrit fud reisL2341 [L2341] cebrit L edbright H76
                   Qui puis regnad sur [Suthumbreis],L2342 [L2342] sur walois H76L2342 [L2342] les galeis DL76L2342 [L2342Sur Suthumbreis R, sur les Galeis DL, sur Walois H. The implied contrast with ultre Humbre in l. 2344 and the inclusive nort e sud of l. 2346 have led me to follow R.76
                   E quant ot issint cunquested,L2343 [L2343] issi LRH76L2343 [L2343om  E H76
         2344  Ultre Humbre ad s'ost mened.L2344 [L2344] son ost m. R76 [f.109d]
                   A Dorewit fud receüd;L2345 [L2345] receuz RH76L2345 [L2345] A everwick R76L2345 [L2345] reconeud DL76L2345 [L2345Dorewit DL, Dorewik H, Everwick R. It was suggested by Stevenson, the early translator of the Estoire, that Gaimar's place-name arose from a misreading of the phrase to Dore wið in A.S.C. 827 and this still seems the most likely explanation. The reading in R must represent an attempted correction of an obscurity, for it is unlikely that a copyist would alter a perfectly intelligible everwic, and I would suggest that R read his text as ad orewic and took the latter to mean Everwic, the obvious place at which to be acknowledged by the Northumbrians. Cf. note to ll. 987-90.76
                   Ore fud rei e nort e sud.L2346 [L2346] f. reis LR76L2346 [L2346] Quil f. H76
                   Wilaf repurcaçad le regne,L2347 [L2347] Wolof R Willaf H76L2347 [L2347] Wilas DL76
         2348  Si refud reis desur Mercenne.L2348 [L2348] r. sur M. R r. de M. H76
                   En [i]cel an Ecbrith li reisL2349 [L2349] edbright H76L2349 [L2349] E en R76L2349 [L2349] cel DL76
                   Clinat a sei les Norwaleis,L2350 [L2350] l. walois H76L2350 [L2350] Aclinat R Enclina H76
                   Tut de lur bone volentéL2351 [L2351] Tute R76
         2352  Les ad Ecbrith a sei cliné.L2352 [L2352] a s. acline R76L2352 [L2352] edbright H76
                   Dous anz aprés tuit veirementL2353 [L2353om  tuit H76
                   Dunc vindrent la paiene gent,L2354 [L2354om  Dunc H76
                   Si preierent tute [Escepaie],L2355 [L2355] escepaine R76L2355 [L2355] espaine DL76
         2356  Unkes [de] hume n'orent manaie.
                   Le autre an aprés Ecbrith aladL2357 [L2357] edbright H76
                   E sur paiens sun ost menad,L2358 [L2358] En sun pais s. o. L Sus p. sost H76
                   Od les paiens tint grant bataille,L2359 [L2359om  grant H76

Page 76


         2360  Mult i ot humes mort senz faille;L2360 [L2360] sanz LRH77L2360 [L2360] sen77
                   La bataille fud a Karum,
                   Mult i ot mort maint bon barun,L2362 [L2362om  bon H77L2362 [L2362] Mort i ot L77
                   Mais li paien furent plus fort,L2363 [L2363] Et li p. H77
         2364  Si chacerent Ecbrith a tort.L2364 [L2364] edbright H77
                   Dunc revint un autre navire,
                   En Westgales tindrent cunsire;L2366 [L2366] t. confire L77L2366 [L2366] tint c. H77
                   Tant unt parled as [West]waleisL2367 [L2367] as waleis DL77
         2368  Que se tindrent [od les] Daneis;L2368 [L2368] Kil R Qui H77L2368 [L2368] as DLH77
                   Ensemble [alerent] guerreiant,L2369 [L2369] vont DL77
                   Par le païs grant mal faisant.L2370 [L2370om  grant H77
                   Dunc reis Ecbrit [unt] encuntredL2371 [L2371] D. unt rei E. R Roi edbright u. H77L2371 [L2371] ad77
         2372  [E] en sa terre erent entred.L2372 [L2372] sont H77L2372 [L2372] om  E DL77
                   [Hengestesdune] ad nun le munt,L2373 [L2373] Hengesdune R77L2373 [L2373] Hengesteslune77
                   U cuntre lui bataille funt.L2374 [L2374] contre RH77L2374 [L2374] U cil c. R77L2374 [L2374] encuntre DL77
                   Iloc en fist destructïun,
         2376  Vencu furent paien felun.L2376 [L2376] f. li p. LH77
                   Idunc ot le siecle dured
                   Des la Jesu Nativited
                   Oit cenz [e trente] set anz,L2379 [L2379] et .xlviii. H77L2379 [L2379] quarante DL77L2379 [L2379trente seit R, quarante set DL, .xlviii. H. The date in the forties is wrong, though metrically satisfactory; the date in R is closer to that in A.S.C. which gives 836, so I have followed R, the more so as Gaimar gives the correct date in l. 2443.77
         2380  Si cum distrent li clerc lisanz.L2380 [L2380] Si come nus trovoms l. H77L2380 [L2380] d. les clers R77 [f.110a]
                   En icel tens en cel endreitL2381 [L2381] en tel e. R77
                   Murut Ecbrith qui tant aveit.L2382 [L2382] edbright H77
                   Ço fud celui [ke] Offe chaçad,L2383 [L2383] qui77
         2384  Trente set anz e un [meis] regnad.L2384 [L2384] .xxvii. H77L2384 [L2384] meins77L2384 [L2384e un meis. In A.S.C. 836 we find .vii. monðas and Gross assumes that Gaimar wrote .vii. meis, attributing the error in which all four MSS. concur to miscopying. This, though the mistake itself is quite possible, is too uncertain to justify a correction.77
                   Puis regnad Edelwlf sun fiz
                   E Edelstan un rei gentilz;L2386 [L2386] E. dous reis g. L E. li rois g. H77
                   L'un ot Westsexe, l'autre Kent,L2387 [L2387] e laltre R77L2387 [L2387] Li uns R77
         2388  Surrie e Sudsexe ensement,
                   E tuit voleient chalengierL2389 [L2389om  E L77
                   Ço que ot [lur] pere a justisier.L2390 [L2390] sun77

Page 77


                   Dunc vint un navire [mult] fort,
         2392  A Hantune arivad al port,L2392 [L2392] une n. LR78L2392 [L2392] D. revint R78L2392 [L2392] om  mult DH78
                   Trente [treis] nefs i aveit,L2393 [L2393] et trois vinz H78L2393 [L2393] reis e vint DL78L2393 [L2393] I have followed R because it is closer to A.S.C. 836 (sciphlesta) and because D, L, and H diverge.78
                   Jo qui que Deus mult les haeitL2394 [L2394om  mult H78
                   Kar [par] Wlfeard un bon barunL2395 [L2395] W. le b. H78L2395 [L2395] om  par DLH78
         2396  Les mist en grant destructïun.L2396 [L2396om  grant H78L2396 [L2396] En fu feit g. R78
                   Celui a els se cumbatid,
                   Mult en ocist e sis venquid.L2398 [L2398om  e H78
                   Me[ï]smes l'an transit li ber;L2399 [L2399] mesmes78
         2400  S'il peüst alques durer,
                   Si cum distrent l'antive gent,L2401 [L2401] d. latine g. H78
                   Paiens m[e]ïst en mal turment.L2402 [L2402] mist78
                   Mais li paien s'en [ralïerent]L2403 [L2403] M. les paens se relierent R78L2403 [L2403] ralerent DL78
         2404  E firent mal e guerrïerent;
                   Lur gent veneit Daneis feluns,L2405 [L2405] veneient LR78
                   Mult [ocieient] des baruns.L2406 [L2406] osciaient R78L2406 [L2406] ocistrent DLH78
                   Adelelme dunc unt ocis,L2407 [L2407] ont donc o. H78L2407 [L2407] Adeleine L Aelesme R Adeelme H78L2407 [L2407] Adeleune78
         2408  Il ot bataille encuntr'els pris;L2408 [L2408] o. la b. R78
                   [Cil] ert si pruz e si vaillantL2409 [L2409] E il78
                   E en bataille si ferant
                   Que quant Engleis l'orent perdut,
         2412  Ne lur remist si bon escut.
                   A Lundres alerent maneisL2413 [L2413] a. demanois H78
                   Faire bataille les Daneis.L2414 [L2414] b. as D. H78
                   Iloec firent lur volented,
         2416  Mult i ot humes mort rüed. [f.110b]
                   D'iloc en vont a Rouecestre,
                   Iloec [rot] bataille campestre,L2418 [L2418] I. out H78
                   Mult ocistrent des païsanzL2419 [L2419] M. i o. H78
         2420  Mais les plusurs furent fuianz;L2420 [L2420] Mes li felons sen vont fuianz H78
                   Qui entrer pot en la cited,
                   Si fud garid e bien tensed

Page 78


                   E qui ne pot, pas ne garid,
         2424  Si alcune part ne s'en fuïd.
                   D'iloc alerent a SandwizL2425 [L2425Sandwiz. The name is here as the result of a mistake. In A.S.C.(E) 839 we read: Her wæs mycel wælsleht on Lundene $$ on Cantwic $$ on Rofecæstre. Gaimar has expanded this brief entry very considerably, giving four lines to the battle at London, eight to that at Rochester, and ten to that at Sandwich, and the third description is clearly a pendant to the second. It must be admitted that the entry in A.S.C. is rather too concise, the place intended, as shown by Cwantawic in A.S.C.(A), being a lost French seaport at the mouth of the R. Canche not very far from Etaples, and that Gaimar is to be excused for taking the second name to be that of a place near the other two and not that of a place on the Continent. Having mistakenly identified Cantwic with Sandwich, Gaimar has changed the order of the names, so bringing them into harmony with the actual situations of the places.79
                   Mais ne furent [pas] recuilliz.L2426 [L2426] ni f. R pas ni f. r. H79
                   Tuz les Kenteis [asemblez erent],L2427 [L2427] K. ensemble alerent H79L2427 [L2427] asemblerent DL79
         2428  En un plain champ les encuntrerent,L2428 [L2428om  champ H79
                   Mult fierement se cumbatirent,L2429 [L2429om  Mult H79
                   Mais nepurquant Daneis venquirent.L2430 [L2430] D. nepurquant v. H79
                   Ne fust le burc qui [clos] esteit,L2431 [L2431] fud L79L2431 [L2431] quiloc DL79
         2432  Mult i fussent [Kenteis] destreitL2432 [L2432] Kentois i f. mult d. H79L2432 [L2432] mis en DL79
                   Mais par le burc plusurs garirent,L2433 [L2433om  Mais H79
                   Li remananz trestuz perirent.L2434 [L2434] les r. R79
                   Reis Edelwlf idunc regnot,
         2436  Par le païs cuntr'els alot
                   E les Daneis de tutes parz
                   Arivo[e]nt en lur kenarz.L2438 [L2438] en lu keuarz H79
                   A Carum Edelwlf li reis
         2440  Se cumbatid as DaneisL2440 [L2440] c. od les D. H79
                   Mais les Daneis orent victoire,
                   Sil cunsentid li reis de gloire.L2442 [L2442] Ensi le vout l. r. H79
                   Dunc ot uit cenz quarante cinc anzL2443 [L2443] c. anz et .xlv. H79L2443 [L2443] .dccc.79
         2444  Que Crist en cest mund fud venanz.L2444 [L2444] Qe dieus en c. monde vint H79L2444 [L2444] Des donc ke C. el m. R79
                   En [i]cel an se cumbatidL2445 [L2445] cel DLH79
                   Li dux Arnulf, Daneis venquid;L2446 [L2446] e D. v. R les D. v. H79
                   Un autre dux, [Osric] ot nun,L2447 [L2447] oseric L79L2447 [L2447] oscrie79
         2448  Il fud od lui cume barun;
                   Li uns menad cels de Dorsete,
                   Li autre genz de Sumersete.L2450 [L2450] a. les g. L a. la gent H a. cels de S. R79
                   A la buche de Pedredan
         2452  Vencuz furent Daneis cel an. [f.110c]
                   Cheorl [alderman] les [re]chaçad,L2453 [L2453] anderman L79L2453 [L2453] Cheor e alderma R79L2453 [L2453] chacad DL79L2453 [L2453] arderman79

Page 79


                   Tresqu'en Tanet unc [ne] finad;
                   Li barun de DevenesireL2455 [L2455] Les b. R80
         2456  Lui aidoent a descunfire.L2456 [L2456] aiderent RH80
                   A Wïenberge comencerent,L2457 [L2457] wingberge L wienberghe R wiberge H80L2457 [L2457] winberge80
                   Tresqu'en Tanet les decacerent.
                   Iloec furent tut l'iver tens.L2453 [L2453] Gaimar had endeavoured to introduce some kind of sequence into the events listed by A.S.C. 851. Thus he makes the Danish wintering in Thanet the result of the English victory at Wigborough; as Gross points out, Gaimar would scarcely have made this deduction, had his source agreed with A.S.C.(A) in putting the account of the battle of Sandwich between that at Wigborough and the stay in Thanet. Then, for Gaimar, the arrival took place at the end of that winter, not in the same year as the battle æt Wicgeanbeorge, a name which has given some trouble to his copyists. All agree in the second element, but DLH have a first element of one syllable, which renders the line metrically incorrect; R's form, Wien-, is closer to the O.E., so I have accepted it and treated it as a dissyllable.80
         2460  Autre navire reparensL2460 [L2460] A. navie r. H80L2460 [L2460] tut r. DL80
                   [I] est venud cuntre l'ested.
                   A Cantuorbire en sunt aled,
                   [L]a cité [frainstrent] e roberent,L2463 [L2463] c. arstrent H80L2463 [L2463] asistrent DL80
         2464  Le rei Brectwlf desbareterent,L2464 [L2464] bittulf H80L2464 [L2464] Li reis R80
                   [C]el rei de Mercene unt mis en fuieL2465 [L2465] Cil r. R Le r. H80
                   Desi que la cited de LuieL2462 [L2462] According to A.S.C.(ABC) the Danes stormed Canterbury, then London, and then crossed the Thames into Surrey, but A.S.C.(DEF) omit the reference to London. Gaimar's source had not this mistake, for he has a disguised mention of the city. Possibly, as Gross suggests, an unusual spelling put him off, for elsewhere the name gives him no difficulty. At any rate, there seems to be some connexion between his cited de Luie (l. 2466) and the earlier cited de Luietune (l. 984), by which he renders Lygeanbyrig of A.S.C. 571, though in each case the cause of the confusion eludes us.80
                   [E] li paien vont en Surrie.L2467 [L2467] les p. R80
         2468  Ço fud ultrage e estultie
                   [Kar] Edelwlf li maistre rei
                   E Edelbald sis fiz, ço crei,L2470 [L2470] son f. R80
                   [A]d Aclie se cumbatirent.
         2472  Westsexïens si bien le firent,L2472 [L2472] si b. les ferirent L b. i ferirent H80
                   [T]uz les Daneis unt descunfit,L2473 [L2473] u. iloc d. DL80
                   Maint hume iloc vie perdit.L2474 [L2474] h. la v. i p. H80L2474 [L2474] i. sa v. L80
                   [C]el an meïsme a SandwizL2475 [L2475] a. meismes RH80
         2476  Refurent les Daneis matizL2476 [L2476] li D. H80L2476 [L2476] R. lor D. L80
                   [Par] Edelstan e par Alchere.L2477 [L2477] par adelhere R80
                   Edelstan esteit al rei frere.L2478 [L2478] Au roi adelstan ert frere H80
                   [L]i uns esteit frere Edelwlf,L2479 [L2479] ert H80
         2480  D'Estengle ert [meistre] rei sul;L2480 [L2480] r. il sul R80L2480 [L2480] estoit L80
                   [A]chere ert dux e de lui tint,L2481 [L2481] A. donc de li t. H80L2481 [L2481] d. de li tenant R80L2481 [L2481] Adelhere R80
                   Des Daneis ocist plus de vint;L2482 [L2482om  Des H80L2478 [L2478] In his source Gaimar found simply Æðelstan cining and Ealhere dux; he seems to have amplified this by a vague memory of his earlier reference to Athelstan the sub-king (ll. 2385-8); he is correct when he makes him brother of Edelwlf (l. 2479), but wrong when he sets him over Estengle.80
                   [E] de lur nefs que il amenerent,
         2484  [En] Tamise la us troverent,L2484 [L2484] T. jus neierent H80L2484 [L2484] la u il les t. R80L2484 [L2484] A L80L2484 [L2484] E a80L2484 [L2484] The mention of the R. Thames is out of place here, not being apposite to the situation of Sandwich; I agree with Gross that Gaimar has derived the name from its earlier occurrence in the same annal (A.S.C. 851).80

Page 80


                   [Pri]strent humes e lur aveirs.
                   Ne firent giens grant nunsaveirs:L2486 [L2486] f. guers g.n. R f. pas n. H81
                   [D]e quanque pot de mal ovrerL2487 [L2487] q. hom p. RH81
         2488  [D]eit l'um sun enemi [mater].L2488 [L2488] encumbrer DL81L2487 [L2487] Cf. J. Morawski, Proverbes français (C.F.M.A. 47), No. 688.81 [f.110d]
                   Al tens que furent [ces] DaneisL2489 [L2489] si DL81
                   Burhred esteit de Merce reis.L2490 [L2490] ert R81L2490 [L2490] Burhert R Burred H81L2490 [L2490] Burbred DL81
                   Par l'aïe Edelwlf li berL2491 [L2491] a. de E. R aide de E. H81
         2492  Fist Norwaleis a sei cliner.
                   En [i]cel an, quant ço avint,L2493 [L2493] an ke RH81L2493 [L2493] cel DL81
                   Alcher li reis qui dunc Kent tintL2494 [L2494] Adelher R81
                   Od [les] Kenteis e od dux [Hude]L2495 [L2495] huge DL81L2495 [L2495] lur81
         2496  Qui les Surreis ot en aiudeL2496 [L2496] Ke li S. L81
                   En sunt alez sur les Daneis.L2497 [L2497om  En H81
                   En l'isle de TaneteisL2498 [L2498] de katenois H81L2498 [L2498] i. des T. R81
                   Od les paiens se cumbatirent;
         2500  Poi gainerent, vie perdirent,L2500 [L2500] la v. p. H81L2500 [L2500gainerent. All MSS. concur in the contracted form, so I have retained it, though Gaimar may well have used the fuller form, treating the final syllable as extra-metrical (cf. p. xlix).81
                   Oscis fud Hude e Algier,L2501 [L2501] adelher R81L2501 [L2501] huge L81L2501 [L2501] furent R81
                   Unc n'i porent meis espleitier.L2502 [L2502] p. mielz eschaper R p. meuz e. H81
                   Idunc prist Burhred de MercenneL2503 [L2503] burgred L burhret R81L2503 [L2503] burred DH81
         2504  La fille [Edelwlf] a sa femme.L2504 [L2504om  sa RH81L2504 [L2504] edulf H81L2504 [L2504] edeluf81
                   Un an aprés vindrent Daneis
                   A [Escepeie] od lur [escheiz]L2506 [L2506] nefs DL81L2506 [L2506] sepaie DL81
                   E od [cyules] e od [kenarz].L2507 [L2507] e od kandart R81L2507 [L2507] Od escheiz RH81L2507 [L2507] kenart81L2507 [L2507] escheiles81
         2508  L'iver i furent tresqu'en Marz.L2505 [L2505] Cf. Glossarial and Textual Notes . . . (M.L.R. XLIII (1948), 39-46) for a discussion of the text of this passage and for the history of the word cyules.81
                   En [i]cel an dunt ci ai ditL2509 [L2509] an ke ci R81L2509 [L2509] En cel L81L2509 [L2509] E en cel81
                   Reis Edelwlf terres partit;
                   Tute sa terre bien dunad,L2511 [L2511] dunad and devisad interverted in R81
         2512  En l'onur Deu la devisad.L2512 [L2512] E en R81
                   [Puis aprés feit son aire agreie,L2513 [L2513] Cf. Further glossarial notes . . . (M.L.R. XLIX (1954), 308-21) for a discussion of this line. I take sun eire as dative.81
                   Vers Rome tint la dreite veie,L2514 [L2514] ll. 2513-14 not in DLH81
                   Par grant honur a Rome alat

Page 81


         2516  E tut un an i sojurnat.
                   El revenir donc espusat
                   La fille Charles; il li donat.]L2518 [L2518] charle H82L2518 [L2518] ll. 2515-18 not in DL82
                   Ço fud la fille le rei de France,L2519 [L2519] al r. RH82
         2520  Tuz jurz se penad d'onurance.
                   Dous anz aprés dunc deviad,
                   Dis e nof anz cel rei regnad;
                   Si cum [demustred] la viele geste,L2523 [L2523om  la R82L2523 [L2523] demistrent82
         2524  Enseveliz fud a Guincestre.
                   [Cestui] fud fiz Ecbrit le reiL2525 [L2525] edbright H82L2525 [L2525] Il H82L2525 [L2525] Cist DL82
                   Qui fist le regne aclin a sei.L2526 [L2526] a. vers sei R82
                   Ses dous fiz reçorent le regneL2527 [L2527] son r. R82L2527 [L2527] receustrent H82
         2528  Qu'il ot de sa premiere femme.
                   [Edelbalt out tote Westsexe
                   E Edelbrith Kent e Suthsexe
                   E Estsexe e Sudreie;L2531 [L2531] hestsexe R82
         2532  Riches reis furent en lur vie].L2532 [L2532] ll. 2529-32 not in DLH82
                   Cinc anz regnad reis Edelbald,
                   Idunc transid, vie lui falt,L2534 [L2534] Donc t. la v. H82
                   Sun cors [posat] a [Schireburne],L2535 [L2535] schireburnes R82L2535 [L2535] chiereburne DL82L2535 [L2535] fud mis DLH82 [f.111a]
         2536  Il fist Daneis en sun tens murne.L2536 [L2536] murnes R82L2536 [L2536] f. les D. sovent m. H82
                   Reis Edelbrith ses frere esteit,L2537 [L2537] son f. RH82
                   Westsexe prist: ço ert tuit dreit.L2538 [L2538] e. son d. H82
                   Sis anz en cest siecle regnad,L2539 [L2539] a. icist r. H82L2539 [L2539] en ces regnez r. R82
         2540  Dunc [si] transid; hom le portadL2540 [L2540] lemporta H82L2540 [L2540] om  si DLH82
                   A [Schireburne] aprés sun frere.L2541 [L2541] chiereburne DL82
                   Dunc chaïd as Engleis lur here.L2542 [L2542] lur chere H82
                   Pur les dous reis [ke] orent perdutL2543 [L2543] quil DL82
         2544  Suvent orent paiens vencud.L2544 [L2544] o. daneis v. R82L2529 [L2529] Cf. Glossarial and Textual Notes . . . for a discussion of this passage and of the meaning of here.82
                   En icel tens que cil regnoent,
                   A une feiz paiens gastoentL2546 [L2546] .xii. f. H82L2546 [L2546om  A RH82
                   Cele cuntree de GuincestreL2547 [L2547] La c. de R82

Page 82


         2548  Mais dous baruns esteient mestre,L2548 [L2548] b. ki e. R83L2548 [L2548] Deus paiens e. H83
                   As reis [gardouent] la cuntreeL2549 [L2549] guastoent DLH83
                   Qui Hamtesire est apellee.L2550 [L2550] ert H83
                   Osric, Eadwulf orent cil nun,L2551 [L2551] O. e edwolf R O. et adwlf H83
         2552  Andui erent riche barun.L2552 [L2552] Ambedou L83
                   [Osric ot] gent de Hamtesire,L2553 [L2553] Oseric od83
                   E Eadwlf cels de Bercesire,L2554 [L2554] od ceus de B. H83L2554 [L2554] adulf L edwolf R adewlf H83L2554 [L2554] edelwlf83
                   Se cumbatirent demaneis,L2555 [L2555] Si se c. R83
         2556  Victoire orent sur les Daneis.
                   Puis vindrent Daneis en Tanet
                   Ki tindrent Kenteis pur vaslet;L2558 [L2558] Si H83
                   Triwes pristrent a cele gent,
         2560  Puis preierent tuit l'orïent
                   Mais uns reis vint ki dunc regnad,L2561 [L2561om  vint R83L2561 [L2561] un r. R un roi H83
                   Mult volentiers les guerreiad,L2562 [L2562om  Mult H83
                   Edelred frere as dous reisL2563 [L2563] le f. R83
         2564  Qui aveient regned anceis.
                   En tens cestui [vint] la [grant] flote,L2565 [L2565] g. flete R83L2565 [L2565] om  grant DL83L2565 [L2565] i ut83
                   Tel ne vit hom qui vesti cote,L2566 [L2566] h. ki ne vist ceste R83
                   En Estengle sunt arived,
         2568  Tuit l'iver i unt sujurned.L2568 [L2568] .liv. sont s. H83
                   En Marz pur enganissementL2569 [L2569] p. escharnissement R p. engarnissement H83
                   Triwes donent a cele gent. [f.111b]
                   Idunc se mistrent a cheval
         2572  Li plus preised de lur vassal
                   E li plusur s'en vont as nefsL2573 [L2573] p. sen unt es n. R83L2573 [L2573om  li H83
                   Tresque [Humbre] sigles levés.L2574 [L2574] T. il unt s. L83L2574 [L2574] hime83
                   [A pié en] vunt plus de vint mile.L2575 [L2575] .xxx. H83L2575 [L2575om  en H83L2575 [L2575] Apres DL83
         2576  Sempres orrez grant mirabile!L2576 [L2576om  grant H83L2576 [L2576] oirez R83L2576 [L2576] orent DLH83
                   Icil Daneis dunc s'en turnerent,L2577 [L2577om  dunc R83
                   A Grimesbi Humbre passerent

Page 83


                   [E cil a pié tut ensement,
         2580  Mult grant plenté ourent de gent
                   E cil ki erent od les nefs
                   Vers Everwich sunt tuz alez.L2582 [L2582] evewich R84
                   Ambure par ewe e par terre
         2584  A Everwich firent grant guere].
                   Cil qui par ewe sunt alez
                   Deci qu'en Use [unt donc siglez]L2586 [L2586om  donc H84L2586 [L2586] sunt passez DL84
                   Mais dreit cum soleil rescunsot
         2588  Li floz ariere repairotL2588 [L2588] reportoit H84
                   E cil [se] sunt dunc logez,L2589 [L2589] d. herbergez R84L2589 [L2589] Cil sont donc aloignez H84L2589 [L2589] sen84
                   Asquanz en l'eve herbergez,L2590 [L2590] A. en lewe asquanz logez R84L2590 [L2590] Aucuns H84L2571 [L2571] An interesting passage in which Gaimar is combining two sources, A.S.C. and the Buern Bucecarle story. From the former he took the grant flote (l. 2565), the wintering in East Englia, the horsing and the truce; for the Danes winter once more ends en Marz (l. 2569), as it had done earlier for them in Sheppey–L'iver i furent tresqu'en Marz (l. 2508); it is then that the horsing took place preparatory to a new campaign, an intelligent deduction by Gaimar. There is, however, a difference: in A.S.C. 866 all the Danes gehorsade wurdon, but in the Estoire only li plus preisied de lur vassal (l. 2572). For this there are two reasons, one general, one particular. Quite understandably Gaimar has failed to realize that the Danes used their horses for greater mobility, i.e. they became mounted infantry; for him they were cavalry, and so in accordance with contemporary custom he thought of the horse forming a section only of the army, hence the twenty thousand foot (l. 2575). The particular reason is that, according to the Buern Bucecarle story, the Danes were specially brought over from Denmark (ll. 2597-8) and were still in their ships. To this, rather than to the ambiguity of O.E. faran, which can refer to movement by land or by sea, is due the combined attack on York, specifically mentioned in ll. 2583-4 and implied in ll. 2703-7.84
                   [Mes les chevels homes barons
         2592  Vont a la vile as meisons].
                   Iloec maneit uns gentilz hom,L2593 [L2593] un gentil LH84
                   Buern Bucecarle aveit nom.L2594 [L2594] ad n. R84
                   Cil herbergat tuz les [seignurs]L2595 [L2595] baruns DLH84
         2596  Mult richement par grant honurs.
                   Cestui les ot ainz asemblezL2597 [L2597om  ainz L84
                   E de Danemarche amenez
                   Pur la hunte de sa muillier
         2600  Dunt volentiers se volt vengier.
                   Une hunte l'en fud fait grant.
                   Osbrith qui tint NorhumberlantL2602 [L2602] O. teneit N. R84
                   A Everwic ot sujurnez.
         2604  Un jur esteit al bois alez,
                   Aval Use [ert] alez chacier,L2605 [L2605] esteit84
                   Priveement alad mangierL2606 [L2606] P. urnat m. R84
                   A la maisun a [cel] barunL2607 [L2607] cele84
         2608  Qui Buern Bucecarle aveit nun.L2608 [L2608] out RH84L2608 [L2608] B. le B. R84L2608 [L2608] a n.84
                   Li prodom ert dunc a la mer,
                   Pur uthlages la sot garderL2610 [L2610] u. la soelt g. H84L2610 [L2610] u. le soleit g. R84L2610 [L2610sot DL, soelt H, soleit R. The last form makes the line hypermetrical and so is to be rejected but the question still remains: did Gaimar use saveir (with DL) or soleir (with RH)? We have in the Estoire three other examples of this construction: (i)
                   Marchëant ert, mer sot passer
                   E set bien vendre e achater
(ll. 455-6), (ii) Sidrac le viel qui ferir sot (l. 2980), (iii) Bien sot ses enemis pleisier (l. 3442), but in all three the MSS. concur in the verb used, saveir. At l. 2980 the verb rimes with ot (< aveir) and at l. 456 we again have saveir, this time in the ind. present; in view of the absence of proof of vocalization of l in the Estoire we cannot accept an actual form of soleir in this construction. At the same time it is undeniable that semantically the two verbs come very close to each other in such phrases, especially here, where the approach is confirmed by the variants and by the translation sicut solitus fuerat in Bromton (Twysden, Scriptores X, p. 802). Warnke called attention to the resulting ambiguity in Marie de France, Fables, I, 3-4:
                   Sulunc nature purchaçot
                   Sa viande si cum il sot
(Intro., p. lxxxv n) and the same is true of similar phrases in other texts, e.g.
                   Quant ele ot s'ovraigne finee
                   Tel come ele la sot ovrer
(Philomena 1134-5),
                   Vostre Deu pur mei preez
                   Que mon boef me rende sein
                   Qui me sout gainer del pain
(Simon de Freine, S. Georges 847-9).84

                   [E] la dame qui mult ert beleL2611 [L2611] om  E DLH84

Page 84


         2612  Dunt li rei ot oï noveleL2612 [L2612] o. la n. RH85L2612 [L2612] reis RH85
                   Ert a maisun, cum dreit esteit,
                   De malvesté talent n'aveit. [f.111c]
                   A tant es vus le rei venuz!
         2616  Par grant honur fud receüz.L2616 [L2616] h. i f. H85
                   Quant ot manged tant cum li plut,
                   Dunc dist folie que pensot:L2618 [L2618] d. a f. RH85
                   'Dame, jo voil a vus parler,
         2620  La chambre faites delivrer'.
                   Tuz sunt fors de la chambre issuz
                   Fors ceus ki unt les us tenuz,L2622 [L2622] F. dous k. R f. cil k. H85
                   Cil erent cumpaignun le rei,
         2624  Bien saveient tut sun segrei.L2624 [L2624om  tut RH85L2624 [L2624] sevent R85
                   La dame pas n'aparceveit
                   Pur quei li reis iço faiseit.
                   Quant il la prist estre sun gred,
         2628  De lui ad fait sa volented,
                   Puis s'en turnat, lait la plurant,L2629 [L2629] turne H85
                   A Everwic alad puinnant
                   E quant il est [od] ses privez,L2631 [L2631] i est H85L2631 [L2631] a DL85
         2632  Par maintes feiz s'en est gabez.
                   La dame mult s'en adulat,
                   De la hunte que fait li ad,L2634 [L2634] Pur H85
                   Tute en devint descoluree
         2636  De la dolur qu'en ad menee.L2636 [L2636] d. qele ad demenee H85
                   A tant es vus Buern sis mariz
                   Qui mult ert nobles e gentilz!
                   Parmi tuit ço que mer hantot,L2639 [L2639] t. ico q. R85
         2640  Mieldre vassal en terre [n']otL2640 [L2640] navoit H85L2640 [L2640] nen85
                   Ne el regne dunt il fud nezL2641 [L2641] ert R85
                   N'ert nuls [hom] mielz enparentez.L2642 [L2642] n. home RH85L2642 [L2642om  nuls H85L2642 [L2642] Not L85
                   Quant veit sa femme enpalie
         2644  E veit la feble e enmegrieL2644 [L2644om  veit la H85

Page 85


                   E tute estrange la trovad
                   De si cum ert, quant la laissad,L2646 [L2646] De issi c. R86
                   Dunc demandat que ço deveit,L2647 [L2647] Demanda donc H86
         2648  Que ço espelt e qu'ele aveit.L2648 [L2648] E ceo qesp. H86L2648 [L2648] E que DL86
                   Ele lui ad dit: 'Jo vus dirai.L2649 [L2649] li dist H86L2649 [L2649] E ele L86
                   Jo më[ï]sme m'encuserai,L2650 [L2650] men accuserai H86L2650 [L2650] meismes RH86
                   Puis faites de mei [tel] justiseL2651 [L2651] tele DH86
         2652  Cum fusse [a larecin prise]'.L2652 [L2652] C. f. prise a la remise H86L2652 [L2652] larcin R86L2652 [L2652] C. jo f. pris e la remise DL86L2652 [L2652] Though the general sense of the line is clear, what Gaimar actually wrote is uncertain. DL have the pronoun, RH do not; DLH read, with minor differences, pris e la remise, which does not make sense, but might derive from a line like that in R with the participle displaced.86
                   Cil [li]respunt: 'Que est avenud?'L2653 [L2653] om  li DLH86
                   '[Ja] ad li reis od mei geüd.L2654 [L2654] Ies DL86
                   Par force fist la felunie,L2655 [L2655] sa f. R86
         2656  Ore est dreit que [perde] la vie.L2656 [L2656] q. jo p. L86L2656 [L2656] Qe bien est d. H86L2656 [L2656] perc86L2656 [L2656] bien d. DL86
                   Si ço [fud feit] cuvertement,L2657 [L2657] om  feit DL86L2657 [L2657] fust DH86
                   Jo voil murir overtement.
                   Mielz voil murir que vivre plus'.L2659 [L2659] Que m. v.86
         2660  Pasmee chiet a ses piez jus.
                   Cil li respunt: 'Levez, amie.L2661 [L2661] E cil R86L2661 [L2661] om  li DLRH86
                   Ja pur ço ne serrez hunie.L2662 [L2662] s. pas haie R86L2662 [L2662om  Ja R86
                   Cuntre force ne puet fieblesce,L2663 [L2663] Encontre R86
         2664  En vus ad meinte bone teche.
                   Quant vus m'avez primes gehid,L2665 [L2665] vus le ma. R86
                   De vus avrai bone mercid
                   Mais si vus le me eussiez celez,L2667 [L2667] me leuissiez L86
         2668  Tant quel m'eüst autre mustrez,L2668 [L2668] T. qautre le meust m. H86
                   Ja mais mis quers ne vus amast
                   Ne ma buche ne vus baisast.
                   Si li fel fist sa felunie,
         2672  [Jo] querrai que il perdrat la vie'.L2672 [L2672om  la H86L2672 [L2672] om  Jo DL86
                   La nuit se jut mes le matin
                   Vers Everwic tint sun chemin.
                   Le rei trovat entre sa gent,
         2676  Buern i [aveit] maint bon parent.L2676 [L2676] ot DLH86

Page 86


                   Li reis le vit, si l'apellad.
                   Buern iloches le desfiad:L2677 [L2677] not in H87
                   'Jo te desfi e tut te rent,
         2680  De tei ne voil tenir neient,L2680 [L2680] v. jo t.87
                   Tun humage ci te rendrai,
                   Ja mais de tei rien ne tendrai'.L2682 [L2682] ll. 2681-2 interverted in R87
                   A tant issi de la maisun,
         2684  Od lui issi maint bon barun.L2684 [L2684om  bon H87
                   Dunc tint cunseil od sun lignage,L2685 [L2685] de corrected to od87
                   A els se clamat del huntage;L2686 [L2686] E a DL87 [f.112a]
                   Cument li reis le aveit mened
         2688  Lur ad tut dit e tuit cunted.L2688 [L2688om  tuit LRH87
                   Puis lur ad dit [qu'il] s'en irad,L2689 [L2689] quel87
                   S'il pot, les Daneis amerrad;
                   Ja li suen cuer n'ert mais liedL2691 [L2691om  li R87
         2692  Desi que seit [del rei] vengied,L2692 [L2692] de li H87L2692 [L2692] quil s. LRH87L2692 [L2692] a lui87
                   E ses parenz li unt pramis
                   Qu'il le metrunt fors del païs.
                   Si firent il. Pur cel forfait
         2696  Le rei guerpirent entreshait,
                   Si firent rei del regïunL2697 [L2697] de la r. LH87
                   De un chevalier qui Elle ot nun.
                   Ore avint si cum vus orez.L2699 [L2699] oez R87
         2700  Cil ot [les] Daneis amenez;L2700 [L2700] Il ad H87
                   A [Kawode] erent herbergezL2701 [L2701] furent H87L2701 [L2701] kauud DL87
                   Cil ki furent es nefs cargez
                   Mais li plusur de lur amisL2703 [L2703] l. daneis R87L2703 [L2703] de ses a. H87
         2704  Vindrent parmi [lu] HoldernisL2704 [L2704] om  lu DLH87
                   E puis par le païs gastedL2705 [L2705] p. ont le p. H87
                   Tant que prof sunt de la citedL2706 [L2706] q. pres s. L87
                   E li navire encuntre vint.L2707 [L2707] En loure qe cel e. H87
         2708  Li reis qui dunc la terre tint
                   Ert icel jur el bois alez,L2709 [L2709] e. cel LR87

Page 87


                   Quant cil vindrent a la citez,L2710 [L2710] Q. il v. H88
                   Mais l'autre rei esteit remés,L2711 [L2711] li altres r. ert remis R88
         2712  Cil qui desaisit ert des cles.L2712 [L2712] e. deschis H88L2712 [L2712] q. de sai e. RH88
                   [Quant les Daneis les asaillirent,
                   Une piece se defendirent]L2714 [L2714] pece ce R88L2714 [L2714] ll. 2713-4 not in DL88
                   Mais poi durad lur defensaille.
         2716  Puis que Daneis orent le baille,L2716 [L2716] o. la b. LR o. bataille H88
                   [Tost fud idunc] la cité prise;L2717 [L2717] dunc LH88L2717 [L2717] Dunc fud tost88
                   De homes i ot [mult] grant ocise.L2718 [L2718] om  mult DH88
                   Osbrith li reis [i] fud ocis,L2719 [L2719] om  i DL88
         2720  Buern fud venged, sis enemis.L2720 [L2720] Bien f. H88
                   Elle li reis en bois esteit,
                   Quatre bisses dunc pris aveit.L2722 [L2722] b. pris i a. H88L2722 [L2722] idonc p. R88
                   Asis esteit a sun disner,
         2724  Uns hom oïd [cloke] suner;L2724 [L2724] Un home H88L2724 [L2724] iloec DL un c. R88 [f.112b]
                   En sa main [tint] une clochete,
                   Si sonot cler cume eschelete.L2726 [L2726] sona H88
                   Li reis rovat que avant venist,
         2728  A mangier eust kar ço requist.L2728 [L2728] ot LH88
                   Cum li reis sist a sun mangier,L2729 [L2729] Si c. L88
                   Si ad dit a un chevalier:
                   'Mult avom [hui] bien espleitied,L2731 [L2731] om  hui DLH88
         2732  Pris avom ço que avom chaced,L2732 [L2732] co ke nus a. L88
                   Quatre bisses e chevrols sis,
                   Mainte feiz avom chaced pis'.
                   Li orps l'oïd ki loinz sëeit.
         2736  Dunc dist un mot qui veir esteit:L2736 [L2736] veirs e. RH88
                   'Si vus en bois avez tant pris,
                   Perdu avez tut cest païs;L2738 [L2738om  tut H88
                   Les Daneis unt mielz espleitedL2739 [L2739] Li D. H88
         2740  Qui Everwic unt purchaced
                   E mult baruns i ad ocis,L2741 [L2741] m. des b. i ont o. H88
                   Osbrith unt mort ses enemis'.

Page 88


                   Respunt li reis: 'Cument le sez?'
         2744  'Mun sen le m'ad si demustrez.L2744 [L2744om  si RH89L2744 [L2744] M. sens R89L2744 [L2744] Moi s. L89
                   As enseignes, se m'en crëez,L2745 [L2745] si ne me c. R si mei nen c. H89
                   Le fiz ta suer qu'iloec vëez,
                   Orin, ert le premier ocisL2747 [L2747] li primes o. R89L2747 [L2747] Orrum R Il en e. H89L2747 [L2747Orin DL, Orrum R. The name shows this same variation at each occurrence, viz. here and at ll. 2786, 2803; each time H gives, not a name, but some other word; we thus have no means of deciding which form Gaimar actually used. The nephew and his exploits do not appear to be known from any other source.89
         2748  De la bataille a Everwis.L2748 [L2748] de and a interverted in H89
                   Une bataille i avrad grant.
                   Si tu m'en creiz, ne iras avantL2750 [L2750] pas a. R89L2750 [L2750] Et si H89
                   E nepuroc ne pot el estre,L2751 [L2751om  el L p. altre e. R89L2751 [L2751] E nepurquant RH89
         2752  Uns reis i deit perdre la teste'.L2752 [L2752] Un r. L Un roi H89
                   Respunt li reis: 'Tu as mentid.L2753 [L2753] tu mas m. H89
                   Pris en seras e malbaillid;L2754 [L2754om  en H89
                   Si ço n'est veir, perdras la vie,L2755 [L2755] ne. veirs p. RH89
         2756  Comprer t'estuet ta sorcerie'.
                   Respunt li orps: 'E jo l'otrei!
                   Si ço n'est veir, ocïez mei'.
                   Li reis l'ad fait od lui mener,L2759 [L2759] le fet H89
         2760  Bien le comandat a garder.L2760 [L2760om  a H89 [f.112c]
                   En une tur qui halt' esteit
                   Mist sun nevod qu'iloc esteit,L2762 [L2762] i. seit R i. avoit H89
                   Puis lui ad dit qu'encore encuiL2763 [L2763] d. uncor ui RH89L2763 [L2763] P. lur H89
         2764  Par mes [enveierat] pur lui.L2764 [L2764] Tost enveirad p.l. L Pramet ken. R Enverra message p.l. H89L2764 [L2764] Enveirat il co dit p.l.89
                   La gent asemblent del païs,L2765 [L2765] asemblerent R89
                   Od le rei vont vers Everwis,L2766 [L2766] vo. a E. H89
                   Asez [encontrent] des navrezL2767 [L2767] encontrerent DLH89
         2768  E des fuianz qui unt [cuntez]L2768 [L2768] cunted89
                   Tut ço ke li devins ot dit.L2769 [L2769om  ot R89
                   [Neis] un sul mot n'aveit mentid.L2770 [L2770] ni m. R nen m. H89L2770 [L2770om  Neis R89L2770 [L2770] Reis89
                   E li reis Elle ot mult grant gent,L2771 [L2771om  grant L m. de ge. H89
         2772  Si [chevalchat] mult fierement.L2772 [L2772] m. seurement H89L2772 [L2772] c. bien f. R89L2772 [L2772] chivacha L89L2772 [L2772] chevad89

Page 89


                   Mais sun nevod fist grant folur
                   Qu'il ot laissiez [de]sur la tur.L2774 [L2774] l. desouz la H90
                   Dous escuz prist qu'il ad troved,
         2776  A la fenestre en est aled,
                   [En] les escuz mist ses dous braz,L2777 [L2777] Les e. m. en ses DLH90
                   Voler quidat, mais un grant quaz
                   Prist cuntre terre, quant chaïd,L2779 [L2779] q. il c. H90
         2780  E nepuroc issi guarid,L2780 [L2780] E nepurquant R90
                   Unc ne l'en fud guerres de pis.L2781 [L2781om  de H90L2781 [L2781] g. le p. R90L2781 [L2781] nen f. H90L2781 [L2781] Ke u. R90
                   Un cheval vit, mult tost l'ad pris;L2782 [L2782] c. i ot m. L90
                   Un bachelier iloec esteit
         2784  Qui le cheval par frein teneit,L2784 [L2784] p. le f. LR c. au f. H90
                   Treis gavelocs tint en sa main.L2785 [L2785] g. out en LRH90
                   Orin ne fud mie vilain.L2786 [L2786] Orrum ne f. pas v. R Ore ne fist m. qe v. H90
                   Les gavelocs sempres saisid
         2788  E le cheval tost lui tolid,L2788 [L2788om  tost H90L2788 [L2788] mult t. l.90
                   Puis est munted, alad mult tost,L2789 [L2789] m. et ala t. H90
                   Pres d'Everwic esteit ja l'ostL2790 [L2790om  ja H90
                   [E il] puinst tant qu'il vint devant.L2791 [L2791] p. si q. H90L2791 [L2791] Cil90
         2792  Les oz aloent asemblant.L2792 [L2792] alerent R90
                   Purpensad sei cum hom legier
                   Qu'il [i] ferrad le cop premier.L2794 [L2794] om  i DL90
                   En l'eschele [ke] devant [vint]L2795 [L2795] tint90L2795 [L2795] quil90L2792 [L2792] not in H90
         2796  Lançad le gaveloc qu'il tint,L2796 [L2796] Eschauca H90 [f.112d]
                   Un chevaler en asenadL2797 [L2797] en senad L en navera H90
                   Si qu'en la buche li entrad,L2798 [L2798] la bucle H90
                   Deriere al col en issid fors,L2799 [L2799] c. la i. L c. li i. RH90L2799 [L2799] al dos H90
         2800  Ne pot ester en piez le cors,L2800 [L2800] li c. R90
                   Jus chaïd mort, ne pot altre estre,L2801 [L2801] p. el e. H90L2801 [L2801] Il H90
                   Paiens esteit, n'ot suing de prestre.
                   Orin retint un autre dartL2803 [L2803] Oncore r. H90
         2804  Qu'il lur lançat de l'autre part;L2804 [L2804] Si le l. H90

Page 90


                   Un fel Daneis si en ferid,L2805 [L2805] Un des D. H91
                   Bien l'asenad, pas ne faillid,L2806 [L2806] p. ni f. R91
                   Sur la mamele lui entrad,L2807 [L2807] Suz RH91
         2808  Al quor lui vint, mort le getad.
                   Mais al retur qu'il volt turner
                   Un archiers lait [un dart] voler;L2810 [L2810] d. aler R91L2810 [L2810] l. une seete v. H91L2810 [L2810] a lui91
                   Si l'[aconsiut] sur la furceleL2811 [L2811] la surcele L la mamele H91L2811 [L2811] suz la LRH91L2811 [L2811] cunseut L aconsiwt R91L2811 [L2811] cunsivit91
         2812  K'al quor li vint mortel novele;
                   L'aneme s'en vait, li cors chaïd,L2813 [L2813] le c. LH91
                   Si cum li orps aveit geïd.L2814 [L2814] o. lout g. H91
                   E li reis Elle, quant ço sot,L2815 [L2815] q. il ceo s. H91L2815 [L2815om  Elle H91L2815 [L2815om  E R91
         2816  Unc en [sun] quor tel doel nen ot,L2816 [L2816] d. not LH91L2816 [L2816] Onques au q. H91L2816 [L2816] om  sun DH91
                   Par hardement dunc s'escriad,
                   Dous des escheles tresperçad,L2818 [L2818] e. trespassa H91L2818 [L2818om  des H91
                   Mais de ço fist que malsened
         2820  Que trop s'i est abandoned.L2820 [L2820om  i R91
                   De tutes parz fierent Daneis,L2821 [L2821] p. furent D. RH91
                   Ocis i fud Elle li reis,
                   Ocis i fud en la champaine,L2823 [L2823om  i R91
         2824  Poi eschapad de sa cumpaine.L2824 [L2824] P. en e. DL91L2823 [L2823] not in H91
                   Li lius, u il fud mort rüed,L2825 [L2825] m. gete L91
                   [Ellecroft] est ore apeled;L2826 [L2826] Ellecrost L91L2826 [L2826] Ellecros91
                   Devers le west une croiz ad,L2827 [L2827] c. i ad RH91
         2828  En miliu d'Engleterre estad,
                   Engleis l'apelent Ellecros.L2825 [L2825] There is some contradiction here. In the Estoire the battle in which Ella met his death takes place pres d'Everwic (l. 2790) and so it is reasonable to suppose that li lius u il fud mort rued (l. 2825) is also near York, though the intervening account of the battle rather puts that out of the reader's mind. The MSS. show variation in the name; R and H agree in Ellescroft, in L the name appears as Ellecrost and it looks as if D had this same form before him and changed it to Ellecros to harmonize with what follows. Then without any warning Gaimar continues:
                   devers le west une croiz ad,
                   En miliu d'Engleterre estad
(ll. 2827-8). Now this description certainly does not fit a site near York, so it looks as if Gaimar knew of some other place associated with an Ella and connected the two. In l. 2829 the name is undoubtedly Ellecros, as shown by the agreement of the four MSS. and by the rime with repos, but whether this is a deliberate alteration of ellecroft by Gaimar to fit the cross of l. 2827 or whether he actually knew a place ellecros must be left open.91

                   Unc li Daneis n'orent reposL2830 [L2830om  li R91
                   Desci qu'il orent tuit cunquis
         2832  Del [north de Humbre] cel païs.L2832 [L2832] De north le humbre tut le p. H91L2832 [L2832] norhumbre DL91 [f.113a]
                   [Mes donc asistrent la cité,
                   Partut firent lur volunté].L2834 [L2834] ll. 2833-4 not in DLH91
                   Quant lur gardeins i orent mis,

Page 91


         2836  En Mercene vont en un païs.L2836 [L2836] Merce RH92
                   Notingeham pristrent Daneis,
                   Ywar e Ube esteit lur reis,L2838 [L2838] esteient LRH92
                   Trestuit l'iver i sujurnerent.L2839 [L2839] Tut H92
         2840  Les Merceneis ost asemblerent,
                   Ost asemblad li reis Burred,
                   Si ad mandet pur Edelred;L2842 [L2842] m. par E. L92
                   Reis de Westsexe cil esteit,L2843 [L2843] cist e. H92
         2844  Elvred un sun frere aveitL2844 [L2844] E bureth un R92
                   Qui bien saveit cunseil donerL2845 [L2845] Q. bon c. savoit d. H92
                   E bataille [bien] ordenerL2846 [L2846] om  bien DL92
                   E guerrïer resaveit bien,L2847 [L2847] g. savoit b. H92
         2848  Clers ert, bon astronomïen.L2848 [L2848] e b.a. RH92L2848 [L2848] C. estait R92
                   Cil vindrent od lur ost banie,
                   Notingeham unt asaillie
                   Mais les Daneis qui dedenz erentL2851 [L2851] li D. H92
         2852  Legerement les reüserent.
                   Tuit furent liez, quant triwes pristrent,
                   Ariere en la veie se mistrent
                   E li Daneis sulunc lur lei
         2856  I firent feste cheün par sei.L2856 [L2856] chescon RH checun L92L2856 [L2856] I funt RH92
                   Pois ralerent a Everwis,L2857 [L2857] alerent H92
                   Asemblent gent de cel païs,L2858 [L2858] Et assemblerent ceus del p. H92
                   Si [manderent les] Merceneis,L2859 [L2859] mandent ces92
         2860  Viengent en l'ost od les Daneis.L2860 [L2860] Kil v. L92L2860 [L2860] I v.92
                   Il vindrent e la gent de nort
                   Od les Daneis tresqu'a Tiefort.
                   Il orent [ainz] triwes donez,L2863 [L2863] enz L om  ainz H92L2863 [L2863] tuz92
         2864  Sis troverent aseürez,L2864 [L2864] tut a. H92
                   Pais e triwes lur unt fruissiez,L2865 [L2865om  lur H92
                   Tuit lu païs unt eissilliez.
                   Un rei troverent el païs,L2867 [L2867] Uns reis R92
         2868  Bon crestïen e Deu amis,L2868 [L2868om  e H92

Page 92


                   Edmund ot nun, seinz hom esteit,
                   [Trestut Estengle] mainteneit.L2870 [L2870] T. les engleis L T. hestengle R93L2870 [L2870] Tut H93L2870 [L2870] Trestuz engleis93 [f.113b]
                   Od tant de gent cum cel reis outL2871 [L2871] r. avoit H93L2871 [L2871] cel rei RH93
         2872  Se cumbatid, veintre nel potL2872 [L2872] ne p. L nes p. R ne pooit H93
                   Pur la grant gent que cil aveient;L2873 [L2873] g. qil a. H93
                   Mult fierement se cumbateient,
                   La victoire del champ fud lur.L2875 [L2875] Et la v. f.l. H93
         2876  Deus! Quel damage del seignur,
                   Del rei Edmund qui fud chaciedL2877 [L2877] not in H93
                   A un chastel, u fud sun sied.L2878 [L2878] c. sen fui H93L2878 [L2878] ert R93
                   E li paien l'unt purseüd,L2879 [L2879] parsey R pursui H93
         2880  Edmund lur est encuntre issud.L2880 [L2880After 2880 H inserts Et baudement a eus venu93L2880 [L2880] issy R93
                   Tut li premiers qui l'encontrerentL2881 [L2881] Tut le primer RH93
                   L'unt pris e lui demanderent:L2882 [L2882] Si le pristrent et d. H93L2882 [L2882] e puis d. R93L2882 [L2882] Unt R93
                   'U est Edmund? Dites le nus'.
         2884  'Jo volentiers tuit a estrus.
                   Tant cum jo [ere] en cel refui,L2885 [L2885] fui H93L2885 [L2885] er DL93
                   Edmund i ert e jo od lui.
                   Quant m'en turnai, il s'en turnad,L2887 [L2887] t. si sen t. H93
         2888  Ne sai, s'il vus eschaperad'.L2888 [L2888] si de vus e. H93
                   [Ore est en Deu del rei la fin
                   E en Jesu ki est aclin].L2890 [L2890] k. il e. H93L2890 [L2890] a ki RH93
                   Cil ki l'unt pris tant l'unt tenudL2891 [L2891] lunt tant RH93
         2892  Ke Ywar e Ube i sunt venud.L2892 [L2892om  i RH93L2892 [L2892] Qa H93
                   Plusurs de lur venud i suntL2893 [L2893] l. nevouz i H93
                   Ki reconurent saint EdmuntL2894 [L2894] r. E. seint R93L2894 [L2894] Reconeu ont s.E. H93
                   E quant ço sorent cil malfed,L2895 [L2895] s. li m. H93
         2896  Mult cruelment unt cumandetL2896 [L2896om  Mult H93
                   Qu'il reneiast la lei divine,
                   Crist qui nasquit de la virgine.
                   Li reis lur dist que [nun] feradL2899 [L2899] nu93

Page 93


         2900  Mais [fermement] en lui crerad.L2900 [L2900] l. co dit c.94L2900 [L2900] forment DH94
                   Que firent dunc cil aversier?L2901 [L2901] Quei H94L2901 [L2901] Q. lui f.94
                   A un arbre l'unt fait lïer.L2902 [L2902] a. le font l. H94
                   Puis si unt dit e mult jured,L2903 [L2903om  si and mult H94
         2904  D'estrange mort ert turmented.L2904 [L2904] m. lunt t. R94
                   Dunc manderent pur lur archiers,L2905 [L2905om  lur R94L2905 [L2905om  pur H94
                   Al rei traistrent od arcs manners.L2906 [L2906] a. manuers R94L2906 [L2906] t. a arcs H94
                   Tant [i] unt trait e [tant] lancetL2907 [L2907] t. li f. H94L2907 [L2907] om  tant DH94
         2908  Que sun cors fud si enfichetL2908 [L2908] f. issi e H94 [f.113c]
                   De darz que traistrent cil felun
                   Cum est la pel del heriçun
                   Espés de puinnantes brochetes
         2912  Dunt del gardin trait les pumetes.L2912 [L2912] g. ported p. RH94
                   Encore, ço qui, peüssent traireL2913 [L2913] puissent cil t. H94
                   Ainz que cil reis volsist rien faireL2914 [L2914] q. li r. RH94
                   [De] quanque cil felun voleientL2915 [L2915] E94
         2916  Qui sun saint cors [si] baillisseient.L2916 [L2916] c. en leidissoient H94
                   Dunc demanderent un felun,
                   [Coran Colbe out cil] a nun,L2918 [L2918] C. cocba avoit n. H94L2918 [L2918] Ne sai cum cil aveit94L2918 [L2918] The executioner does not seem to be named in any other account of the martyrdom. Evidently the name was an unusual one, for R and H, which alone preserve it, differ in the second part (it is not in L owing to a lengthy omission) and D evidently could not make anything of it, because he writes ne sai cum cil aveit a nun. As between R and H I have followed the former, connecting his Colbe with O.N. Kolbein.94
                   La teste al saint cil ad trenchied;L2919 [L2919om  cil H94
         2920  Issi fud Edmund martiried.L2920 [L2920] martirize RH94
                   Mais si Gaimar eüst laisir,L2921 [L2921] si gillemar R94
                   Il parlast plus [del] saint martyr;L2922 [L2922] de94
                   Pur ço que ailurs en est la vieL2923 [L2923] la veie R94L2923 [L2923om  en H94
         2924  E les leçons e l'estorie,
                   Si [l'ad leissé] icele fiedeL2925 [L2925] l. ceste f. R l. a cele f. H94L2925 [L2925] se (le [H]) laissad DH94
                   Pur l'estoire que ot cumencee.
                   Cil felun rei [Ubbe] e YwarL2927 [L2927om  rei H94
         2928  Ço firent de sa sainte char.L2928 [L2928] de la s. RH94
                   Quant ç'orent fait, d'iloc turnerent,L2929 [L2929] Q. co unt feit d. RH94
                   Dreit vers Redinges s'en alerentL2930 [L2930om  Dreit H94

Page 94


                   Mais lentement i sunt alez,L2931 [L2931om  Mais H95
         2932  Viles destruistrent e citezL2932 [L2932] V. destruites e c. H95
                   E crestïens vont [osciant]L2933 [L2933om  E H95L2933 [L2933] destruiant95
                   E lur yglises [destruiant].L2934 [L2934] Les egl. vont d. H95L2934 [L2934] vont depescant95
                   Quant a Redinges sunt venuz,
         2936  Westsexïens s'en sunt issuz,
                   Cuntre lur rei en sunt alez,L2937 [L2937om  en H95L2937 [L2937] Encontre H95
                   La u sun ost est asemblez,L2938 [L2938] o. out a. R95L2938 [L2938] u sost e. H95
                   E li Daneis dous jurz sujurnent,L2939 [L2939] sojurnerent RH95L2939 [L2939om  E H95
         2940  Tuz tens funt mal [quel] part que turnent.L2940 [L2940] turnerent RH95L2940 [L2940] Mult f. m. H95L2940 [L2940] que95
                   Al tierz jur sunt aparailliez
                   Dous cuntes ki unt chevalchiez,
                   A Englesfeld en sunt alez
         2944  Edelwlf unt iloc trovez
                   [Riche baron ert del païs;
                   Asemblé aveit ses amis [f.113d]
                   E ses homes e ses efforz]L2947 [L2947] Qui ad asemblez tut sun eforz DH95
         2948  Qui des Daneis unt asez morz
                   E l'un des cuntes fud ocis,
                   Sidrac qui fel ert e guerris.L2950 [L2950] e. fiz ewerris H95L2950 [L2950] fut RH95L2950 [L2950om  fel H95
                   [Quart] jur aprés vint AdelredL2951 [L2951] Un j. vint apres E. H95L2951 [L2951] Quant le95
         2952  Li reis e sun frere Elvred;
                   A Redinges ot mult grant ostL2953 [L2953] R. od g. H95
                   E les Daneis issirent tost,L2954 [L2954] Sont venuz amdui t. H95L2954 [L2954] D. en i. R95
                   En un plain champ tindrent esturL2955 [L2955] c. pristrent e. H95
         2956  Qui ne faillit en tuit un jur.L2956 [L2956] f. de t. le j. H95
                   Iloc fud Edelwlf ocis,
                   Li riches hom [dunt ainz vus dis]L2958 [L2958] des a. R95L2958 [L2958] dicel pais95
                   E Edelred e ElvredL2959 [L2959om  E H95
         2960  Furent chaciez a Wiceled.L2960 [L2960After 2960 R inserts Co est un gue vers Windesoueres A unes estand en unes mores95
                   Iloc l'un ost alad ariere,

Page 95


                   Ne surent gued sur la riviere;
                   Twiford ad nun le gued tuit dis,L2963 [L2963] li g. R96
         2964  U les Daneis sunt resortis
                   E les Engleis sunt eschapez,L2959 [L2959] Gaimar here gives additional information, evidently derived from a local tradition which Plummer (II, 87) is prepared to accept as genuine. The place Gaimar has in mind is Whistley, near Hurst (Berks.) but R has apparently confused this with Whistley Park, near Windsor, and has added an explanatory couplet; the form Windesoueres does not appear to be attested much before the end of the thirteenth century.96
                   Mais mult en sunt mort e navrez,L2966 [L2966om  Mais H96
                   Si orent Daneis la victur.L2967 [L2967om  la RH96L2967 [L2967] Ci furent D. R96
         2968  Mais aprés ço [dreit] le quart jur
                   Sur Eschesdune [s'] asemblerentL2969 [L2969] eschesdoune H esenesdune R96L2969 [L2969] hesdune96
                   La gent qui pas ne s'entramerent;
                   Ço sunt [Daneis e Engleis]L2971 [L2971] Daneis and Engleis interverted96
         2972  Qui se [erent combatu] enceis.L2972 [L2972] Q. furent c. H96L2972 [L2972] cumbatirent96
                   Iloc firent lur gent partir
                   En dous batailles pur ferir;
                   [Par lur orguil l'unt feit Daneis.
         2976  En l'une furent lur dous reis];L2976 [L2976] ll. 2975-6 not in DH96
                   [Baseng] e Halfdene [ourent] nun,L2977 [L2977] o. cel n. R o. a n. H96L2977 [L2977om  e H96L2977 [L2977] E B. R96L2977 [L2977] brent en96L2977 [L2977] Baseg96
                   Od els ot maint bon campïun.L2978 [L2978] m. compaignon H96
                   En l'autre eschele cuntes ot,
         2980  Sidrac le viel qui ferir sotL2980 [L2980] S. le veil R S. letuel H96L2980 [L2980] leinel96
                   E od lui le guene SidrocL2981 [L2981] sydroc R sidrac H96L2981 [L2981] le quien S. H96L2981 [L2981] sideroc96
                   Qui fud le parent Haveloc,L2982 [L2982] f. p. le rei H. R96L2982 [L2982] Q. ert p. H96L2982 [L2982Haveloc. Whether, as Gross suggests, Gaimar, in need of a rime to Sidroc (l. 2981), recalled the name of the Danish king whose story he had told at length much earlier or whether the name refers to some other person is an unsolved puzzle.96
                   Li cunte Osber[n] e li cuens Frane,L2983 [L2983] osbert H96L2983 [L2983] E le quens O. R96
         2984  Cunte Harald, nevod Haldene;L2984 [L2984] n. dane R n. aldane H96 [f.114a]
                   [Od els erent barons asez
                   E chevalers bons e provez].L2986 [L2986] ll. 2985-6 not in DH96
                   E les Engleis de l'autre part
         2988  Se sunt partiz, nel funt a tart;L2988 [L2988] f. pas t. H96L2988 [L2988] Qui s. p. H96
                   Reis Edelred cuntre les reisL2989 [L2989] E. encontre R96
                   Se cumbatid od les EngleisL2990 [L2990] od ses E. R96
                   E Elvred encuntre les cuntes.L2991 [L2991] E. contre RH96
         2992  Le jur reçurent Daneis huntesL2992 [L2992] r. les D. R96

Page 96


                   Kar li Engleis les [ont] chacied,L2993 [L2993] les E. R97L2993 [L2993] orent DH97
                   Vencud en champ e deglaivez,
                   [Mult maint miller en ont ocis,
         2996  Cels mar vindrent en lor païs],L2996 [L2996] ll. 2995-6 not in DH97
                   [Baseng] li reis iloc fud mort,L2997 [L2997] r. idonc f. H97L2997 [L2997] Rasig97
                   Li cons Sidroc, li granz, li forz,L2998 [L2998] si g. si f. H97L2998 [L2998] grant and fort RH97L2998 [L2998Sidroc. Three Danish leaders of this name figure in A.S.C. and likewise in the Estoire; one was killed at Englefield (l. 2950) and two at Ashdown (ll. 2980-1); Gaimar would, I think, have been hard put to it to say which of the three he has in mind here.97
                   E les cuntes dunt des ainz dis;L2999 [L2999] E des c. d. einz d. H97
         3000  Unze en i ot el champ ocis.L3000 [L3000om  en H97
                   E aprés ço une quinzeineL3001 [L3001om  co H97
                   Rasemblerent la gent grifaine,L3002 [L3002] Res. R Se rass. H97L3002 [L3002] Sas.97
                   A Basi[n]ges se cumbatirent,L3003 [L3003] basins R97
         3004  Cil sunt chaciez qui ainz venquirent.L3004 [L3004om  ainz R97L3004 [L3004] Cels R97
                   Un [mais] aprés a MereduneL3005 [L3005] an97
                   Furent vencu cels de Seisune,L3006 [L3006] Vencu f. cil H97
                   [Hamund] l'evesque i fud ocis,L3007 [L3007] i f. o. and levesque interverted in R97L3007 [L3007] Edmunt DH97
         3008  De Guincestre ert poëstifs.L3008 [L3008] Ki de R97
                   Dunc vint un Daneis, un tyrantL3009 [L3009] un D. t. H97
                   Qui Sumerlede ot nun le grant,L3010 [L3010] sumersede R97L3010 [L3010Sumerlede. In the passage Gaimar is here translating from A.S.C. 871 we read: com mycel sumerlida; the reference is to those Viking bands who raided Britain in the summer, but returned to winter-quarters on the Continent. For some reason, though the text of his source is clear, Gaimar has confused the military expression with the personal-name of the same form; it was probably better known to him, being still in use in his time. One bearer of the name, Somerled, Lord of the Isles, killed at Renfrew in 1164, was very active in the first half of the twelfth century and his name at least was introduced into the romance Fergus.97
                   A Redinges vint od sun ost,
         3012  Quanqu'il trovad, destruit mult tost.L3012 [L3012om  mult H97
                   Reis Edelred se volt cumbatre
                   Mais il transit, si gist en l'atre;L3014 [L3014] en lestre R97
                   A Wineburne est li reis posez
         3016  Que sul cinc anz ne tint regnez.
                   Dunc regnat li reis Elvred,L3017 [L3017] Donques r. E. H97
                   Edelwlfing ert apeled,
                   [E] li Daneis dunc s'asemblerent,L3019 [L3019] om  E DH97
         3020  En Westsexe quere le alerent,
                   A Wiltune la l'unt trovez.
                   Od poi de gent que ot asemblez
                   Cumbatit sei: ço fud en vein;L3023 [L3023] E c.97
         3024  Al bois le chacerent del plain.

Page 97


                   [E en cel an ke cist fud reis,
                   Nof batailles tint as DaneisL3026 [L3026] Nos R98
                   Estre asemblers e esturs
         3028  K'entre els furent par plusurs jors]. [f.114b]
                   En [i]cel an furent ocisL3029 [L3029] E en R98L3029 [L3029] cel DLH98
                   Unze cuntes poëstifs,L3030 [L3030] c. mult p. H98L3030 [L3030] Nof R98
                   De Danemarche [erent] icil;L3031 [L3031] furent98
         3032  Ensemble od els humes set milL3032 [L3032] .xii. m. H98L3032 [L3032om  Ensemble R98
                   E li rei Baseng lur seignur;L3033 [L3033] li reis L le r. H98
                   Elvred sur els ot la victur.L3034 [L3034om  la H98L3034 [L3034] E E. L98
                   E en cel an tuz les DaneisL3035 [L3035] En cel L E cel R En icel H98
         3036  [Pristrent triwes de Elvred le reis.L3036 [L3036] li reis RH98L3036 [L3036] t. a E. H98
                   Pus de Redinges s'en alerent,L3037 [L3037om  sen R98
                   L'iver a Lundres sujornerent
                   E en l'esté les MerceneisL3039 [L3039] Pus en L98
         3040  Pristrent triwes od les Daneis.
                   L'iver aprés a [Torchesie]L3041 [L3041] a T. and la gent haie interverted in R98L3041 [L3041] torcheseie DR98
                   Pristrent sujur la gent haïe,
                   Le tierz iver a Rependune.L3043 [L3043] t. iur L98
         3044  Burred ert rei, dreite persone,L3044 [L3044] rei e d. R98
                   Merceine esteit [le] sun regnet,L3045 [L3045] de DL98
                   [Par] lur efforz l'en unt chaciez;L3046 [L3046om  en H98L3046 [L3046] lur force R98L3046 [L3046] Pur98
                   [Vint e dous anz l'aveit tenu,L3047 [L3047] Duze a. aveit regne tenuz Suvent sert cumbatuz DLH98
         3048  Quant del regne chascé fu].L3047 [L3047] There is divergence in this couplet between the MSS. R DLH Vint e dous anz l'aveit tenu Duze anz aveit regne tenuz Quant del regne chasce fu Suvent s'ert cumbatuz In R the figure agrees with that in A.S.C. 874, and so does the linking of length of reign and expulsion. For these reasons and because the figure in DLH could derive from the other (xxii > xii), I have preferred the version of R.98
                   Li reis a Rume s'en alad,
                   Cel an me[ï]sme deviad,
                   El mustier sainte MarieL3051 [L3051] m. de s. M. R98L3051 [L3051R inserts de after mustier, thus making the line a correct octosyllable. There are grounds for thinking that Gaimar preferred the older construction in such phrases, so I have left the line untouched. At l. 4074 R again inserts the preposition into the genitival phrase; at l. 4161 all MSS. agree in El mustier saint Piere giseit and at l. 6411 in Enz el mustier seint Swithun.98
         3052  En Engleschescole perdit vie,L3052 [L3052] p. la v. LR98L3052 [L3052] Est leng L98
                   Iloec fud icel seignurL3053 [L3053] f. dunc cel s. L98L3053 [L3053] Ilokes R98
                   Ensevelit par grant honur.
                   Dunc firent Daneis que enfantL3055 [L3055] les D. R98
         3056  Cheolwlf livrerent Mercenelant,L3056 [L3056] Teolwlf L Keelulf H98

Page 98


                   E il ostages lur livratL3057 [L3057] lurad L99L3057 [L3057] Cil LR99
                   Que fëelment les servirat.L3058 [L3058] f. mult les R99
                   Puis s'en turnerent plusurs [parz],L3059 [L3059] om  parz DL99
         3060  A Lundres [sujurnot Iwarz]L3060 [L3060] s. marus L99L3060 [L3060] sojornerent H99L3060 [L3060] sujurner ert les ivers jurs99
                   E Haldene li autre reis
                   Vait guerrier sur les PecteisL3062 [L3062om  sur H99
                   E sur [Streclued] reis de Gal[e]weie,L3063 [L3063] sur srestwed r. L99L3063 [L3063] trectued99
         3064  Suvent les mist en male veie.L3063 [L3063] The leonine rime Galeweie : male veie, given by three out of the four MSS., has every appearance of being intentional, so Galweie in D is to be rejected. A.S.C.(E) 875 has: gehergode on Pehtas $$ on Strætlæd Wealas; the form in the Estoire suggests that Gaimar's actual source had, like A.S.C.(A), Stræcled. In the chronicle the reference is, of course, to the Strathclyde Britons, but in the Estoire their place is apparently taken by a king of Galloway. Where did he come from? In his note on the annal Plummer referred to this mistake and recalled that the Annales Domitiani Latini (ed. F. P. Magoun, Jr., Mediæval Studies IX (1947), 235-95) under the year 924 speak of a Streclæde rege Uualorum, but the two cases are not quite parallel. At 924 the English texts have Stræcled Weala cyning (A), Streaclede Wæla cinge (F), but at 875 they make no mention of a king in the section concerned. It is evident that Gaimar split the O.E. compound name in two, but it is not so certain that he took Stræcled to be a personal-name. Quite clearly he realized that Wealas by itself could not in this context refer to the Welsh, for he could easily have found a rime to either waleis or to wales; earlier he had listed the Galweien along with the Pecteis (l. 18) and his treatment of Sumerlede (l. 3010) as a personal-name suggests that he was not unaware of the geography of S.W. Scotland, and makes it reasonable to suppose that he recognized Strathclyde in Stræcled. I would therefore hazard the suggestion that he wrote: E sur Streclued e Galeweie and that reis was later mistakenly added as a gloss in the archetype MS.99
                   Li reis [Godrum] e OschetelL3065 [L3065] gordwin DL99
                   E Annuent pristrent en conseilL3066 [L3066] ancivent p. un concil H Il aveient pris c. R99L3066 [L3066] Entrels p. L99L3066 [L3066] Et H99L3066 [L3066] om  E DLR99
                   Que a Grantebrige turnerunt
         3068  E la cited asegerunt. [f.114c]
                   Si firent il. Od lur grant ostL3069 [L3069om  grant H99L3069 [L3069om  od L99
                   De Rependune vont mult tost,
                   Trestut un an le siege tindrent,L3071 [L3071] Tut H99
         3072  A chief de tur pur fol i vindrent,L3072 [L3072om  i R99L3072 [L3072] cum f. LRH99
                   Mult perdirent, poi gaainerent.L3073 [L3073] M. i p. poi i g. R99L3073 [L3073] gainerent DLRH99
                   [Tut en emblé donc chevacherentL3074 [L3074] Tut ensemble sen alerent DLH99L3074 [L3074] ll. 3073-4 interverted in H99
                   Dreit a Warham, si l'unt asis,
         3076  En un sul jorn ont le burc pris].L3076 [L3076] ll. 3075-6 not in DLH99
                   Li reis Elvred dunc s'en aladL3077 [L3077] d. i a. R99
                   E l'ost de Westsexe menad;L3078 [L3078] W. i amenad R99L3078 [L3078] lost sus W. H99
                   Tant menat gent de sun regned
         3080  [E] de autre gent [k'il] out [manded]L3080 [L3080] amened DL99L3080 [L3080] que DL99L3080 [L3080] om  E DLH99
                   Que li Daneis sunt eschived,L3081 [L3081] D. lunt e. R99
                   Plait firent a sa volented.
                   [Ço li jurerent les treis rais
         3084  E les meillors de lur Daneis]L3084 [L3084] ll. 3083-4 not in DLH99
                   [E bons] ostages en livrerent,L3085 [L3085] Tels o. DLH99
                   [Tels] cum Engleis lur demanderent:L3086 [L3086] E. les d. R om  lur H99L3086 [L3086] om  Tels DLH99
                   Senz demurance s'en irunt,L3087 [L3087] Ke s. R99

Page 99


         3088  Ja mais de rien ne forferunt.L3088 [L3088] ne li f. R nel f. H100
                   Par itels triwes departirent.L3089 [L3089] t. sen partirent H100
                   Ore oiez que [li] Daneis firent.L3090 [L3090] om  li DL100
                   [Nutantré e] en embledL3091 [L3091] om  e DL100L3091 [L3091] Noitantement DL100
         3092  A Execestre en sunt aled,
                   Cil a cheval la vile emblerent;L3093 [L3093] c. a la v. H100
                   Lur autre gent par nef alerent.L3094 [L3094] g. es nefs a. R g. par mier a. H100
                   A la cited voldrent aler,L3095 [L3095] voldrunt L100
         3096  La [se deveient] encontrerL3096 [L3096] deveroient H100L3096 [L3096] le deivent100
                   Mais dunc lur avint un encumbrer,L3097 [L3097om  dunc H100
                   En mer lur estuet perillier,L3098 [L3098] m. les e. R100L3098 [L3098] dunc p. DL100
                   Cent e quarante dous [navees]L3099 [L3099] navies L100L3099 [L3099om  dous R100L3099 [L3099] nefs100
         3100  En sunt a diables alees.
                   Elvred li reis, quant ço entent,L3101 [L3101] E li r. E. R100
                   Mandat ses humes e sa gent.
                   Idunc avint, ne pot autre estre,L3103 [L3103] p. el e. H100L3103 [L3103] I. vint L100
         3104  Le [sege] tint a ExecestreL3104 [L3104] siute DL100
                   E li paien [ki] sunt asisL3105 [L3105] i DH100
                   Unt suffraite de lur amisL3106 [L3106] Urent s. R Si unt H100
                   Que orent perduz [en la] navieL3107 [L3107] Kil en o. R100L3107 [L3107] el DR100
         3108  E de lur bone cumpaignie. [f.114d]
                   Pur quei, quant nel porent tenir,L3109 [L3109] poeient H100L3109 [L3109] Pur co q. ne se p. R100L3109 [L3109] om  quant DLH100
                   Dunc firent plait [pur els] garir.
                   Ostages unt itels livred
         3112  Cum [li] Engleis unt demanded.L3112 [L3112] om  li DLH100
                   Puis jurerent pais a tenir
                   E [a] tuz jurs les a servir.L3114 [L3114] j. a eus s. H100L3114 [L3114] Tut jurs le rai voldrunt s. R100L3114 [L3114] om  a DL100
                   Quant ço unt [fait], en Mercene vont,L3115 [L3115] co veient en L100L3115 [L3115om  ço R100
         3116  Entre els cel regne parti unt,L3116 [L3116] r. departirent H100
                   Cheolwlf partie [en] unt donezL3117 [L3117] E C. L A C. H100L3117 [L3117] om  en DLH100

Page 100


                   Qui [rei aveit del tut] estez.L3118 [L3118] q. reis R101L3118 [L3118] rei de t. a. DL101
                   [Puis en Noël] felun DaneisL3119 [L3119] N. li f. RH101L3119 [L3119] En N. puis101
         3120  [Ki peis urent juré ainceisL3120 [L3120] Come tricheour fruisserent pes H101L3120 [L3120] Cum trecheurs (traiturs [L]) fruissent la pais DL101
                   Fruissent la pes. Li deffaiéL3121 [L3121] l. 3121 not in DLH101
                   En Westsexe en [re]sunt alé.L3122 [L3122] W. sen sont a. H101L3122 [L3122] sunt DLH101
                   A Sipeham pristrent estal,L3123 [L3123] sunt arivez DLH101
         3124  Mult volunters i firent mal,
                   Musters destruistrent e maisons,
                   Chapeles e religïons],
                   La gent chacerent del païs,
         3128  Les plusurs unt en prisun mis.L3128 [L3128om  Les H101
                   Li reis Elvred qui ert lur sireL3129 [L3129om  Li reis H101
                   Ne sot que faire ne ke dire;
                   De totes parz feit gent manderL3131 [L3131] tote R101
         3132  [Mes mult en pout poi asembler].
                   Cum veit que si est entreprisL3133 [L3133] vist H101
                   E [si] baillit par enemis,L3134 [L3134] si malbailli p.e. R si baillez de ses e. H101L3134 [L3134] om  si DL101
                   As bois se tint e as gastinesL3135 [L3135om  e H101L3135 [L3135] Al b. LH101
         3136  Pur eschaper des mains sanguines
                   E nepuroc, quant il [poait],L3137 [L3137] q. unque p. L101L3137 [L3137om  E L101L3137 [L3137] pot DLH101
                   Od tant de gent cum il aveitL3138 [L3138] Sur els vint sis assaillot L Sovent a eus sassemblout H101L3138 [L3138] Aalin a lui se asemblot101
                   [Si s'asemblout contre dous tanz,
         3140  Sovent oscist de lur asquanz].
                   Un frere Ywar e [de] HaldeneL3141 [L3141] e H. R101L3141 [L3141] Le f. de H. et de Y. H101L3141 [L3141] le DL101
                   [En] fud ocis el bois de Pene,L3142 [L3142] b. sanz eschar H101L3142 [L3142om  En LH101L3142 [L3142] E101
                   Ube ot a nun un malfaisant,
         3144  Sur lui firent un' hoge grantL3144 [L3144] un huche g. H101L3144 [L3144] f.h. mult g. R101
                   Li Daneis, quant l'[ourent] troved;L3145 [L3145] unt DL101
                   Ubelaue l'unt apeled,
                   La hoge est en Devenesire,L3147 [L3147] La howe H101

Page 101


         3148  De gent i ot mult grant martire,L3148 [L3148om  mult H102L3148 [L3148] out bien g. R102L3141 [L3141] In his source Gaimar read that a brother of Ivar and Halfdan was killed in Devonshire. To this brief statement he has made three additions: (i) that the death occurred el bois de Pene, by which he probably meant the wooded country near Penselwood on the Somerset-Wiltshire border; (ii) that the brother was Ubba; (iii) that a mound called Ubbelawe was erected over his body in Devonshire. The last two items have every appearance of being connected in an attempt, as suggested by Gross, to explain the place-name, and the passage is comparable to the explanation of Ellecros (ll. 2827-9). Asser, followed by Florence of Worcester, in his account of the raid, leaves the leader unnamed, but has him killed at Arx Cynuit, said by antiquaries to have been near Appledore (D). Now Gaimar's account could be taken to imply that the burial was not on the battlefield, and the same applies to the account given by Eulogium Historiarum (c. lxxxii) where we read: Aluredus autem Danos præivit et ad Chippenham congressi sunt; ibi enim occisus est Ubba rex Danorum . . . et multa millia ceciderunt ex utraque parte sed victoria Danis remisit. Dani vero corpora suorum occisorum sepelientes et corpus Ubbæ invenientes magno mærore perculsi sunt. Ipsum vero sepelierunt more paganorum; fecerunt magnum struem lapidum . . . quod usque in hodiernum diem vocatur Ubbeslawe, quod est in Devonia. The site is unidentified, and the name itself raises a difficulty: place-names compounded with hlaw are very rare in the south-west and the development to law is associated chiefly with Nb. and Du., so it is not without interest that Roger of Howden, or rather the writer of the additions in MS. Arundel 69 of his chronicle, says: Ubba apud Ubbelawe in Eboracensi Colonia post multas cædes Christianorum, Deo volente, interfectus est.102
                   [Huit cenz quarante en i morurent.
                   Quin chalt? Feluns perjures furent.L3150 [L3150] chald R102
                   Conquis i fu le gumfanun
         3152  Ubbe ke Raven out a nun].
                   Aprés la Pasche en icel an
                   Od poi de gent par grant ahan
                   Fermat li bons reis Elvred
         3156  A [Edelinge] un chasteled.L3156 [L3156] edeluge DL102
                   [Fermer i fist un defensal
                   Par ki Daneis mist en traval]. [f.115a]
                   Aprés ço la quarte semaineL3159 [L3159] A. pasche quatre s. R102L3159 [L3159] A. en la q. H102
         3160  Chevalchat [a] Ecbrithestaine –L3160 [L3160] elbrichesteine L ecbrithstane R etrichaine H102L3160 [L3160] elbrithestaine102
                   Ço est de l'est de [Selewode] –L3161 [L3161] del de S. H102L3161 [L3161] feleswde DL102
                   [Ceolmer] vint [contre li e] ChudeL3162 [L3162] li encude H102L3162 [L3162] om  li e D102L3162 [L3162] encuntre DLH102L3162 [L3162] Colmer DLH102
                   Od les baruns de Sumersete,L3163 [L3163] Sumersete and Dorsete interverted in H102
         3164  De Wiltesire e de Dorsete;
                   [De Hanteschire i vint Chilman
                   Ki les barons manda par ban]
                   E cil vindrent ki remis erentL3167 [L3167] cil qui v. H102
         3168  Deça la mer ki fuiz [n']erent
                   E quant il virent lur seignur,
                   Mult loërent le creaturL3170 [L3170] loent H102
                   De ço que vif l'orent trovez
         3172  Kar lungement fud adirezL3172 [L3172] f. desire H102
                   E quiderent en lur avisL3173 [L3173] l. pais H102L3173 [L3173] quidouent R102
                   Que Daneis le eüssent ocis.L3174 [L3174] orent L102
                   Del rei [orent mult grant] cunfortL3175 [L3175] om  mult DH102L3175 [L3175] r. grant orent102
         3176  Kar vif esteit, [ne] mie mort.L3176 [L3176] Que LR102
                   Idunc pristrent en lur cunseilL3177 [L3177om  en H102L3177 [L3177] Donc s. R102
                   Li reis Elvret e si fedeil
                   Que tute nuit chevalcherunt

Page 102


         3180  E l'endemain tant cum purrunt.
                   Donc alerent cele nuit,
                   Tresk'Aclee urent conduit]L3182 [L3182] ll. 3181-2 not in DLH103
                   E l'endemain a ure de nune
         3184  En sunt venuz a [Edenesdone].L3184 [L3184] Dunc R103L3184 [L3184] abendune DLH103L3181 [L3181] The first couplet, which occurs only in R, corresponds to the mention of Æglea in A.S.C.(DE) 878; the repetition of E l'endemain is sufficient to explain the omission in the other MSS. R is also closer to A.S.C. in the place-name in ll. 3184, though he seems to have given it an extra syllable. How DLH came to substitute Abendune is a mystery.103
                   Iloc troverent les Daneis,
                   Cumbatit sei Elvret li reisL3186 [L3186] Cumbatu sest E. L103
                   [Mes ne sai dire par deviseL3187 [L3187] s. a dire L103L3187 [L3187] ll. 3187-3416 not in H103
         3188  Des quels i out greinur occise,
                   U des Engleis u des Daneis,L3189 [L3189] Engleis and Daneis interverted in R103
                   Mes ço sai bien ke li bon reis
                   Elvred ot dunc la victurL3191 [L3191] o. donkes la v. R103
         3192  [E ses barons] par grant enur.L3192 [L3192] Od les engleis L103L3192 [L3192] Od les daneis103
                   Puis chevalchat sur els suvent
                   E fist lur maint envaïement,L3194 [L3194] envaisement R103
                   [En] quinze jurs les dantad si,L3195 [L3195] E103
         3196  [Icels] Daneis dunt jo vus di,L3196 [L3196] Ces DL103
                   Qu'il firent plait, si se acorderent
                   E bons ostages en livrerentL3198 [L3198om  en R103
                   E jurerent, quanqu'il sunt,
         3200  Que ja mais nel guerrieruntL3200 [L3200] nel guerpirent R103
                   E uncore plus si unt pramis,L3201 [L3201] p. li u. R103
                   Crestïented li unt requisL3202 [L3202] E c. R103 [f.115b]
                   E li reis dit, quant ço entent,
         3204  Qu'il le f[e]rat mult bonement.
                   Le jur lur mist del repairer,
                   Vint e huit dis, un meis plenier,L3206 [L3206] m. entier R103
                   E il vindrent a icel jur,L3207 [L3207] Cil LR103
         3208  Si amenerent lur seignur,
                   Le rei Godrun unt amened.L3209 [L3209] Li r. LR103
                   De ses parenz les plus privezL3210 [L3210] E de R103
                   [Vindrent od lui al baptizer,
         3212  Trente en i out al primsener].L3212 [L3212] ll. 3211-12 not in DL103

Page 103


                   Li reis [meïsmes] les levad,L3213 [L3213] elvred DL104
                   [Nuns e bons enges lur] donad,L3214 [L3214] E a chascun sun nun DL104
                   A[l] batistire reis [Gudrum]L3215 [L3215] gorun DL104L3215 [L3215] A DL104
         3216  Edelstan apellat l'omL3216 [L3216] E. donc lap. R104
                   E les trente, sis cumpaignuns,L3217 [L3217] E ses t. L104
                   Chascun par sei ot [enges e] nuns.L3218 [L3218] changie DL104
                   [Ad Alre furent] baptiziez,L3219 [L3219] Tuit li altre sunt DL104
         3220  Fait crestïens e primseniez.
                   Ço est mult pres de [Edelingee]L3221 [L3221] E co L104L3221 [L3221] alingee DL104
                   U faite fud ceste asemblee.L3222 [L3222] U fu feit R104
                   A [Wethmore] furent desalbezL3223 [L3223] deus abbez L dous abez R104L3223 [L3223] desabez104L3223 [L3223] westmore DL104
         3224  E duze jurs unt sujurnezL3224 [L3224] j. i u. R104L3213 [L3213] Cf. my article Glossarial and Textual Notes . . . for a discussion of this passage and for the meaning of enges.104
                   Od Elvred le gentil rei
                   Qui pur onur prist d'els cunreiL3226 [L3226] par o. R104
                   E il e ses bons cumpaignuns
         3228  Lur donerent mult riches dons.
                   Dunc ot des la Nativited
                   Oit cenz anz li siecle durez
                   E dis e nof anz de surplus,L3230 [L3230] The true date is 879, but the mistake must be due to Gaimar, as all MSS. concur in the faulty number; that it is not possible to suggest a satisfactory correction rather tends to confirm this view.104
         3232  Si cum es livres est espunsL3232 [L3232] e. respouns LR104
                   Dunt li prodom unt la memoire
                   Qui parsivent la dreite istoire,
                   En icel an, ço dit mis mestre,L3235 [L3235] icel tens R104
         3236  Vint reis Gurmund a Cirecestre.
                   Puis ad mandet pur [i]cel ostL3237 [L3237] ad demande L104L3237 [L3237] cel DL104
                   De Sipeham, i viengent tost,L3238 [L3238] S. ke v. R104
                   E il vindrent, n'unt demurez,L3239 [L3239] v. nen u. R104
         3240  Trestut l'iver unt sujurnez. [f.115c]
                   Puis en l'ested el meis d'AvrilL3241 [L3241] el meins L104
                   Maint chaitif mistrent en issil.L3242 [L3242] Mistrent m. c. R104
                   De Cirecestre sunt turned,
         3244  En Estengle s'en sunt aled.
                   Li reis Gurmund par sun devis

Page 104


                   Mist ses gardeins en cel païs.
                   Aprés iço mandat par ban
         3248  Pur l'ost qui fud a [Fuleham],L3248 [L3248] fulchestan L105L3248 [L3248] ert R105L3248 [L3248] fuchehan105
                   Cuntre lui viengent a la mer;L3249 [L3249] Encuntre DL105
                   Partut mandat le suen enperL3250 [L3250] m. par s. R105
                   E celui qui n'i volt venir
         3252  De male mort estuet murir.L3252 [L3252] m. lestut m. L105
                   Bien asemblat plus de cent reis.
                   Od lur grant ost, od lur herneis,
                   A Gernemue entrent en mer,
         3256  Desuz Chaihu vont ariver;
                   Lur nef [firent] a terre traire,L3257 [L3257] L. nefs f. LR105L3257 [L3257] funt DL105
                   [N'en] quident mais aveir a faire.L3258 [L3258] ja m. DL105L3258 [L3258] Ne DL105L3257 [L3257] This couplet affords an interesting parallel to Eneas:
                   Fait a ses nes el Toivre traire
                   n'en quida mes avoir que faire
(ll. 3109-10). Gross thinks it possible that Gaimar knew a version of the Gormund story in which, as in Philippe Mousquet and Loher et Maller, the Danes burn their ships to cut off their retreat.105

                   Puis unt guasté icel païsL3259 [L3259] g. cel p. L g. tut cel p. R105
         3260  E la terre saint Gualeris.L3260 [L3260] A la R105
                   Avant [s'en] vont, en Pontiu entrent.L3261 [L3261] Quant L105
                   Les païsanz mult se dementent.
                   Dunc violerent Saint Richier,
         3264  Les crucifix funt depescier,
                   Partuit s'espandent el païs,
                   Maint barun i unt ocis.L3266 [L3266] b. e meint hom i R105
                   Pur ço que el païs out plented,
         3268  Gurmund i ad mult sujurned
                   Mais sa grant ost alad avant,L3269 [L3269] M. sun g. L M. si g. R105
                   Unc ne finerent tresqu'a Gant.
                   Iloc furent tuit l'iver tens,
         3272  Mult firent mal en trestut sens
                   E les Franceis tart asemblerent,L3273 [L3273] t. sas. R105
                   Gurmunt quistrent tant quel troverent,L3274 [L3274] t. kil le t. R105
                   [Od lui iloc se combatirent.
         3276  Il fu oscis, Franceis venquirent]
                   E l'ost [ki] ert aled avantL3277 [L3277] quert DL105
                   E sujurnet aveit a Gant

Page 105

[f.115d]
                   D'iloc turnerent, en France vont.L3279 [L3279] turnent R106
         3280  Qui que Franceis se [cumbatrunt].L3280 [L3280] Jo qui ke F. si c. R106L3280 [L3280] cumbaterunt DR106
                   Si firent il mais poi unt gent
                   E trop despurvëuementL3282 [L3282] despurvuement LR106L3282 [L3282] despurveument106
                   Tut senz lur rei se cumbatirent,
         3284  Mult de lur humes i perdirent;L3284 [L3284] l. herneis i R106
                   Reis Loëwis esteit navrez,L3285 [L3285] lowis DLR106L3285 [L3285] Li r. DL106
                   Pur ço furent desbaretez
                   E par la plaie qu'il reçut
         3288  Lunges languit, puis [si] murutL3288 [L3288] om  si DL106L3280 [L3280] Gaimar now returns to A.S.C. 881: þa Francan him wið gefuhton, but interprets the phrase in a sense unfavourable to the Franks, possibly, as Zenker (quoted by Gross) suggested, because the Danes in the next annal had pushed farther into France, possibly, as Gross suggests, as a necessary consequence of the wounding of their king, a feature from the story, not from A.S.C.106
                   E les paiens [en] vont avant,L3289 [L3289] p. unt a. L106L3289 [L3289] om  en DL106
                   [France] troverent senz garant.L3290 [L3290] Franceis DL106
                   Mais li Franceis tuit li plusur
         3292  Unt fait de Karle lur seignurL3292 [L3292om  lur R106
                   E li alquanz lui vont desdire,L3293 [L3293] a. le v. LR106
                   De dous cunseilz [firent] le pire,L3294 [L3294] funt DL106
                   Kar se il ensemble se tenissent,
         3296  Paiene gent tost destrusisent.L3296 [L3296] destruissent R106
                   Pur ço que firent al rei guerreL3297 [L3297] co kil f. R106
                   E li Daneis gastent la terre,
                   Fud France malement menee
         3300  Tant que [paens] pristrent entreeL3300 [L3300] franceis DL106
                   En un païs ça vers Bretaine.
                   Scantland ot nun, or est le Maine.L3302 [L3302] scathlant L106L3301 [L3301] In A.S.C.(A) 890 we are told that the Danes left the Seine and went to Sant Laudan, by which is meant St. Lô (Manche), but the corresponding entry in A.S.C.(EF) has Scandlaudan and this, or something like it, must have been the form in Gaimar's source. But why change from a city betwix Brittum $$ Francum to un païs ça vers Bretaine? Very plausibly Gross suggests that Gaimar took the second element of the name to be landan (= land), but whether, as Gross thinks, the identification with Le Maine is due solely to the exigencies of rime or whether Gaimar had some other reason must remain undecided.106
                   [Icele gent] e les BretunsL3303 [L3303] Ices genz DL106
         3304  Se cumbatirent as feluns;
                   La merci Deu le rei de gloireL3305 [L3305] D. li reis R106
                   Sur les Daneis orent victoire.
                   Iloc furent paiens destruizL3307 [L3307] paiens furent L106
         3308  Que tuit l'orguil e li grant bruizL3308 [L3308] t. lur o. e lur b. R106L3308 [L3308om  Que L106
                   Chaït ensemble en un sul jur,
                   En France puis ne firent retur.
                   Endementiers que icele guereL3311 [L3311] ke cele g. LR106L3311 [L3311] Endementres R106

Page 106


         3312  Esteit itele en cele terre,
                   Li reis Elvret en [son] regnedL3313 [L3313] cel DL107L3313 [L3313] E li DL107
                   Ot bien ses enemis mated. [f.116a]
                   En mer suvent se cumbateit
         3316  E des Daneis mult oscieit.L3316 [L3316] E les D. L107
                   E il aveit tant espleitied
                   Par sa bunted e purchacied
                   Que Marinus li [ad tramis]L3319 [L3319] out R107L3319 [L3319] tramist107
         3320  De la cruiz, u [Crist fud ocis].L3320 [L3320] ocis f. crist107
                   Marins ert de Rume apostoire,L3321 [L3321] R. apostoille LR107
                   De bons presenz fist si grant gloire,
                   Tels reliques i enveiat,L3323 [L3323] r. li e. R107
         3324  Ja mais par arme ne murat.L3324 [L3324] par armes ne murin R107
                   E Edelswed ert sa serur,
                   A Rume alad od tel honurL3326 [L3326] od cel h. R107
                   Que Elvred i enveiot.
         3328  Idunc murut, avant ne pot,
                   Le cors de [li] gist en Pavie,L3329 [L3329] lui DL107L3329 [L3329le cors de lui. The phrase here has its literal sense and is not a mere periphrasis for the personal pronoun.107
                   U ele fud ensevelie.L3325 [L3325] In agreement with A.S.C.(E) 883 Gaimar has spoken of the Pope's gift of a fragment of the True Cross to Alfred and now, in this passage, has jumped to A.S.C. 888 to relate the dispatch of return gifts. Gross made two suggestions to account for this jump: (i) that Gaimar took the reference to gifts at the beginning of the later annal to be a faulty repetition of that in the earlier one, but this does not explain the later return to A.S.C. 885; (ii) that he found the later reference already transferred in his source from 888 to 883, but, though this is a possibility, since there are grounds for thinking the earlier entry misplaced, I suspect the explanation is more likely to be literary. Gaimar was clearly interested in Alfred and his relations with Rome, thought courtesy required a return gift, found what he wanted in A.S.C. 888, used it to round off this little section of the Estoire and returned to his main theme.107
                   Ore avint si e tant fud pis,
         3332  Un [sengler] ad Karlun ocis.L3332 [L3332] ad charles o. R107L3332 [L3332] senglenter L107L3332 [L3332] sengleter107
                   [Li reis fud mort mais un sun frereL3333 [L3333om  fud R107L3333 [L3333] fre L107L3333 [L3333] om  mais L107L3333 [L3333] r. uolt with nomen written above L107
                   Murut enceis ke fist lur pere.L3334 [L3334] ke ne f. R107L3334 [L3334] proprium nomen in margin L107L3334 [L3334] ke fud l. L107
                   Andui furent fiz Loëwis,L3335 [L3335] lowis L107
         3336  Celui ki out Gurmund oscis]L3336 [L3336] C. ke G. ot ocis L107L3331 [L3331] Only the first couplet of this passage, based on A.S.C. 885, occurs in D, but the agreement of L and R shows this to be an omission, for which the similarities in the endings of ll. 3332, 3336 suggest the explanation. It is hardly to be expected that Gaimar would recognize in the Carl Franca cyng of his source Carloman, king of the Franks 879-84; his source, unlike A.S.C.(E) 885, most probably contained the clause hie wæron begen Hloþwiges suna and for Gaimar at this point there was, as Gross observed, only one Louis, viz. the one who figured in the Gormund story, and so it is immaterial which Louis his source had in mind. A further problem confronts us in ll. 3333-4, for our two available MSS. differ considerably; in L the couplet reads:
                   Li reis uolt fud mort un sun fre[re]
                   Murut enceis ke fud lur pere
; over uolt an annotator has written nomen and in the margin beside l. 3334 proprium nomen (did he by any chance confuse enceis with anseïs?). We do not know where uolt came from, but the line does supply the verb missing in R. In the second half of l. 3334 R has: ke ne fist lur pere; this gives a nine-syllable line, but the ne does not appear to be essential. Moreover A.S.C. 885, from which this passage derives, reads: ane geare ær his broðor forðferde, so the father's death seems to have been introduced by Gaimar inadvertently, as the later phrase in the annal–hie wæron Hloþwiges suna–should have prevented the absurdity, always provided it was in his source, for it is absent from A.S.C.(E) 885 along with other references to Frankish affairs; neither do we know what the version of the Gormund story used by him had to say of the Frankish royal family.107

                   E [Loëwis] fud fiz KarlunL3337 [L3337] lowis DL107
                   Qui donat sa fille al barun,
                   Rei Edelwlf l'ot a reïne,L3339 [L3339] Reis R107
         3340  Unc dame n'ot mieldre doctrine.
                   Or vus ai dit cest parentage.
                   Dunc vint a Rume un grant damageL3342 [L3342] g. homage R107
                   De Marin le bon [apostoille]L3343 [L3343] apostoire107

Page 107


         3344  Qui franchid primes Engleschescole;
                   Par le purchad [le] rei ElvredL3345 [L3345] p. le purchace reis R108L3345 [L3345] om  le DR108
                   Fut franchie, Deu seit loed.L3346 [L3346] Fu celui franc D. R108
                   En icel tens avint issi
         3348  Tels aventures cum jo di.
                   Reis Elvred mult guerriot,
                   Cuntre paiens suvent alot.
                   Icil Daneis qui triwes pristrent
         3352  Al chief de tur mult les malmistrent
                   E surquetut cil d'EstengleL3353 [L3353] Ensurketut cil de Hest. R108
                   Tuz jurz [començouent] la gengle.L3354 [L3354] la gangle R108L3354 [L3354] cumencent DL108 [f.116b]
                   A Lundres erent repairant,
         3356  La u paiens erent manant;
                   La cited teneient Daneis.
                   Que fist dunc Elvred li reis?
                   Partut [manda] pur chevaliersL3359 [L3359] p. ses c. L108L3359 [L3359] mant108
         3360  E pur serganz e pur archiers,
                   Si ad mandet pur ses amis,
                   Pur les Engleis loinz el païs;L3362 [L3362] E p. R108
                   E loinz e pres tut ad mandet,L3363 [L3363om  E R108
         3364  Mult grant effort ad asemblez,
                   A Lundres vint, sis asegat,L3365 [L3365] v. sil a. R108
                   Tant i estut que prise l'ad.
                   Puis establit si la cited
         3368  [Cum si] barun li unt loed.L3368 [L3368] Si cum108
                   A [Edelret] un suen barunL3369 [L3369] eldred L108L3369 [L3369] elred108
                   De la garde li fist le don
                   E cil [la] gardat fedelmentL3371 [L3371] le DL108
         3372  E defendit d'estrange gent.
                   En icel an murut li reis
                   Que Elvred ot levet enceis,
                   Paiens l'apelerent Gudron,
         3376  Ore aveit Edelstan a non;
                   Le cors de lui gist a Tiefort,

Page 108


                   La fud ensevelit cel mort.L3378 [L3378] e. icel m.109
                   Or ert Elvred mult bien muntez,
         3380  Quant ot cunquis ceste citez,L3380 [L3380] ot conquise R109
                   E les Daneis qui luinz [maneient]L3381 [L3381] esteient109
                   Pur sa prueise mult le cremeient.L3382 [L3382om  mult R109L3382 [L3382] sa pruesce LR109
                   Tuit le païs que il teneit
         3384  En icel tens en pais aveit.L3384 [L3384] p. esteit R109
                   Mais mult [l'alouent] maneçantL3385 [L3385] le vont DL109
                   Cil Daneis de Norhumberlant
                   E cil d'Estengle e de Merceinne
         3388  Volentiers lui faseient peine
                   Mais sis aveit cist reis matezL3389 [L3389] M. sil a. R109
                   Que en pais teneit dunc ses regnez. [f.116c]
                   Idunc avint en icel tens
         3392  Que l'ost repairat des paiens
                   Ki en France furent alez;
                   Tut le lur orent guasted.L3394 [L3394] T. lurent deg. R109
                   [L'altre ost] qui fud de cels sevrezL3395 [L3395] de ces desevere R109L3395 [L3395] els DL109L3395 [L3395] Le autre DL109
         3396  Esteit el Maine einz desertezL3396 [L3396] deserte R109L3396 [L3396] deseritez DL109
                   Mais icest ost fud desevrez
                   Tresque Gurmunt fud arivez.
                   De lui partit, avant alad,
         3400  Trestute France trespassad,
                   Ariere vint vers l'occident
                   Robant e destruiant la gent.L3402 [L3402] destrusant R109
                   Ore aveient asez cunquis,
         3404  Or e argent, chevals de pris.
                   A Chiereburc entrent en mer,L3391 [L3391] In this passage, where he is combining information from A.S.C. and from the Gormund story, Gaimar has not succeeded in avoiding obscurity. He had latterly been following up themes through a number of annals rather than observing strict chronological order and, after pursuing the fortunes of the Danes on the Continent, had reverted to home affairs culminating in the death of Guthrum and his burial at thetford. This brought him to A.S.C. 892: in all versions this annal speaks of se mycle here of which earlier mention had been made; now this is actually true of all but A.S.C.(E) which has no annal for 891! If Gaimar's source agreed with A.S.C.(E) in this respect, and it almost certainly did, then the earlier mention could only be for Gaimar that which he had made himself under the influence of the Gormund story (ll. 3235-310). At l. 3236 Gormund arrives unexpectedly at Cirencester from no one knows where, assembles a great army, embarks at Yarmouth (l. 3255) for the Continent, lands at Cayeux and ravages Ponthieu (ll. 3256-66); Gormund stays in Ponthieu, where he is defeated by the Franks (l. 3276) and killed by their king, but sa grant ost goes on to Ghent (l. 3270), winters there and returns to France (l. 3279) where they are eventually defeated on the borders of Britanny (viz. at St. Lô), in Le Maine (l. 3302). With all this in his mind Gaimar was confronted by an annal (A.S.C. 892) which spoke of a Danish army moving westward to Boulogne: what was he to do? He had already told of one which moved west and was defeated el Maine and to this one ll. 3395-6 seem to refer. The fate of the Danes who shared Gormund's defeat is vaguer, for Gaimar does not say whether it was a defeat or a rout, so they could easily re-appear–defeat of the Danes and their quick recovery was well known to Gaimar from A.S.C.; he does not say where Gormund was killed, so his army could reappear when and where convenient. It seems, then, that the army which crosses the Channel according to A.S.C. 892 is for Gaimar that defeated by Louis; if not, it must be one he more or less conjured up for the occasion. Further than this we cannot go, because the text of the Estoire is open to doubt at this point. The repetition sevrezdesevrez, though possible, arouses suspicion and in l. 3396 the MSS. diverge, DL giving deseritez, which cannot be right, R giving deserté, which does not suit the context. Gross suggests changing esteit to aveit; this would impart sense to the line, but is too drastic a change, and the disagreement of the MSS. suggests that the mistake, if it is one, is in the participle. It is, too, these preoccupations with Gormund which are partly, if not entirely, responsible for the choice of Cherbourg, instead of Boulogne, as the port of embarcation; we have no means of knowing whether Gaimar understood Bunan (= Boulogne) of A.S.C. 892.109
                   A Limene vunt ariver;
                   Ço est un' eve al chief de KentL3407 [L3407al chief de. Used in the sense at the end of the phrase is hardly apposite to the position of the river and seems to have arisen from a misunderstanding of A.S.C. 892: se muða (of the R. Lympne) is on eastwarde Cent æt $$es mycclan wuda east enda; Gaimar has apparently contrued enda with the county instead of with the forest.109
         3408  De l'est que hom cleimed orient;
                   Andredeswald s'estent amont
                   Cel' eve Limeine bien parfunt;L3410 [L3410] est b. R109L3410 [L3410] limmene R109
                   Icest bois est de lung cunted

Page 109


         3412  Quarante dous liues mesuredL3412 [L3412] l. est m. L110L3412 [L3412] Both number and metre are incorrect. In ll. 3413, 3418 liues translates mila of A.S.C. 892, and must do so in l. 3412, for we can hardly assume that Gaimar translated the same word in two ways in two consecutive lines. The mistake must therefore lie in the number, but whether Gaimar misread his source or whether the faulty numeral was already in his source, we cannot say. Gross suggests correcting the metre by omitting dous, but all MSS. agree in the number, so it is best to allow the line to stand.110
                   E trente liues ad de [laise],L3413 [L3413] laaise110
                   Limine curt parmi en aise.
                   En cest havene vindrent Daneis;L3415 [L3415] c. ewe v. R110
         3416  Ço fud el tens Elvred li reis;]L3416 [L3416] ll. 3187-3416 not in H110
                   Amunt l'eve traistrent lur nefs,
                   A [quatre] liues sunt remésL3418 [L3418] quarante DLH110
                   Luinz de la buche de Limine.L3419 [L3419] de la L. H110
         3420  Tuit cel païs lez la marineL3420 [L3420] T. le p. RH110
                   Unt [donc] destruit cil adversier.L3421 [L3421] om  donc DLH110
                   Mult fud malveis lur repairier,
                   Il orent nefs cent e seisante,L3423 [L3423] Niefs i eurent c. H110L3423 [L3423] All MSS. concur in reading cent e seissante, there being no trace in them of a reading dous cent cinquante to which Gross refers, but the number according to A.S.C.(A,E,F) was 250, according to A.S.C.(B,C,D) 200.110
         3424  Mult funt grant mal, la u il hante.L3424 [L3424] il hantent L110L3424 [L3424] m. lur h. R110L3424 [L3424om  grant H110L3424 [L3424la u il hante DH, la u il hantent L, lur hante R. The sudden change from plural to singular is disconcerting, but the rime in L cannot be accepted for Gaimar, and the reading of R is impossible for both grammatical and metrical reasons.110
                   De l'autre part [re]vint EsteinL3425 [L3425] vint DLH110
                   En Tamise par un flot plein, [f.116d]
                   Mult fist en Kent de ses avels,
         3428  A Mide[l]tune fermat chastels,L3428 [L3428] f. un c. R110L3428 [L3428] midetune DL110
                   Cel ost mandat ki vint de France,
                   A Ewldre ert lur remanance.L3430 [L3430] Awuldre H110
                   Quant ces dous ostz sunt asemblez,
         3432  Destruiant vont crestïented.
                   Dunc mesavint, si cum Deu plut,L3433 [L3433] D. avint si R110
                   Mort fud Elvred kis guerreiout.
                   Idunc des la Nativited,L3435 [L3435] Donc de la R110
         3436  Des icel jur que Deus fu nez,L3436 [L3436] Dicel j. H110
                   Ot nof cenz anz e un avocL3437 [L3437om  anz L110
                   Trescique Elvred murrut iloc.L3438 [L3438] Tresque roi E. H110
                   Il regnat bien vint e oit anz,L3439 [L3439om  bien H110
         3440  Poi sunt humes tels vivanzL3440 [L3440] tels homes R110L3440 [L3440] Puis ne fud home t. L110
                   Kar sages fud e bon [guerier],L3441 [L3441] guerreier DRH110
                   Bien sot [ses] enemis pleisier,L3442 [L3442] om  ses DL110
                   Nul mieldre clerc de lui n'esteit
         3444  Kar en [s'enfance] apris l'aveit.L3444 [L3444] france DLH110L3444 [L3444en France DLH, en s'enfance R. I have followed R as more in accordance with tradition and as metrically better.110

Page 110


                   Il fist escrivre un livre engleis
                   Des aventures e des leis
                   E des batailles de la terre
         3448  E des reis ki firent guerre
                   E meint livre fist il escrire,L3449 [L3449] escrivere RH111
                   U li bon clerc vont suvent lire.L3450 [L3450om  bon H111
                   Deus ait merci de la sue alme
         3452  E seinte Mari[e] la dame!L3452 [L3452] la duze d. DL111
                   [I]dunc regnat Edwart sis fiz,L3453 [L3453] E. son f. RH111L3453 [L3453] Dunc DLH111
                   Li proiz, li sages, li gentilz,L3454 [L3454] p. li saives li R111
                   Mais uncore ert mult grant la guereL3455 [L3455] e. m. fort la R e. forte la H111
         3456  Par plusurs lius en Engleterre
                   Kar il [i] aveit plusurs reis,L3457 [L3457] il i avoient H111
                   Sis guerrioent les [Daneis]L3458 [L3458] guerroierent H111L3458 [L3458] engleis111
                   E lur force tuit dis creisseitL3459 [L3459] t. tens c. R111
         3460  Qui d'ultremer suvent veneit,L3460 [L3460] u. a eus v. H111
                   Si qu'el sist an que Edward regnot,
                   Quant il par el passer ne pot,L3462 [L3462om  el R111L3462 [L3462om  il H111 [f.117a]
                   Lui estuet triwes afermer
         3464  E as Daneis sa pais donerL3464 [L3464om  sa pais R111
                   E nepurquant ne durat gueres.
                   Daneis erent de mult mal eires.L3466 [L3466om  mult H111L3466 [L3466] e. mult de mal e. R111
                   Tant [guerrïerent] sur EngleisL3467 [L3467] g. od les E. H111L3467 [L3467] guerrieient R111L3467 [L3467] furent engres111
         3468  Que Edward [se] cumbatit li reisL3468 [L3468] si DL111
                   Od les Engleis qu'il asemblat;
                   A [Thuetenhale] la les matat.L3470 [L3470om  la RH111L3470 [L3470] tenetehale DL111L3470 [L3470Thuetenhale R, Tutenhale H, Tenetehale D, Thenethale L. The reading of DL goes back to a form with nasal in the first element and so can hardly derive directly from the Teotanheale of A.S.C.(E) 910. In his rendering of Thetford Gaimar seems to represent the O.E. eo of þeod- by ie and possibly did the same here, but it would be hazardous to emend; in view of l. 3377, where DL give Tiefort, but R has Thuefford, I have followed that MS. here.111
                   En icel tens murut uns reis,
         3472  Edret qui ert sur Merceneis.L3472 [L3472] Edelret R111
                   Icist Edred Lundres teneit,L3473 [L3473] I. edelret R111
                   Li reis Elvred mis [l'i] aveit,L3474 [L3474] mis i lav. R111L3474 [L3474] Ke li r. L Rois H111L3474 [L3474] lui111
                   Ne l'aveit mie en heritage.
         3476  Cum dut murir, si fist que sage:

Page 111


                   Al rei Edward rendit sun dreit
                   Od quanqu'il i aparteneit;L3478 [L3478] quantqui a. H112
                   Lundres rendit, ainz que fust morz,L3479 [L3479] a. quil LRH112
         3480  E la cité d'Oxenefort
                   E les païs e les [contez]L3481 [L3481] cuntrez L112L3481 [L3481] cuntrees D112
                   Ki apendeient as [citez].L3482 [L3482] appendent H112L3482 [L3482] citees112
                   En icel an vint un navireL3483 [L3483] une n. LRH112
         3484  Ki el païs fist grant martyre.
                   De Litwice ert cest ost venuz,L3485 [L3485om  cest ost H112
                   Lung Saverne s'est estenduz,
                   Edward li reis cuntr'els alat,L3487 [L3487] r. encontre a. H112
         3488  Mult en ocist, puis en turnat.
                   Dis e oit anz quant ot regnez,
                   Mercenelant reçut en fiez;
                   Elfled sa suer l'en heritad,L3491 [L3491] sa sorur R112L3491 [L3491Elfled. All MSS. concur in this name in place of the Æđelflæd of A.S.C.(E) 918, so the mistake is probably due to Gaimar.112
         3492  Si cum Edred li reis rovad;L3492 [L3492] eldret l. r. comanda R112
                   Pur [ço k'] enfant ne pot aveir,L3493 [L3493] quei DL112
                   Kant ele murut, sin fist sun eir.L3494 [L3494] m. len f. H112
                   Treis anz aprés Sithriz li reis,
         3496  Li autre parsur Merceneis,L3496 [L3496] Ki laltre partie teneit de M. R Ke regna p. M. L Lautre pier sur M. H112
                   Ocist Nëel sun frere a tort;L3497 [L3497Neel. Gaimar is translating literally A.S.C.(E) 921, but this appears to be an error in his source, for the reference is generally taken to be to the slaying of Niall Glundubh, king of Ireland, who was not Sihtric's brother (cf. Plummer, II, 129); there was, it seems, an underking named Neil at this period and I wonder whether he is any way involved.112 [f.117b]
                   Li reis Edward vengat sa mort,L3498 [L3498om  Li H112
                   Sithriz [oscist od une] espee,L3499 [L3499] S. ot une L o. dune H112L3499 [L3499] S. par la sue112
         3500  Puis fud [il] reis de la cuntree.L3500 [L3500] om  il DLH112
                   Un an aprés par la devise
                   Ad Reinold Everwic cunquise;L3502 [L3502] Ad R. ad E. H112L3502 [L3502] reinolf L112
                   Ço ert un rei demi Daneis,
         3504  De part sa mere esteit Engleis.L3503 [L3503] Gaimar is clearly following the concise entry of A.S.C.(DE) 923: Her Reynold cyng gewan Eoferwic. No earlier source appears to know anything of Rægnald's mixed birth, but I doubt whether, as Gross rather implies, it is entirely the author's invention.112
                   Sur lui voleit Edward aler,
                   Si aveit fait ost asemblerL3506 [L3506] f. sost a. H112
                   Mais dunc murut, ne pot el estre,L3507 [L3507] p. altre e. R112
         3508  Ensevelit fud a Gincestre.

Page 112


                   Puis regnat sun fiz Edelstan.
                   Quant ot regnet tresqu'al quart an,L3510 [L3510] r. el q. H113
                   Bataille tint cuntre Daneis,
         3512  Si descunfist [Gudfrid li] reis.L3512 [L3512] le r.113L3512 [L3512] gaufrit DL113
                   Puis asemblat mult grant [empire]L3513 [L3513om  mult H113L3513 [L3513] P. semblad H113L3513 [L3513] empire and navire interverted in DL113
                   E en la mer mist grant [navire],L3514 [L3514om  E H113L3514 [L3514] m. mult g. DL113
                   [Dreit en] Escoce s'en alat,L3515 [L3515] A E. dreit L113L3515 [L3515] A dreit E.113
         3516  Icel païs forment preiat.
                   Aprés un an ne mei[n]s ne plus
                   A Brunewerce ot le desusL3518 [L3518] bruneswerce R brunewerche H113L3518 [L3518] burneweste DL113
                   Sur les Escoz e sur Cumbreis,L3519 [L3519] sur les C. DL113
         3520  Sur Galweiens e sur Pecteis;L3520 [L3520] galweneis L gawaleis R galewarz H113L3520 [L3520] galwains113
                   Iloc en furent tant ocis,L3521 [L3521] tant tant L113L3521 [L3521] I. erent t. H113
                   Crei que parole en ert tut dis.L3522 [L3522om  en L113L3522 [L3522] que parle RH113L3522 [L3522] Jeo c. H113L3517 [L3517] No weight is to be attached to Gaimar's vague dating of the famous battle of Brunanburh one year after Athelstan's harrying of Scotland, for he elsewhere uses this and similar phrases to refer to the next entry in his source. At the same time he had a little more information about the battle than the scanty entry in A.S.C.(E) 937: Her Æðelstan cyning lædde fyrde to Brunanbyrig, though the famous poem on the battle seems to have been unknown to him. Gross cites a passage from Simeon of Durham's Historia Dunelmensis Ecclesiae in which the site of the battle is located at Weondune, quod alio nomine Etbrunnanwerc vel Brunnanbyrig appellatur and mention is made of regum . . . Scottorum et Cumbrorum, and the same two kings are referred to by Simeon of Durham in his Historia Regum. The similarity in place-name suggests some connexion between the two authors, most probably not direct, but through the O.E. text from which Simeon derived his place-name with incorporated O.E. preposition (æt). Some nationality-names must have been in the material Gaimar was using and have reminded him of his earlier enumeration (ll. 17-18). Whether ll. 3521-2 are entirely due to Gaimar is uncertain; the fame of the battle may have come to his ears.113
                   Puis ne vesquit [il] que treis anz,L3523 [L3523] om  il DH113
         3524  Il n'ot fiz ne [altres] enfanz.L3524 [L3524] n. ne f. R113L3524 [L3524] autre DL113
                   De sun frere firent dunc rei,L3525 [L3525om  dunc H113
                   Edmund ot nun, prodom, ço crei,
                   E el tierz [an] cum il regnat,L3527 [L3527] El t. an quil r. H113L3527 [L3527] E li t. R113L3527 [L3527] anz DR113
         3528  Ultre Humbre [son ost mena].L3528 [L3528] sen alat DLR113
                   Dous [reis] i ot felons Daneis;L3529 [L3529om  felons H113
                   Li uns ot nun [Anlaf] li reis,L3530 [L3530] unlaf R anfal H113L3530 [L3530] anlans113
                   Li autre ert Reinold apelez;L3531 [L3531] Laltre RH113
         3532  Fors les chaçat [de cel] regnez.L3532 [L3532] del DLH113
                   Quant ço ot fait, alat avant,
                   Grant preie [prist] en Cumberlant.L3534 [L3534] Et p. H113L3534 [L3534] fist113L3534 [L3534] Gaimar is simply copying his source and was probably quite unaware that this annal is really concerned with Strathclyde. Cf. Plummer, II, 145.113 [f.117c]
                   Il tint sa terre puis treis anz,L3535 [L3535] t. en pees t. H113
         3536  Dunc fist de lui Deu ses cumanz.L3536 [L3536] l. deus s. LR113
                   Edred sun frere aprés regnad,L3537 [L3537] f. dunc r. L113L3537 [L3537om  aprés R113
                   Son frere Edward tres bien vengad,L3538 [L3538om  tres RH113L3538 [L3538] All MSS. concur in the name, but the reference is to Edmund; most probably the mistake is due to Gaimar.113

Page 113


                   Il le vengat des enemis
         3540  Ki l'aveient par murdre ocis.L3539 [L3539] not in H114
                   Puis saisit tuit NorhumberlantL3541 [L3541om  tuit RH114
                   E les Escoz li sunt clinant.L3542 [L3542] li vont enclinant R s. enclinant H114L3542 [L3542] Li E. H114
                   Kant [il] regnot el secund an,L3543 [L3543] om  il DL114
         3544  Idunches vint Anlaf Quiran,
                   Norhumberlant saisid e prist,
                   Ne trovat ki lui defendist.
                   Treis anz la tint [icil] Daneis,L3547 [L3547] cel DL114
         3548  Puis l'en chacerent Norhumbreis.
                   Yric le fiz Harald reçurent,L3549 [L3549] f. barald recoverirent H114
                   De fei tenir bien l'aseürent,L3550 [L3550] t. sasseurerent H114L3550 [L3550] Del fiez t. R114
                   Dous anz regnad en cel regned,
         3552  Dunc al tiers an l'en unt chacied.L3552 [L3552] len unt dech. R lont dech. H114L3552 [L3552om  Dunc H114
                   [Edred] idunches la reçutL3553 [L3553] Hedred114
                   Mais d'iloc a un an murut.
                   Idunc avint al regne issi,
         3556  Engleis firent rei [de Edwi].L3556 [L3556om  de L114L3556 [L3556] f. lur r. R114L3556 [L3556] rei bedewi114
                   Aprés Edred fud Edwi reis,
                   Fiz fud Edmund, cil ert Engleis.L3558 [L3558] cil fut E. H114
                   Partut aloent ses cumanz,
         3560  Il ne vesqui que sul treis anz.L3560 [L3560om  sul H114L3560 [L3560] Si ne H114
                   Aprés regnat Edgar sun frere,
                   Cil tint la terre cum emperere,L3562 [L3562om  la R114
                   En sun tens amendat la terre,
         3564  Partuit ert pais, n'ert nule guere.L3564 [L3564] nert point de g. H114L3564 [L3564] P. out p. R114
                   Il sul regnot sur tuz les reisL3565 [L3565] regna H114
                   E sur Escoz e sur [Gualeis];L3566 [L3566] s. galewois H114L3566 [L3566] engleis114
                   Unc puis que Artur s'en fud alez,
         3568  Nen ot nul reis tel poëstez.L3568 [L3568] o. un rei R114
                   Li reis amat mult saint' yglise,L3569 [L3569om  mult H114L3569 [L3569] mult amad L114
                   De tort, de dreit, sot la devise;L3570 [L3570] et de d. fit la d. H114 [f.117d]
                   Pur ço se penat de bien faire

Page 114


         3572  Que francs esteit e debonaire,L3572 [L3572] Ke franceis e. L115L3572 [L3572] Car f. R115
                   Bones custumes alevat,
                   Tuz ses veisins vers sei clinat,L3574 [L3574] aclina H115L3574 [L3574] v. lui c. RH115
                   Par bel amur e [par supplei]L3575 [L3575] a. nent par s. L115L3575 [L3575om  bel H115L3575 [L3575] e neent par bethlei115
         3576  Les aclinat trestuz vers sei.L3576 [L3576] Les turna t. H115
                   Unc ne trovat kil guerreiastL3577 [L3577] guerriad L115L3577 [L3577] Onc ne repaira qi le guerrast H115
                   Ne par mal en sa terre entrastL3578 [L3578] m. ne ? crossed out sa t. H115L3578 [L3578] Ne ke p. R115L3578 [L3578] not in L115
                   Fors sul Tored ki revelad;L3579 [L3579] relevad LH115L3579 [L3579] Uns i out non T. qe se H115
         3580  Westmerelant sur lui preiad;L3580 [L3580] sur lui roba H115
                   Pur cel forfait reçut cil mort,L3581 [L3581] not in L115
                   Mar cumençat la guere a tort.L3582 [L3582] guere corrected from t're115L3577 [L3577] Historians are still not agreed whether the ravaging was due to a hostile incursion or was done at Edgar's orders. Gaimar rather supports the former view, and treats Thored as a rebel vassal, as indicated by the verb revelat (l. 3579) and the phrase pur cel forfait (l. 3580).115
                   Cist reis fud saives e vaillanz,L3583 [L3583] f. sages e v. L115
         3584  De sa reïne ot bels enfanz,
                   Un fiz en ot dunt jo sai dire,L3585 [L3585om  en RH115
                   Ço fud Edward de Saftesbire,
                   E sa fille ot a nun [Edith],L3587 [L3587] n. seint E. R115L3587 [L3587om  a RH115L3587 [L3587] edieth115
         3588  La dame que Deus beneït.L3588 [L3588] benesquit H115
                   Encore ot il dous autres fiz,L3589 [L3589] il treis a. R115L3589 [L3589om  il H115
                   Par treis meres furent nasquiz,L3590 [L3590] De t. H115
                   Treis meres orent icés treis,L3591 [L3591] o. ico t. L o. ces t. R o. ceus t. H115
         3592  De femmes ert jolif li reis.
                   Quant sa reïne fud transie,L3593 [L3593] sa femme f. L115
                   Par femmes empeirat sa vie.L3583 [L3583] These lines form the transition from history to saga, and show that Gaimar had his two sources available at the time of composition; the three wives are historical, but the amorous proclivities belong rather to legend, to the cantilenaa to which William of Malmesbury refers (Gesta Regum, II, c. 8).115
                   Un riches hom maneit el regne,L3595 [L3595] el realme R115
         3596  Bien sai que morte esteit sa femme,L3596 [L3596] ert R est H115
                   Une fille l'en donat Deus,
                   Nul autre enfant ne l'ert remés.L3598 [L3598] nen ert R115L3598 [L3598om  enfant H115
                   Orgar aveit nun cel riche home.L3599 [L3599] O. out n. H115
         3600  Des Execestre tresqu'a [Frume]L3600 [L3600] rume DLH115L3600 [L3600Rume DLH, Frume R. Gaimar is here describing the actual extent of Orgar's domain, so Frome (So) is intended; the other reading is due to confusion with a common type of comparison, but one not found in the Estoire.115
                   N'a vile, n'a burc, n'a citedL3601 [L3601] Naveit nule b. ne c. R115L3601 [L3601] v. ne b. ne c. H115

Page 115


                   De qui Orgar ne fust feffed.L3602 [L3602] ne fud LH116
                   Mais vielz hom ert a grant merveille,L3603 [L3603om  grant H116
         3604  Ço que sa fille lui cunseille,L3604 [L3604] sa femme li H116
                   Ço fait e [ço] comant a faire,L3605 [L3605] comande RH116L3605 [L3605] om  ço DLH116
                   Ne trovet qui s'en ost retraire.L3606 [L3606] ose H116L3606 [L3606] trovad LH116 [f.118a]
                   Elftroed ot nun ceste pucele,L3607 [L3607] a nun DL116
         3608  Ne qui suz ciel eüst si bele,L3608 [L3608] c. ot si L c. nad si H116L3608 [L3608] Jeo q. H116L3608 [L3608] qui que s. DLH116
                   De sa belté par la cuntree
                   Esteit mult grant la renomeeL3610 [L3610om  la H116L3610 [L3610] la reme L116
                   E quant [iloc] tanz en parloent,L3611 [L3611] parlouent R parlerent H116L3611 [L3611] q. co fud que t. L116L3611 [L3611] parolent DL116L3611 [L3611] il ot que116L3611 [L3611] The verb in DL spoils the rime and may be due to graphic confusion. The common ancestor of DL appears to have misread iloc as il ot and to have introduced que, but L has further changed the line.116
         3612  Cil de la curt i repeiroentL3612 [L3612] repeirerent H116
                   E li curteis qui la veneientL3613 [L3613] la veaient R116
                   De sa belted mult bien diseient.L3614 [L3614] b. grant b. LH116
                   Li reis Edgar ad escuted,
         3616  Cum hum parlot de sa belted;
                   Suventes feiz l'oïd loer,
                   De sa belted a tanz parler,L3618 [L3618] b. ad oi tant p. R116L3618 [L3618] E sa b. mult regreter L116
                   Qu'il purpensat e dist: 'Purquei,L3619 [L3619] purpensout e d. en sei R116L3619 [L3619pur quei DLH, en sei R. Though the latter reading undoubtedly makes the better sense, I have not adopted it into the text, because Gaimar has earlier used the same half-line (l. 254) and because the fact that pur quei does not here fit the context very well may have given rise to the change in R.116
         3620  Parmi tut ço que jo sui reiL3620 [L3620] tut ico R116
                   E ele est fille a un barun,L3621 [L3621] Cele LH116
                   Ne i vei nul[e] descretïun!L3622 [L3622om  i LRH116
                   Fiz a un cunte fud sis pere,L3623 [L3623] son p. RH116L3623 [L3623om  un R116
         3624  De reis gentils nasquit sa mere,
                   Ele est asez de halt parage,
                   Bien la puis prendre senz huntage'.
                   Dunc apelat un chevalier,
         3628  Si prist a lui a cunseillier,
                   Mult l'aveit chier, si l'[out] nuriz,L3629 [L3629] c. qil le nurit H116L3629 [L3629] aveit DL116
                   Ço que pensot, ço descovrid.L3630 [L3630] descuri L116L3630 [L3630] p. li d. LRH116L3630 [L3630] ll. 3629-30 interverted in H116
                   'Edelwold frere,' dist li rei,L3631 [L3631] Edelwlf si d. H116
         3632  'Jo te voil dire mun segrei:L3632 [L3632] de mon s. RH116L3632 [L3632] te dirrei LRH116

Page 116


                   Jo aim Elftroed la fille Orgar.
                   A tute gent l'oi si loarL3634 [L3634] loer LR117L3634 [L3634] lai oi R loit H117
                   E de beltet si bien [preiser],L3635 [L3635om  bien RH117L3635 [L3635] E de sa b. R Et sa b. H117L3635 [L3635] loer DL117
         3636  Faire en [voldreie] ma muillier,L3636 [L3636] voil117
                   Si tele fust e jol seüsseL3637 [L3637] estait R117L3637 [L3637] As we do not know for certain that Gaimar did not use analogical tele (cf. p. xxviii), I have followed the base MS. The continuing second condition is quite usually expressed by the imperfect subjunctive without conjunction; cf. Lerch, Historische franz. Syntax, I, 172, II, 280.117
                   E de sa belted seür fusse.L3638 [L3638] b. aseur f. RH117
                   Pur ço te pri, va la [vëeir];L3639 [L3639] veer DLR117
         3640  Ço qu'en diras, tendrai pur [veir].L3640 [L3640] veer117
                   Jo te crei mult, fai mun afaire,L3641 [L3641] c. fai bien m. a. H117
                   Ne sujurner, mes tost repaire'.L3642 [L3642] Ne sojorne pas m. H117 [f.118b]
                   Cil s'en alad aparaillier,L3643 [L3643] C. sala H117
         3644  Unc ne finat ne volt targierL3644 [L3644] ne ne v. H117
                   Deci qu'il vint en Devenesire
                   A la maisun Orgar li sire.
                   De part lu rei l'ad salüed,
         3648  De tutes parz fud uelcumed.L3648 [L3648] p. lad v. L117
                   Orgar juot a uns eschés,L3649 [L3649] O. jua as e. H117
                   Un giu qu'il aprist as Daneis;L3650 [L3650] a. des D. R117
                   Od lui [juout] Elftroed la bele,L3651 [L3651] guot L117L3651 [L3651] iueit117
         3652  Suz ciel n'ot tele damoisele,L3652 [L3652] nout donc t. R117
                   E Edelwold mult l'esgardat,L3653 [L3653] Edelwlf H117
                   Trestut un jur i demurat.L3654 [L3654] Tut H117L3654 [L3654] ll. 3653-4 interverted in R117
                   Tant l'esgardat vis e colur
         3656  E cors e mains la bele flurL3655 [L3655] The verb in the si-clause differs in the four MSS. R and H, by inserting the copula, treat the couplet as containing three parallel conditions (cf. note to l. 3637), but are, I think, mistaken; gardast and honurast continue serreit, hence my punctuation. I understand: to a man of my rank it would be no great harm if he took her; [if he did], he would protect the honour and would much honour the father.117
                   Que quidat [bien] que [ço] fust feeL3657 [L3657] q. quil f. f. L117L3657 [L3657] Quil LRH117L3657 [L3657] om  bien and ço DLH117
                   E qu'ele ne fust de femme neeL3658 [L3658] fud L117L3658 [L3658] Kele ne f. pas R117
                   E quant la vit de tel belted,
         3660  Tant [par] en fud enluminedL3660 [L3660] Tut en f. il allume H117L3660 [L3660] om  par DLH117
                   Qu'il purpensat en sun curage,L3661 [L3661] Cil p. H117
                   U turt a pru u a damage,
                   Ne dirat mie a sun seignur

Page 117


         3664  La verited cil traïtur,
                   Ainz dirat qu'ele n'est pas si bele;L3665 [L3665om  Ainz H118
                   De luinz purtraist la grant puscele.
                   Il en avint treis anz aprésL3667 [L3667] trais RH118L3667 [L3667] Kil R118L3667 [L3667] tres DL118
         3668  Kar mort en fud tut descunfés.L3668 [L3668] Ke LH118L3667 [L3667] There is a difficulty here. The couplet is a reflexion by the author and so DLH have understood it; this apparently escaped R which, by starting the line with kil, turned l. 3667 into a dependent clause, but left it hanging in the air. In l. 3668 DR read kar against ke in LH: which did Gaimar write? There can be no doubt that the latter reading gives a smooth construction, but why should anyone want to change it and is kar the word that D and R, independently, would choose? I think not, and so kar must go farther back in the MS. tradition than ke. Yet kar does not connect satisfactorily with l. 3667, if we take avenir in its usual sense. Now the context requires the expression of the idea that things are going wrong and I submit that avenir is to be taken in the sense turn out badly, a sense more than once expressed by mesavenir in the Estoire, (e.g. l. 3433) and I suggest that this word may have been at the back of the author's mind when he wrote the passage.118
                   D'iloc turnat, al rei revintL3669 [L3669] r. vint R118L3669 [L3669] returnat DL118
                   A un cuncile qu'il tint.L3670 [L3670] un consail q. H118
                   Cuntes i ot, baruns, chasez,L3671 [L3671] b. e c. R118L3671 [L3671] ot e b. c. LH118
         3672  E arcevesques e abez.L3672 [L3672] a. evesques e a. R118L3672 [L3672om  first e H118
                   Oëz que fist cel losengier!L3673 [L3673] f. cil adverser H118
                   Il vint al rei aprés mangier,
                   Bien fud venud e welcumed
         3676  Mais il aveit avant parledL3676 [L3676] il devant aveit p. R118
                   A cels qui bien erent del reiL3677 [L3677] erent bien H118
                   E ki saveient cest segrei.L3678 [L3678om  E H118 [f.118c]
                   Ço lur preied qu'il lui aidassent,
         3680  La fille Orgar lui demandassent,
                   E bien lur fist [a] tuz acreireL3681 [L3681] om  a DLH118
                   Qu'ele ert mesfaite e laide e neire.L3682 [L3682] e. desfete H118
                   Devant lu rei s'agenuillat,
         3684  Priveement lui demustrat:
                   'Reis, [de] la dame, u jo alai,L3685 [L3685] a DL118
                   La verited t'en cunterai.
                   Qui que ait mentit, jo dirai veir.L3687 [L3687] Ki kad m. R Qui qen a. H118
         3688  Tu ne deiz pas tele femme aveir.
                   Un semblant ad e un regardL3689 [L3689] et fou r. H118
                   Que mult [li] vient de male part,L3690 [L3690] lui118
                   Altres teches i vi asez,L3691 [L3691] A. choses i H118
         3692  U [jo ne note] nule beltez.L3692 [L3692] nen ot DLH118L3692 [L3692u jo ne note R, u nen ot DLH. As Edelwold is giving a personal report, the first person is more appropriate; also jo ne not could appear more easily to be a mistake for u nen ot than vice versa. The reading of R is metrically satisfactory, which that of the other MSS. is not, whether we regard the ending of the verb as a scribal addition or not.118
                   A un hume de mun parage
                   Ne sereit mie mult grant damage,L3694 [L3694] g. homage R118L3694 [L3694om  mult RH118
                   S'il la [perneit], l'onur gardastL3695 [L3695] e lo. RH118L3695 [L3695] prist L preist H118L3695 [L3695] Sil il la L118L3695 [L3695] prent118

Page 118


         3696  E le pere mult honurast'.
                   De tutes parz dïent al rei:L3697 [L3697] De tute d. R119
                   'Ço qu'il dist, dist l'um a mei
                   Ne n'est bien que la prengez,L3699 [L3699] q. tu la H119L3699 [L3699] Nest pas b. R Nest b. H119
         3700  Un bachelier en [seisisez]'.L3700 [L3700] saisez H119L3700 [L3700] seissiez119
                   Li reis ert liez, trop ot beüz,
                   Legerement [l'unt] deceüz.L3702 [L3702] fud DL119
                   Vers Edelwold a parler prist,L3703 [L3703] edelulf H119
         3704  Bien esperat [ke veir] lui [dist].L3704 [L3704] deist DL119L3704 [L3704] vers DL119L3704 [L3704ke veir il dist RH, vers lui deïst DL. Both constructions, assuming vers = veir, are grammatically possible; that of DL refers rather to something that has not yet taken place, that of RH to something that has already been done; now the context shows clearly that Edelwold has spoken, hence the reading adopted.119
                   'Amis,' fait il, 'tres bien te crei.L3705 [L3705om  tres H119
                   Quant tele est que aveir ne la dei,L3706 [L3706] t. nest a. H119
                   Jo la te duins od [tut] l'onur;L3707 [L3707] tute DLH119
         3708  De sun pere fai tun seignur,
                   Gardez le bien cum pere en lei,L3709 [L3709] Garde LR119
                   Espuse la, puis vien a mei'.L3710 [L3710] la bien si revien a m. H119L3710 [L3710] follows 3712 in H119
                   Une verge [teneit] le rei,L3711 [L3711] tint DLH119
         3712  Si [li tendit] e fist l'otrei.L3712 [L3712] la fendit119
                   Cil [li] jurat sa [fëelté],L3713 [L3713] Sil L E cil R119L3713 [L3713] felted119L3713 [L3713] om  li DL119
                   En icel liu s'est parjured.L3714 [L3714] sen est L119 [f.118d]
                   Hom qui traïst n'ad nule lei,L3715 [L3715] lei and fei interverted in H119
         3716  Nel deit hom creire par sa fei.L3716 [L3716] Nul nel d.c. H119
                   Cist traïtur del rei turnat,L3717 [L3717] Cil RH119
                   Cum felun dunc l'enganat.L3718 [L3718] Et come f. sen ala H119
                   Vint a Orgar, sil retraït,L3719 [L3719] sil le trait R cil le creit H119L3719 [L3719] Vient H119L3719 [L3719] recreit DL119L3719 [L3719sil recreït DL, cil le creït H, sil le traït R. The verb recreire does not suit the context, and H appears to have corrected to give sense to a, to him, meaningless line. The emphasis in the passage is on Edelwold's treachery and so, following R's lead, I have emended to retraït.119
         3720  Sa fille prist, s'onur saisit.
                   En cel païs tant sujurnat
                   Que d'un fiz la dame enceintat
                   Mais la bele, s'ele peüst,
         3724  Ja de Edelwold enfant n'eüst;L3724 [L3724] E. enceinte ne fust R119L3724 [L3724] Ja de lui e. H119
                   Pas ne l'amot, dit [li] esteitL3725 [L3725] lu ? for lui119
                   Cum deceü le rei aveit.L3726 [L3726] Coment le r. d. a. H119

Page 119


                   Il [meïsmes] tut en apertL3727 [L3727] mesme DL120
         3728  Envers Elftroed [s'ert] descovert.L3728 [L3728] elstruet R elfred H120L3728 [L3728] sen ert DL120L3728 [L3728] eltroed DL120
                   Al dreit terme l'emfant fud nez.
                   Öez que fist cel defaed!
                   Pur ço que encore se cremeitL3731 [L3731] Pur quei e. H120
         3732  Del rei qui mult jolif esteit,L3732 [L3732] r. ke m. R120
                   A lui en vint, tant le requist
                   [Ke cel] enfant lever lui fist.L3734 [L3734om  lui H120L3734 [L3734] E len. DL120
                   Quant ot ço fait, dunc fud seürL3735 [L3735] Q. co eut f. RH120
         3736  Ne n'ot del rei nule poür.
                   Li reis francs e gentilz esteit,
                   Nïent ne s'[en] aparceveit,L3738 [L3738] De rien ne H120L3738 [L3738] om  en DL120
                   Del mal felun ne se gardot,
         3740  Nurid l'aveit, pur ço l'amot,
                   Tant qu'il [a]vint a [un] superL3741 [L3741] sun120L3741 [L3741] vint DL120
                   Li reis oïd de Elftroed parlerL3742 [L3742] de E. oit p. H120L3742 [L3742] de la femme p. R120
                   De tutes parz e mult [la] loentL3743 [L3743] loerent H120L3743 [L3743] m. soleient L120L3743 [L3743om  e RH120L3743 [L3743] le120
         3744  Cil chevalier [ki] en [parloent]L3744 [L3744] parlerent H120L3744 [L3744] Li c. H120L3744 [L3744] parolent DR120L3744 [L3744] que120
                   E diseient en lur favele
                   Qu'en tut le mund n'aveit si beleL3746 [L3746] out H120
                   E si ele fust encore virgine,
         3748  Bien fust digne d'estre reïne.L3748 [L3748] fud L120
                   Aprés parolent del saveirL3749 [L3749] parloient de son s. H120
                   E que ço poeit espeleirL3750 [L3750] ceo qe pout e. H120 [f.119a]
                   Qu'ele ert ambure e bele e sageL3751 [L3751] Que ambour fut b. H120L3751 [L3751om  first e LR120
         3752  E de parler de franc curage,L3752 [L3752] Et en p. H120L3752 [L3752] e de f. DL120
                   Que unkes hom de nule [envie]L3753 [L3753] u. nul h. R120L3753 [L3753om  Que H120L3753 [L3753] vie120
                   Ne d'eschar ne de vilainie
                   Ne poeit en lui rien truver,L3755 [L3755] pout RH120
         3756  Si ert sage de li garder.L3756 [L3756] de sei g. RH120
                   Li reis se merveillot forment,L3757 [L3757] merveilat RH120

Page 120


                   Eissi oeit parler suvent,L3758 [L3758] Qensi en oit p. la gent H121
                   A sei diseit en sun pensez:
         3760  'Crei que Edelwold m'ad enganez'L3760 [L3760] Jeo c. q. edelulf H121
                   E pur Elftroed fud mult pensifs.L3761 [L3761om  mult H121L3761 [L3761] elured H121L3761 [L3761] De E. R121
                   Or vult errer de mal [en] pis.L3762 [L3762] Des o. R121L3762 [L3762] em121
                   Li reis Edgar se purpensat
         3764  Que en Devenesire s'en irat;
                   Pur cerfs chacier dist qu'il ireitL3765 [L3765] i irrat R121L3765 [L3765om  il H121
                   Mais en sun cuer tut el aveit.
                   Il n'ert pas loinz de la cuntree,L3767 [L3767] de sa c. H121
         3768  Maint hom fait greindre jurnee.L3768 [L3768] greignur j. RH121L3768 [L3768] h. fort g. R121
                   Elftroed esteit a un maneir,L3769 [L3769] ert H121
                   U li reis vint l'endemain al seir,
                   Pres ert de[l] bois, u volt chacier,L3771 [L3771] b. ou il v. H121
         3772  La nuit remist pur herbergier.L3772 [L3772] n. i r. RH121
                   Quant ço [a]vint qu'il dut super,L3773 [L3773] dust R deust H121L3773 [L3773] E q. R121L3773 [L3773] vint DL121L3773 [L3773vint DL, avint RH. The reading of DL is defensible, taken as meaning when the time came, but the change to avint gives a more usual phrase, so, after some hesitation, I have decided to adopt the verb from RH.121
                   Encore luseit le soleil cler.
                   Dunc demandat [de] sa cumere,L3775 [L3775] om  de DL121
         3776  U [ele] esteit, u ert sun [pere].L3776 [L3776] p̱ere121L3776 [L3776] om  ele DL121
                   Dist [Edelwold]: 'En cel solier.L3777 [L3777] en co s. L121L3777 [L3777] edelwlf DH121L3777 [L3777solier. The word is used here of a more private room, probably in an upper story, and recalls the bower of the M.E. romances. It is discussed briefly by Miss Pope in her article Notes on the vocabulary of the romance of Horn and Rimel (Mélanges Hoepffner, 63-70); earlier it was discussed by P. Lebel in his article Représentants français de sola poutre (Rom. 67 (1942-3), 361-7), where he rejected the customary derivation < solarium < sol.121
                   Rei, trop junez, alez mangier'.
                   Li reis entent, si s'aparceit,L3779 [L3779] si parceit R121
         3780  Si [Edelwolt] pot, ne la vereit.L3780 [L3780] puet LH121L3780 [L3780] edwold L121L3780 [L3780] edelwlf DH121
                   Dunc prist par main un chevaler,L3781 [L3781] p. par la m. LH121L3781 [L3781] prist la m. R121
                   Si est venuz tresqu'al solier.L3782 [L3782] v. sus el s. R121
                   Dames, puceles mult [i] trovat,L3783 [L3783] om  i DL121
         3784  A nule d'eles ne parlat,
                   Elftroed cunut par la beltedL3785 [L3785] par sa b. H121
                   E ele ad le rei welcumed. [f.119b]
[f.119c]
                   En la cuntree el bois chaçad,L3821 [L3821] es b. L122

Page 122


                   Des cerfs qu'il prist li enveiad,L3822 [L3822] c. ke p. R123
                   Autres presenz li fist asez,
         3824  Par treis feiz est a li alez.
                   Quant il turnat de la cuntree,
                   Si la laissad enluminee.
                   Tant [ot] oïd, bien entendeit
         3828  Qui li reis prendre la voleit.
                   Ne demurat que sul oit jurz,
                   A Salesbire ert li curz;L3830 [L3830] la curz LR123
                   Mult [i] asemblat grant barnage,L3831 [L3831] om  i DL123
         3832  Meint barun i ot de halt parage.L3832 [L3832] i vint de R123
                   Pur la terre faire guarder
                   Les aveit fait li reis mander.L3834 [L3834] gmander false start as gu…123
                   Od les autres vint Edelwold.L3835 [L3835] a. edelwlf venoit H123L3835 [L3835] a. i v. R123
         3836  Li reis en fist que faire volt.L3836 [L3836] f. en v. R f. voloit H123
                   A Everwic le enveiad,L3837 [L3837] len env. H123L3837 [L3837] The line is a syllable short; the frequent use of la to resume a phrase consisting of preposition + place-name (cf. l. 1487) suggests, but does not compel, its introduction here.123